Catalysts for Environmental and Energy Applications

Catalysts for Environmental and Energy Applications

The global market for energy and environmental catalysts totaled $25.7 billion in 2014. This market is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.6%, from nearly $27.3 billion in 2015 to nearly $35.8 billion by 2020.

This report provides:

An overview of the global markets for energy and enviornmental catalysts.

Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2014, estimates for 2015, and projections of CAGRs through 2020.

A look at how rising energy requirements and protecting the environment are among the most important applications of catalyst technology.

Information on how catalysts are increasing the supply of petroleum by making it commercially possible to produce oil from sources once regarded as uneconomical, such as tar sands and heavy oil deposits.

An understanding as to why catalysts are indispensable to many types of environmental remediation, from vehicle emissions control systems to industrial effluent and municipal waste treatment.

Evaluations of the technical and other challenges that must be overcome for the market to realize its full potential.

Profiles of major players in the industry.


This report addresses the global market for energy and environmental catalysts, including catalysts used in the following:
Production of crude oil and gas from unconventional sources such as tar sands and heavy oil reservoirs.
Synfuels production (e.g., coal liquefaction/gasification, shale oil).
Oil recycling.
Alternative fuels production (e.g., hydrogen).
Other emerging energy technologies, such as fuel cells and photovoltaic cells.
Increasing fuel efficiency (e.g., fuel additives that increase burn efficiency).
Avoiding or reducing environmental damage.

Mitigating or remediating adverse environmental impacts after they occur.

This report also covers the market for catalysts used in petroleum refining. The market for refinery catalysts, however, is covered in less detail because it is already analyzed in a separate BCC Research report, CHM027C—Petrochemical (Petroleum and Chemical) Catalysts.

The study is organized around the following major topics:
Executive summary.
Overview (e.g., definitions, history, market segmentation).
Characteristics of energy and environmental catalysts, those existing as well as those under development.
Current and potential catalyst applications in energy and environment.
Patent analysis.
Global market trends from 2014 to 2020.
Factors that will influence the long-term development of the market.
Industry structure and market shares.

