Dendritic Cell and Tumor Cell Cancer Vaccines Market, 2016-2030
Cancer is an extremely complex disease and medical science is still trying to understand the numerous factors responsible for its origin, propagation, spread (metastasis) and relapse. In 2016, an estimated 1.7 million new cancer cases were reported in the US alone. Furthermore, as projected by the World Health Organization (WHO), the annual incidence of cancer worldwide is expected to rise to 24 million by 2035. Currently, there is a huge unmet need for advanced and efficient treatment interventions for cancer. Standard approaches that are currently employed to treat cancer include surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Although all the three approaches are recognized as the current standard of care in cancer treatment, there are some risks and drawbacks associated with these methods.
Many pharmaceutical companies are working on identifying ways to improve these treatment methods, as well as develop new cancer therapies. One of the current focus areas is immunotherapy; it makes use of the body’s own immune system, or its components, to fight cancer. So far, antibody based therapeutics, including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) and antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), have had significant success as targeted anti-cancer therapies. Apart from antibody based therapies, there are other classes of immunotherapeutics that have been / are being developed to manage and treat cancer; these include immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), therapeutic cancer vaccines and other whole cell based therapies.
The USFDA has approved cancer prevention vaccines (hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) and the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine) that prevent infection with cancer-causing viruses. Gardasil®, Gardasil 9® and Cervarix® are approved for the prevention of HPV-caused cancers whereas Engerix-B®, Recombivax HB®, Twinrix® and Pediarix® are approved for the prevention of chronic HBV infection. Although, preventive vaccines offer several benefits, the fact that viruses do not cause most cancers cannot be overlooked. Therefore, several companies are developing therapeutic vaccines that target specific cancers.
As of now, there are three marketed therapeutic cancer vaccines commercially available in different geographies; these are PROVENGE® (US), CreaVax-RCC® (South Korea) and TAPCells® (Chile). Despite the limited success of PROVENGE®, the first marketed dendritic cell vaccine, several stakeholders are actively engaged in the development of dendritic cell and tumor cell-based vaccines.
SCOPE OF THE REPORT
The Dendritic Cell and Tumor Cell Cancer Vaccines Market, 2016-2030 offers a comprehensive analysis of the current market landscape and future outlook of the growing pipeline of products in the therapeutic vaccines segment of the immuno-oncology domain. Currently, there are five types of such vaccines; these are dendritic cell vaccines, tumor cell vaccines, antigen / peptide vaccines, DNA vaccines and anti-idiotypic vaccines. This report is focused on the recent developments and the future potential of dendritic cell vaccines (dendritic cell loaded vaccines) and tumor cell vaccines (tumor cell loaded vaccines). Owing to the existing unmet demand for safe and effective cancer therapies and given the innate advantages of immunotherapies, we believe that dendritic cell and tumor cell cancer vaccines present lucrative opportunities for both therapy developers and investors alike.
During the course of our study, we identified a variety of dendritic cell and tumor cell cancer vaccines across various stages of development. More than 75% of these product candidates are currently in the clinical stages of development. With a rich development pipeline, this segment of the immunotherapy market has managed to capture the interest of several strategic investors and venture capital firms. During our research, we observed that over USD 1.5 billion has already been invested in this domain in past five years. Owing to the existing unmet demand for safe and effective cancer therapies and given the innate advantages of immunotherapies, we believe that dendritic cell and tumor cell cancer vaccines present lucrative opportunities for both therapy developers and investors alike.
One of the key objectives of the report was to understand the primary growth drivers and estimate the future size of the market. For this purpose, we took into consideration the following parameters:
The dendritic cell and tumor cell vaccines pipeline, including marketed, clinical and preclinical therapies, in terms of phase of development, key players, type of donor and target indications.
The existing and emerging technology platforms used for the development of innovative variants of cancer vaccines.
The partnerships that have taken place in the recent past covering clinical trial collaborations, research collaborations, manufacturing and services agreements, license agreements specific to technology platforms and agreements related to the co-development and co-commercialization of promising candidates.
Various investments and grants received by companies focused in this area including capital raised from IPOs and subsequent offerings.
The performance of competing drug classes, complex manufacturing processes, batch-wise variability and other inherent threats to growth of the market in the short and long term.
The report offers comprehensive profiles highlighting developmental history, clinical trial details and key clinical results as well as the future market opportunity for marketed and late stage (phase III) candidates. This opportunity is linked to the target consumer segments, likely adoption rate and expected pricing. We have provided an estimate of the size of the market in the short-mid-term and long term for the period between 2016 and 2030. The base year for the report is 2016. To account for the uncertainties associated with the development of novel therapeutic classes and to add robustness to our model, we have provided three forecast scenarios portraying the conservative, base, and optimistic tracks of the market’s evolution.
