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Progress in Smart Grid ICT Development

Progress in Smart Grid ICT Development

The concept behind smart energy and Smart Grid (SG) is controlling energy consumption internally, within the home, office and similar; and externally from the home to outside connected devices, networks, and the smart grid itself - all with the goal of optimizing energy production, distribution, and usage. Bi-directional communication between home networks and the power grid opens up possibilities for improved reliability and sustainability as well as reducing the energy consumption.

This report presents the in-depth analysis of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) for the Smart Grid.

Both wireless and wireline communications technologies are considered. Designers of SG networks have multiple choices; and the report presents the comparison of various technologies with their benefits and issues.

Beside “traditional” technologies, such as 802.15.4g and 802.22, the report concentrates on newer cellular technologies, such as LTE for low-powered and low- speed UEs. It also analyzes a group of IoT technologies that support SG connectivity (such as SigFox, LoRa, Weightless and RPMA).

The detailed survey of organizations that are involved in SG ICT development and standardization is also presented together with the survey of the industry. Marketing statistics also have been developed and included in the report.

This report is useful to a wide audience of technical, managerial and sale staff involved in the SG ICT development and implementation.


1.0 Introduction
1.1 General
1.1.1 Smart Grid Definition
1.2 Issues
1.3 Vision: SG ICT
1.3.1 Neural Grid
1.4 U.S.
1.4.1 Objectives
1.4.2 Statistics
1.4.3 Conceptual Model
1.4.4 Plans
1.5 England
1.6 Italy
1.7 China
1.8 Scope
1.9 Research Methodology
1.10 Target Audience
2.0 General: SG ICT Industry Activities
2.1 Main Organizations - Technologies
2.2 Structure
2.2.1 SG Layers
2.2.1.1 ETSI Layering
2.2.2 ETSI Subnetworks Architecture
2.3 Requirements: SG Networking
2.3.1 View
2.4 Industry and User Groups Projects
2.4.1 ETSI
2.4.2 IEC
2.4.3 IEEE
2.4.4 Global Intelligent Utility Network Coalition
2.4.5 Smart Networks Council (SNC)
2.4.6 U-SNAP Alliance
2.4.6.1 Specification and HAN
2.4.6.2 Merge
2.4.6.3 Further Development
2.4.7 ESMIG
2.4.8 Demand Response and Smart Grid Coalition (DRSG)
2.4.9 EPRI (Electrical Power Research Institute)
2.4.10 ZigBee and Wi-Fi Alliances
2.4.11 NIST
2.4.12 OpenHAN
2.4.13 Federal Smart Grid Task Force
2.4.14 Open Smart Grid Users Group (OSGUG)
2.4.15 ITU
2.4.16 OpenADR
2.4.17 Comments
3.0 SG ICT and Smart Meters
3.1 Function and Structure: SG ICT
3.2 Current Status
3.3 Current Objectives
3.4 Choices
3.5 Smart Meters
3.5.1 Objectives
3.5.2 Details
3.5.3 Functions
3.5.4 Components
3.5.4.1 Communications
3.6 Security
3.7 Market
3.7.1 Market Drivers