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
STUDY BACKGROUND
REPORT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
INTENDED AUDIENCE
SCOPE OF REPORT
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES
ANALYST CREDENTIALS
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE
DISCLAIMER
CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYST MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYST MARKET, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW
DEFINITION
HISTORICAL MILESTONES
GENERAL ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN CATALYSIS
MARKET SEGMENTATION
CHAPTER 4 CATALYST APPLICATIONS IN ENERGY
PRIMARY ENERGY PRODUCTION
SYNFUELS
Coal and Natural Gas Liquefaction
Technologies
Direct Coal Liquefaction
Indirect Processes
Fischer-Tropsch Process
FIGURE 1 FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM
Sasol Process
ExxonMobil AGC-21
Syntroleum Air Blown Autothermal Process
British Petroleum Co. Compact Steam Reformer
Rentech Process
Shell Middle Distillate Process
Statoil Cobalt Catalyst/Slurry Bubble Column Reactor
Velocys' Microchannel Reactor
Micro-GTL
Siluria Oxidative Coupling of Methane/Ethylene to Liquids
INFRA.xtl
Synfuels Process
Other Developments
Catalysts
Coal Liquefaction Catalysts
Gas-to-Liquid Catalysts
Syngas Catalysts
Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts
TABLE 1 FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS USED IN VARIOUS PROCESSES BY COMPANY
TABLE 2 FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYST SUPPLIERS, 2014
Recent Developments in Gas-to-Liquid Catalysis
Patent Analysis
FIGURE 2 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS, THROUGH APRIL 25, 2015 (%)
Oil Shale
Technological Developments
Oil Shale Catalysis
Fracking
Patent Analysis
FIGURE 3 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO OIL SHALE CATALYSTS BY COMPANY, THROUGH APRIL 25, 2015 (%)
Methanol
Methanol Production Technology
Current Technology
Developing Technologies
Biomass-Based Methanol Production
Producing Methanol from Landfill Gas
Producing Methanol from Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide
Methanol Catalysis
Syngas Production
Syngas Decontamination
Methanol Production
Patent Analysis
BIOFUELS
Biodiesel
Technological Developments
Biomass Catalysis
Patent Analysis
Ethanol
Technological Developments
Fermentation Ethanol
FIGURE 4 FERMENTATION ETHANOL FEEDSTOCKS, 2014 (% OF GLOBAL ETHANOL PRODUCTION)
Cellulosic Ethanol
Ethanol Catalysis
Patent Analysis
PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS
Technological Developments
FIGURE 5 DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL
Catalysis
Patent Analysis
HYDROGEN
Technological Developments
Thermal Processes
Steam Reformation of Natural Gas
Partial Oxidation
Thermal Partial Oxidation
Catalytic Partial Oxidation
Autothermal Reforming
Reforming Renewable Liquid Fuels
Electrolytic Processes
Electrolysis of Methanol
Photolytic Processes
Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting
Catalysis
Reforming Catalysts
Partial Oxidation Catalysts
Autothermal Reforming Catalysts
Methanol Electrolysis Catalysts
Photocatalysts
Patents
REFINING AND RECYCLING
TECHNOLOGY
Fluid Cracking
Hydrocracking
Hydrotreating
Alkylation
Isomerization
Catalytic Reforming
CATALYSIS
TABLE 3 MAJOR REFINING CATALYSTS
Fluid Catalytic Cracking Catalysts
Hydrocracking Catalysts
Hydroprocessing Catalysts
Alkylation Catalysts
Isomerization Catalysts
Catalytic Reforming Catalysts
Refining Catalyst Manufacturers
TABLE 4 REFINERY CATALYST MANUFACTURERS, 2014
PATENTS
FIGURE 6 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO REFINING CATALYSTS BY PROCESS TYPE, THROUGH APRIL 25, 2015 (%)
FIGURE 7 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO REFINING CATALYSTS BY ASSIGNEE, THROUGH MAY 1, 2015 (%)
ENERGY CONVERSION
FUEL CELLS
FIGURE 8 FUEL CELL PRINCIPLES
Technological Developments
Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells
Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Alkaline Fuel Cells
Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
Fuel Cell Catalysis
Processing Hydrocarbon Fuels
Power Generation
Summary
TABLE 5 FUEL CELL CATALYSTS
Patents