1. Over 60 dendritic cell and tumor cell cancer vaccines are currently in clinical / preclinical stages of development; 70% of the pipeline comprises of dendritic cell cancer vaccines.
2. 86% of the pipeline therapies are being developed as treatment options for solid tumors, including lung cancers, glioblastoma, prostate cancer and melanoma. In fact, two of the three marketed dendritic cell vaccines, PROVENGE® and TAPCells® (Chile), are approved for treatment of prostate cancer. In addition, a dendritic cell vaccine is also being developed as a first targeted therapy for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and aggressive form of brain cancer with poor survival rates.
3. The innovation in this emerging field is largely driven by smaller firms, specifically start-ups. Notable examples of small firms and start-ups include (in alphabetical order) Asterias Biotherapeutics, AVAX Technologies, DCPrime, Gradalis, Heat Biologics, ImmunoCellular Therapeutics, Immunicum, MolecuVax, Northwest Biotherapeutics, PDC*line Pharma, Pique Therapeutics, Regeneus, Tessa Therapeutics, Vaccinogen and XEME Biopharma. These companies have developed technology platforms that enhance the efficacy of therapeutic vaccines. Examples of some novel technology platforms include (in alphabetical order) AGGREGON™, DCOne®, ImPACT and Vigil®.
4. Several strategic investors and venture capitalists have strongly backed the potential offered by this domain. We identified over 125 instances of funding over the last few years. The total amount invested has been close to USD 2.0 billion; of this, USD 1.5 billion came during the last five years alone.
5. Several agreements have been inked amongst the stakeholders over past few years. We captured over 100 partnerships that are categorized across product development / commercialization agreement, manufacturing / supply agreement, service agreement, technology acquisition / licensing, clinical trial collaboration, research collaboration and others. Of these, clinical trial collaborations and technology acquisition / licensing together account for close to 50% share.
6. Prominent academic players, including (in alphabetical order) the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, King’s College London, Mary Crowley Research Cancer Center, MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Chile, and University of Pennsylvania, have entered into research collaborations with industry players to conduct further research for the improvement of existing therapies and the development of novel technologies.
7. Overall, the dendritic cell and tumor cell cancer vaccines market is expected to grow at a healthy annual rate of 20.7% till 2030. Dendritic cell vaccines are likely to garner the most attention in near future. Post 2020, we expect tumor cell vaccines to begin to actively contribute to the market’s revenues primarily driven by approval of Vigil®.
Most of the data presented in this report has been gathered through secondary research. For most of our projects, we also conduct interviews with experts in the area (academia, industry, medical practice and other associations) to solicit their opinions on emerging trends in the market. This is primarily useful for us to draw out our own opinion on how the market will shape up across different regions and wearable types. Where possible, the available data has been checked for accuracy from multiple sources of information.
The secondary sources of information include:
News releases from company websites
Government policy documents
Other analyst's opinion reports
While the focus has been on forecasting the market over the coming 14 years, the report also provides our independent view on various technological and non-commercial trends emerging in the industry. This opinion is solely based on our knowledge, research and understanding of the market developed from various secondary and primary sources of information.
Chapter 2 provides an executive summary of the report. It offers a high level view on evolution of the dendritic cell and tumor cell cancer vaccines market in the mid to long term.
Chapter 3 provides information on the rising global burden of cancer and the various available therapeutic options. The chapter also includes a discussion on the emergence of immunotherapies and their advantages over current standard of care therapies.
Chapter 4 provides an introduction to cancer vaccines, including details on their history of development, respective mechanisms of action and the various challenges associated with their development and production. Further, the chapter includes brief overviews of the different types of cancer vaccines that are under development for the treatment of various oncological indications. It also includes a comprehensive compilation of the regulatory guidelines established to monitor, manage and regulate the development of therapeutic cancer vaccines.
Chapter 5 features a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the current market landscape of dendritic cell and tumor cell cancer vaccines. It includes information, such as the target indications, current phase of development, the type of donor and the type of vaccines, on the various marketed and pipeline therapies.
Chapter 6 contains a detailed discussion on dendritic cell cancer vaccines. The chapter includes detailed profiles of the marketed and phase III vaccines in this category. Each profile contains a brief discussion on the history of development of the particular therapy, its mechanism of action, dosage regimen, information on its clinical trials and key clinical insights. Further, the profiles provide details on the developer, including financial information, existing intellectual property, current product portfolio and manufacturing capabilities.