3.7.2 Market Projections: Smart Meters
3.8 Industry
Aclara (Software and Systems, BPL)
Aeris (Wireless Network Provider)
BPL Global (Software Platform)
Carlson Wireless (Radio Platforms)
Cisco (IP-based Infrastructure)
Eaton (Cooper Power Systems)
Elster (AMI, AMR)-Honeywell
Echelon (Smart Metering System)
GridPoint (Network Platform)
Itron (Intelligent Metering)
Nokia (Infrastructure)
Oracle (Software)
Landis+Gyr (Metering Devices)
Sensus (Data Collection and Metering)
Silver Spring Networks (acquired by Itron in 2018)
Siemens (Software, Hardware)
Spinwave (Building Control, HAN)
Tantalus (Networking and Devices)
Tendril (System)
TransData (Wireless AMI/AMR Meter)
TI
Trilliant (Intelligent Metering)
4.0 Major Standards and Technologies: SG ICT
4.1 IEEE
4.1.1 IEEE 2030
4.1.2 IEEE-802.15.4g-Smart Utility Networks
4.1.2.1 General
4.1.2.2 Purpose
4.1.2.3 Need
4.1.2.4 Value
4.1.2.5 Overview - PHY
4.1.2.6 Regions
4.1.2.6.1 Frequencies Allocations
4.1.2.7 Details
4.1.2.7.1 Requirements: Major Characteristics
4.1.2.7.2 Considerations
4.1.2.7.3 PHY/MAC Modifications
4.1.2.8 Summary
4.1.2.9 Wi-SUN
4.1.3 IEEE 802.22
4.1.3.1 General
4.1.3.2 Group
4.1.3.2.1 IEEE 802.22
4.1.3.2.2 IEEE 802.22.1
4.1.3.2.3 IEEE 802.22.2-2012
4.1.3.2.4 IEEE 802.22a-2014
4.1.3.2.5 IEEE 802.22b-2015
4.1.3.3 Developments
4.1.3.4 IEEE 802.22-2011 Overview
4.1.3.5 Major Characteristics – 802.22
4.1.3.6 IEEE 802.22 Details
4.1.3.6.1 Physical Layer – Major Characteristics
4.1.3.6.2 MAC Layer
4.1.3.7 Cognitive Functions
4.1.3.8 IEEE 802.22 – Marketing Considerations
4.1.3.9 Major Applications
4.1.3.10 Summary
4.1.3.11 802.22 and Smart Grid
4.1.3.12 Usage Models
4.1.3.13 Benefits
4.2 3GPP LTE and SG
4.2.1 3GPP
4.2.2 LTE Objectives
4.2.3 Key Features of LTE
4.2.3.1 LTE Advanced
4.2.4 Benefits
4.2.5 Market
4.2.5.1 Drivers
4.2.5.2 LTE Market Projections
4.2.6 Vendors
Cisco
CommAgility
Ericsson
Fujitsu
Huawei
Motorola Solutions
Nokia
Qualcomm
Sequans
TI
u-blox
ZTE
4.2.7 LTE and Smart Grid
4.2.7.1 General
4.2.7.2 Examples
4.2.7.2.1 Ericsson
4.2.7.2.2 Cisco
4.2.7.2.3 Nokia and Tantalus
4.2.7.3 Details
4.2.7.3.1 Scalable LTE IoT Platform and SG
4.2.7.3.2 SM Specifics - LTE
4.2.7.3.2.1 Choices
4.2.7.3.2.2 Reasons
4.2.7.4 Summary
4.3 Wired ICT - SG
4.3.1 IEEE 1901.2
4.3.2 Choices - ITU
4.3.2.1 G3 PLC
4.3.2.1.1 Maxim-G3 PLC
4.3.2.1.2 G3 PLC Alliance
4.3.2.1.3 Approval
4.3.2.1.4 Details
4.3.2.1.4.1 Specification
4.3.2.1.4.2 PHY Layer
4.3.2.1.4.3 MAC Layer
4.3.2.1.4.4 Network and Transport Layers
4.3.2.1.4.5 Application Layer
4.3.2.2 PRIME
4.3.2.2.1 PRIME Alliance
4.3.2.2.2 Benefits
4.3.2.2.3 Specification
4.3.2.2.4 PRIME Industry
5.0 IoT Technologies and SG
5.1 Weightless Technologies
5.1.1 Weightless SIG
5.1.2 Common Features
5.1.3 Weightless-W
5.1.3.1 White Spaces Communications - Principles
5.1.3.2 Definition
5.1.3.3 Rational
5.1.3.3.1 Ecosystem and Use Cases
5.1.3.3.2 Weightless-W Details
5.1.4 Changes
5.1.5 Weightless-N