FIGURE 9 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO FUEL CELL CATALYSTS, THROUGH APRIL 25, 2015 (%)
CHAPTER 5 CATALYST APPLICATIONS IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
GREEN PROCESSING
TABLE 6 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO REFINING CATALYSTS BY PROCESS TYPE, THROUGH APRIL 25, 2015
CHEMICAL PRODUCTION
Technologies
Catalysis
Solid Acid Catalysts
Biocatalysts
Patents
FIGURE 10 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO SOLID ACID CATALYSTS, THROUGH APRIL 25, 2015 (%)
TEXTILES
Technology
Bioscouring
Biopolishing
Biostoning
Catalysis
Patents
FIGURE 11 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO TEXTILE CATALYSTS, THROUGH APRIL 25, 2015 (%)
PULP AND PAPER MANUFACTURING
Technology
Catalysis
Patent Analysis
FIGURE 12 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO PULP AND PAPER CATALYSTS, THROUGH APRIL 25, 2015 (%)
FOOD PROCESSING
Technology
Catalysis
Patent Analysis
INDUSTRIAL PROCESS WASTE REMEDIATION
TECHNOLOGY
Oxidation
Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation
Photocatalytic Oxidation
Bioremediation
CATALYSIS
Chemical Oxidation Catalysts
TABLE 7 CATALYSTS USED IN CATALYTIC WET AIR OXIDATION OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE
Photocatalysts
Enzymes for Industrial Waste Remediation
PATENT ANALYSIS
MUNICIPAL WASTE TREATMENT
SOLID WASTES
Technologies
Recycling
Plastics Recycling
Fuel Production from Recycled Plastics
Landfill
Precombustion Treatment
Post-Combustion Treatment
Incineration
Selective Catalytic Reduction
Catalytic Oxidation
Conversion of Plastic and Other Wastes to Fuel
Treatment of Landfill Gases
Incineration
Patent Analysis
WASTEWATER
Technologies
Increasing Effectiveness of Secondary Treatment
Biogas Scrubbing
Photo-Oxidation of Wastewater
Catalysis
Increasing Effectiveness of Secondary Treatment
Digester Biogas Scrubbing
Photo-Oxidation of Wastewater
Patent Analysis
STATIONARY SOURCE AIR POLLUTION
TECHNOLOGY
CATALYSIS
PATENT ANALYSIS
FIGURE 13 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION CATALYSTS, THROUGH APRIL 25, 2015 (%)
MOBILE-SOURCE AIR POLLUTION
VEHICLE EMISSIONS
Technology
Catalytic Converter Technology
Advanced Vehicle Emissions Control Systems
Catalysis
Catalytic Converters
Three-Way Catalytic Converters
Two-Way Catalytic Converters
Diesel Nitrogen Oxide Emission Control Systems
Selective Catalytic Reduction
Lean Nitrogen Oxide Catalyst Technology
Patent Analysis
FIGURE 14 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO CATALYTIC CONVERTER CATALYSTS, THROUGH APRIL 25, 2015 (%)
NON-ROAD ENGINES
Technological Developments
Catalysis
Patent Analysis
CHAPTER 6 GLOBAL ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYST MARKET
SUMMARY
TABLE 8 GLOBAL ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYST MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 15 GLOBAL ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYST MARKET BY TYPE, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 16 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES FOR ENERGY VERSUS ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYSTS, 2014 AND 2020 (%)
MARKET BY SECTOR, SEGMENT AND USER INDUSTRY
ENERGY SECTOR
TABLE 9 GLOBAL ENERGY CATALYST MARKET BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 17 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF ENERGY CATALYST BY SEGMENT, 2014 AND 2020 (%)
Primary Energy Segments
TABLE 10 GLOBAL ENERGY CATALYST MARKET FOR PRIMARY ENERGY PRODUCTION BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 18 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES OF PRIMARY ENERGY CATALYSTS BY SEGMENT, 2014 VERSUS 2020 (%)
Synfuels Subsegment
TABLE 11 GLOBAL SYNFUEL MARKET BY PROCESS TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Direct Coal-to-Liquid
TABLE 12 GLOBAL DIRECT COAL-TO-LIQUID CATALYST MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Gas-to-Liquid Fuel Production
TABLE 13 GLOBAL GAS-TO-LIQUID CATALYST MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Shale Oil
Methanol
TABLE 14 GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF METHANOL VERSUS PRODUCTION FOR FUEL PURPOSES, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