Chapter 7 provides a detailed discussion on tumor cell cancer vaccines. Similar to Chapter 6, the chapter also includes comprehensive profiles of the phase III tumor cell cancer vaccines. Each profile covers information such as the history of development of a particular therapy, its mechanism of action, dosage regimen, information on clinical trials and key clinical results. Further, it provides information about the developer as well, including details on financials, existing intellectual property, product portfolio and manufacturing facilities. In addition, this chapter consists of a case study on NewLink Genetics and its portfolio of products based on the HyperAcute® technology.
Chapter 8 includes a detailed discussion on the various technology platforms that are currently being used for the development of dendritic cell and tumor cell cancer vaccines.
Chapter 9 presents a detailed study of the investments made in this domain. The funding instances captured in the chapter include venture capital financing, public offerings, grants and other forms of equity / debt financing. The analysis highlights the growing interest of the VC community and other strategic investors in this segment of the immunotherapy market.
Chapter 10 features a comprehensive analysis of the collaborations and partnerships that have been forged between the players in this market. In the chapter, we have discussed the various types of partnership models that are employed by stakeholders in this domain. We have also categorized the deals / agreements, which we came across during our research, based on the aforementioned models and provided our reviewed the trend of partnerships over time.
Chapter 11 presents a detailed market forecast for dendritic cell and tumor cell cancer vaccines and a discussion on the overall financial opportunity that exists in this domain. It includes future sales projections for molecules in advanced stages of development. These projections took into account the target patient population, the existence of competing drugs or drug classes, likely adoption rate and the expected price of each individual therapy.
Chapter 12 provides a summary of the overall report. In this chapter, we present a list of key takeaways from the report and our independent opinion on the nature and potential of the cancer vaccines market. The insights presented in this chapter are based on the research and analysis described in the previous chapters.
Chapter 13 contains a collection of interview transcripts of discussions held with some of the key players in the industry.
Chapters 14 and 15 are appendices, which provide tabulated data and a list of companies mentioned in the report, respectively.
LIST OF COMPANIES AND ORGANIZATIONS
The following companies and organizations have been mentioned in the study.
1. Abramson Cancer Center
3. Accord Research
4. Activartis Biotech
5. Adaptive Biotechnologies
6. Aduro Biotech
7. Alliance Foundation Trials (AFT)
8. American International Radio
9. American Red Cross Society
10. Ames Seed Capital
12. Aptiv Solutions
13. Argos Therapeutics
14. Artwell Biotech
15. Aspire Capital
16. Asset Management Ventures
17. Asterias Biotherapeutics
18. Aurora BioPharma
19. Aurora Funds
20. AVAX Technologies
21. Bar Elan University of Israel
22. Basic Pharma
23. Baylor College of Medicine (BCM)
24. Beijing Tricision Biotherapeutics
25. Benitec Biopharma
26. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Centre
27. BioLife Solutions
29. BioSante Pharmaceuticals
31. BioTime Acquisition
32. Brightline Ventures
33. Bristol-Myers Squibb
34. Bundang CHA General Hospital
35. Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec
36. Caladrius BioSciences
37. Caliber Biotherapeutics
38. California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM)
39. California Institute of Technology
40. Canadian Brain Tumour Consortium (CBTC)
41. Cancer Research Technology (CRT)
42. CANCER RESEARCH UK
43. Cancer Treatment Centers of America (CTCA)
44. Cascadian Therapeutics
45. Cedars-Sinai Medical Centre
46. Cell Therapy Catapult
47. Celldex Therapeutics
48. Cellin Technologies
49. CELLMED Research
50. Champions Biotechnology
51. Charles University
52. Chicagoland Investors
53. Chiltern International
54. China BioPharma Capital I
55. Chongqing Lummy Pharmaceutical
57. City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center
58. Clinipace Worldwide
59. Clough Capital Partners
60. Cognate Bioservices
65. Dana Farber Cancer Center
66. DanDrit Biotech
67. Danube Hospital Vienna
70. Dendreon Corporation
71. Department of Defense (CDMRP)
72. Department of Immunology of the 2nd Medical School of Charles University
73. Dong-A ST
74. Drexel University
75. Duke University
76. Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports
77. Ehime University Hospital
78. Elios Therapeutics
79. Emperor Franz-Josef Hospital Vienna
80. ES Cell International Pte