5.1.5.1 General
5.1.5.2 Open Standard
5.1.5.3 Nwave
5.1.5.4 Initial Deployments
5.1.5.5 Summary
5.1.6 Weightless-P
5.1.6.1 General
5.1.6.2 Details
5.1.6.2.1 M2COMM
5.1.7 Comparison of Weightless Technologies
5.1.8 Example
5.2 RPMA
5.2.1 Major Features
5.2.2 Proliferation
5.2.3 Components and Structure
5.2.4 Use Cases
5.3 LoRa
5.3.1 Alliance
5.3.1.1 Open Protocol
5.3.2 Technology Building Blocks
5.3.2.1 Layered Structure - Illustration
5.3.2.2 Modulation
5.3.2.3 Long Range
5.3.2.4 Applications
5.3.2.5 Network Architecture
5.3.2.6 Classes
5.3.2.7 LoRaWAN
5.3.2.8 Major Characteristics
5.3.3 Industry
Actility
Advantech
Amiho
Cisco
Embit
Link Labs
LORIOT.io
Microchip Technology
MultiTech
Murata
Sagemcom
Semtech
STMicroelectronics
Tektelic
5.4 SigFox
5.4.1 Company
5.4.2 Technology - Details
5.4.2.1 Uplink
5.4.2.2 Downlink
5.4.2.3 SmartLNB
5.4.3 Coverage
5.4.4 Use Cases
5.4.5 Industry
Adeunis RF
Innocomm
Microchip
On Semiconductor
Telit
TI
6.0 Conclusions
Appendix I: IEEE802.15.4g Characteristics
Appendix II: Regulations - TVWS
Appendix III: Survey of 802.22 Patents (issued 2017-2018)
Figure 1: Smart Grid Networking
Figure 2: SG Developmental Stages
Figure 3: U.S. SG – NIST Conceptual Model
Figure 4: U.S. – Smart Meters Installed (Mil)
Figure 5: Organizations
Figure 6: Smart Grid and ICT
Figure 7: “Smart” Support Network
Figure 8: Smart Grid – Layered Structure
Figure 9: ETSI-SG Layers
Figure 10: Networks Requirements
Figure 11: Layered Hierarchy – SG/ICT Standards
Figure 12: ETSI Documents
Figure 14: Interoperability Framework
Figure 15: SG - ICT Infrastructure
Figure 16: Smart Grid Connectivity
Figure 17: Estimate: Electrical SM Global Market ($B)
Figure 18: Estimate: Electrical SM Global Market (Mil. Units)
Figure 19: SG ICT Market Components
Figure 20: U.S. – SMs Penetration (2013-2015)
Figure 21: IEEE 2030 Group
Figure 22: SUN Place
Figure 23: Major Characteristics: IEEE 802.22
Figure 24: IEEE 802.22 Network: Usage Scenarios
Figure 25: 3GPP Releases (up to R.15)
Figure 26: LTE Subscription (Bil)
Figure 27: Major LTE Characteristics – R.8.0
Figure 28: LTE Frequency Bands (original)
Figure 29: LTE – IP
Figure 30: Release 8 Users Equipment Categories
Figure 31: Estimate- LTE Equipment Global Sales ($B)
Figure 32: “NarrowBand” LTE
Figure 33: Rel. 12 Category 0 – SG
Figure 34: LTE for Low Complexity UE
Figure 35: IoT Communications Technologies Characteristics
Figure 36: G3-PLC Frequencies
Figure 37: Rates of Transmission
Figure 38: PRIME Benefits
Figure 39: Layers - Prime
Figure 40: Iceni Characteristics
Figure 41: Nwave Characteristics Comparison
Figure 42: Weightless Technologies Comparison
Figure 43: RPMA Use Cases
Figure 44: LoRa Protocol Architecture
Figure 45: LoRa Architecture
Figure 46: LoRa Classes
Figure 47: Battery Lifetime
Figure 48: Regional Differences
Figure 49: Uplink Frame Format
Figure 50: Downlink Frame Format

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