FIGURE 19 GLOBAL TRENDS IN METHANOL PRODUCTION, 2014-2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
TABLE 15 METHANOL PRODUCTION CATALYST REQUIREMENTS
TABLE 16 GLOBAL FUEL-RELATED METHANOL CATALYST MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS/$ PER TON/$ MILLIONS
Biofuels
TABLE 17 GLOBAL BIOFUEL CATALYST MARKET BY INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Biodiesel
TABLE 18 GLOBAL BIODIESEL PRODUCTION MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
FIGURE 20 GLOBAL TRENDS IN BIODIESEL PRODUCTION, 2014-2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
TABLE 19 GLOBAL CATALYST IN BIODIESEL PRODUCTION MARKET, 2014-2020 ($ PER TON/MILLION METRIC TONS/$ MILLIONS)
Ethanol Production
TABLE 20 GLOBAL ETHANOL OUTPUT FROM CORN, GRAIN AND CELLULOSIC WASTES, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
FIGURE 21 GLOBAL FUEL ETHANOL PRODUCED VIA CATALYTIC PROCESSES OUTPUT, 2014-2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
TABLE 21 GLOBAL ENZYME CATALYST IN FUEL ETHANOL PRODUCTION MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION MT/$/$ MILLIONS)
Hydrogen
TABLE 22 GLOBAL CATALYSTS USED TO PRODUCE HYDROGEN FOR ENERGY APPLICATIONS MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Centralized Production
FIGURE 22 GLOBAL CATALYST CONSUMPTION IN CENTRALIZED HYDROGEN PLANTS, REPLACEMENT CATALYSTS AND NEW CONSTRUCTION, 2014 (%)
Existing Hydrogen Plants
New Construction
TABLE 23 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET FOR CENTRALIZED HYDROGEN PRODUCTION, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Decentralized Production
TABLE 24 GLOBAL FUEL CELL EXTERNAL REFORMERS MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Solar Cells
TABLE 25 GLOBAL DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL CATALYST MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Refining Segment
Historical Catalyst Consumption
FIGURE 23 GLOBAL REFINERY CATALYST CONSUMPTION, 2014 (%)
Market Drivers
Macroeconomic Trends
TABLE 26 GLOBAL ECONOMIC OUTLOOK, THROUGH 2020 (% ANNUAL CHANGE)
Regulatory Trends
Other Market Drivers
TABLE 27 GLOBAL REFINERY CATALYST MARKET BY PROCESS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Energy Conversion Sector
Fuel Cells
FIGURE 24 GLOBAL FUEL CELL MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2014 (%)
TABLE 28 GLOBAL FUEL CELL CATALYST MARKET, 2014 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 29 GLOBAL FUEL CELL SALES BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 30 GLOBAL FUEL CELL CATALYST MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 31 GLOBAL FUEL CELL MARKET FOR PLATINUM CATALYSTS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%)
TABLE 32 GLOBAL FUEL CELL MARKET FOR NONPRECIOUS METAL CATALYSTS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%)
ENVIRONMENTAL SECTOR
TABLE 33 GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYST MARKET BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 25 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYSTS BY SEGMENT, 2014 VERSUS 2020 (%)
Green Processing
TABLE 34 GLOBAL GREEN PROCESSING CATALYST MARKET BY SUBSEGMENT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Chemicals
Historical Catalyst Consumption
TABLE 35 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET IN GREEN CHEMICAL PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Textile Processing
Historical Catalyst Consumption
TABLE 36 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET IN GREEN PROCESSING OF TEXTILES BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Paper and Pulp Manufacturing
Historical Catalyst Consumption
TABLE 37 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET IN GREEN PROCESSING OF PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Food Processing
TABLE 38 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET IN GREEN PROCESSING OF FOOD PRODUCTS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Industrial Process Waste
TABLE 39 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET IN INDUSTRIAL WASTE REMEDIATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Municipal Waste Treatment