81. European Medicines Agency (EMA)
82. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)
83. Feldkirch State Hospital
84. Ferrer International
86. Forbion Capital
87. Foresite Capital Management
88. Franklin Advisers
89. Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology
90. FUJIFILM Diosynth Biotechnologies
92. Geron Corporation
93. GISCAD Foundation
95. Green Cross Corporation
97. Guangzhou Trinomab Biotech
98. Hakutokai Takao Hospital
99. Heat Biologics
100. Horizon Technology Finance Corporation
102. Immatics Biotechnologies
104. ImmunoCellular Therapeutics
105. Immunotherapy of Cancer (ITOC)
106. Innovation Agency
107. Innsbruck Medical University
108. Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG)
109. Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and the Institute of Chemistry of Polymers
110. Intersouth Partners
111. Intracel Corporation
113. Iowa Economic Development Authority (IEDA)
114. Iowa State University Research Park Corporation (ISURP)
115. Janssen Pharmaceuticals
116. Janus Capital Management
117. Jennison Associates
118. Jikei University School of Medicine
119. Johannes Kepler University Linz
120. Johns Hopkins University (JHU)
121. Johnson & Johnson Development Corporation (JJDC)
122. JW CreaGene
123. Karolinska University Hospital
124. King’s College Hospital
125. Kirin Brewery Pharmaceutical Division
127. Kitasato Institute Hosptital
128. Kyowa Hakko Kirin
129. Laboratorio Pablo Cassara
130. Leaders in Oncology Care (LOC)
131. Lumira Capital
132. Maastricht University Medical Centre
133. Mary Crowley Cancer Research Center
134. Masarik University Brno
135. Massachusetts Biotechnology Council (MassBio)
136. Maxim Group
137. Mayo Clinic
138. MD Anderson Cancer Centre
139. Medical Corporation Hakutokai
140. Medical Corporation Isokai
141. Medical School of Charles University
142. Medical University of Graz
143. Medical University of Hannover
144. Medical University of Vienna
145. Medigene Immunotherapies
148. Merix Bioscience
149. Midwest Melanoma Partnership (MMP)
150. Mizuho capital
151. MNX Global Logistics
153. Morningside Group
154. Morningside Ventures
155. National Cancer Institute
156. National Center for Global Health and Medicine
157. National Center for Global Health and Medicine
158. National Health Service (NHS)
159. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)
160. National Institutes of Health (NIH)
161. National University Corporation Kyushu University
162. National University of Singapore (NUS)
164. Neovii Biotech
165. NewLink Genetics
166. Northwest Biotherapeutics
168. NovaRx Corporation
169. Novella Clinical
171. OncoSec Medical
174. Oxford Finance
175. Pan Am Cancer Treatment Center
176. Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI)
177. PDC*line pharma
181. Pharmacenter Hungary
182. Pharmstandard International
183. Piedmont Angel Network
184. Pique Therapeutics
185. PPF Group
186. Prima BioMed
187. Progenitor Cell Therapy (PCT)
190. Pure MHC
192. Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences
193. RimAsia Capital Partners
195. Rockefeller University
196. Rudolfstiftung Hospital Vienna
197. Sächsische Aufbau Bank
198. Sahlgrenska University Hospital
200. Salzburg Provincial Hospital
201. Sarah Cannon Research UK
202. Saronic Biotechnology
203. School of Medicine of Keio University
204. Scottish Medicines Consortium
205. SDS Capital
206. Shenzhen Hornetcorn Bio-technology Company
207. Significo Research
209. Socius Life Sciences Capital Group
211. Square 1 Bank
212. St. Anna Children's Cancer Research
213. Stanford University
214. State Institute for Drug Control
216. Sydys Corporation
219. Technomark Life Sciences
221. Tessa Therapeutics
222. The Immune Response Corporation
223. The Investment Syndicate (TIS)
224. The Vaccine & Gene Therapy Institute of Florida (VGTI)
226. Therapeutic Solutions International
227. TheraTest Laboratories
228. TI Pharma
229. Tianyi Lummy International Holdings Group
230. Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies
231. TransCure bioServices
232. Trianta Immunotherapies
233. TVAX Biomedical
234. TVM Capital
236. United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA)
237. United Therapeutics
239. University Hospital Motol of Prague
240. University of British Columbia
241. University of Chile
242. University of Maryland
243. University of Minnesota
244. University of Pennsylvania
245. University of Pittsburgh
246. University of Southern California
247. University of Texas
248. University of Zurich Medical School
249. Uppsala University
250. US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)
252. Valeant Pharmaceuticals
253. Van Herk Group
254. Västra Götalandsregionen
255. Wagner-Jauregg Linz
256. Wasatch Funds Trust
257. Wilmington Investors Network
258. Woodford Investment Management
259. WuXi AppTec
260. XEME Biopharma
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