TABLE 40 GLOBAL MUNICIPAL WASTE TREATMENT CATALYST MARKET BY SUBSEGMENT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Municipal Solid Wastes
TABLE 41 GLOBAL MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE CATALYST MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Fuel Production from Recycled Plastics
TABLE 42 GLOBAL DIESEL FUEL FROM RECYCLED PLASTIC PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER/MILLION LITERS)
TABLE 43 GLOBAL CATALYSTS FOR RECYCLING PLASTIC WASTES MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Landfill Gas Amelioration
TABLE 44 GLOBAL ESTIMATED LANDFILL GAS-TO-ENERGY PLANT DESULFURIZATION CATALYST CONSUMPTION, 2014 (MMBTU PER YEAR/$/%)
TABLE 45 GLOBAL CATALYSTS FOR DESULFURIZING LANDFILL GAS MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER/$ MILLIONS)
Incinerator Emissions Clean Up
FIGURE 26 GLOBAL MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATOR POPULATION* BY REGION, 2014 (%)
TABLE 46 GLOBAL MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATOR TRENDS, THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER)
TABLE 47 GLOBAL MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATOR CATALYST MARKET FOR NITROGEN OXIDE EMISSIONS CONTROL, THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER/%/$/$ MILLIONS)
Wastewater Treatment
TABLE 48 GLOBAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT CATALYST MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Catalysts to Enhance Secondary Treatment
TABLE 49 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET FOR INCREASING SECONDARY TREATMENT EFFECTIVENESS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Catalysts Used in Biogas Scrubbing
TABLE 50 GLOBAL CATALYSTS FOR DESULFURIZING LANDFILL GAS MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER/$ MILLIONS)
Photo-Oxidation Catalysts
TABLE 51 GLOBAL PHOTOCATALYSTS FOR WASTEWATER SECONDARY TREATMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Stationary Source Air Pollution Segment
TABLE 52 GLOBAL UTILITY AND INDUSTRIAL SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION CATALYST MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/$/MILLION m3)
Mobile Source Air Pollution Segment
TABLE 53 GLOBAL MOBILE SOURCE AIR POLLUTION CATALYST MARKET BY SUBSEGMENT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Motor Vehicles
TABLE 54 GLOBAL MOTOR VEHICLE CATALYST MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Three-Way (Gasoline) Catalytic Converters
FIGURE 27 GLOBAL CATALYTIC CONVERTER MARKET BY CATALYST TYPE, 2014 (% KILOGRAMS)
TABLE 55 GLOBAL CATALYTIC CONVERTER DEMAND FOR CATALYSTS, 2014 ($ PER KG/$ MILLIONS)
TABLE 56 GLOBAL LIGHT VEHICLE PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION VEHICLES)
TABLE 57 GLOBAL CATALYTIC CONVERTER CATALYST REQUIREMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER/$ MILLIONS)
TABLE 58 GLOBAL CATALYTIC CONVERTER MARKET FOR NEW CATALYST MATERIALS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
Advanced Diesel Emission Control Systems
FIGURE 28 GLOBAL DIESEL VEHICLE PRODUCTION, 2014 (%)
TABLE 59 GLOBAL DIESEL VEHICLE EMISSION CONTROL CATALYST MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER/$/$ MILLIONS)
Non-Road Engine Emission Control Systems
TABLE 60 GLOBAL SALES OF CATALYSTS USED IN NON-ROAD CATALYTIC CONVERTERS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%)
CHAPTER 7 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
MARKET SHARES
ENERGY CATALYSTS
FIGURE 29 GLOBAL COMPANY MARKET SHARES IN ENERGY CATALYST, 2014 (%)
ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYSTS
FIGURE 30 GLOBAL COMPANY MARKET SHARES IN ENVIRONMENTAL
CATALYST, 2014 (%)
CHAPTER 8 COMPANY PROFILES
ALBEMARLE CORP.
AXENS SA
CDTI INC.
CLARIANT AG
CRITERION CATALYSTS AND TECHNOLOGIES
FUELCELL ENERGY INC.
GENENCOR INTERNATIONAL INC.
HALDOR TOPSOE SA
HEADWATERS INC.
INFRA TECHNOLOGY LLC
IOGEN CORP.
JOHNSON MATTHEY PLC
NEXTECH MATERIALS LTD.
NIPPON KETJEN LTD.
NOVOZYMES A/S
REG SYNTHETIC FUELS LLC
RENTECH
RHODIA SA (PART OF SOLVAY)
SACHTLEBEN CHEMIE GMBH
SASOL LTD.
SILURIA TECHNOLOGIES
UOP LLC
W.R. GRACE/DAVISON CHEMICALS
ZEOLYST INTERNATIONAL

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