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Nanotech: Making Photovoltaics Possible 2017

Nanotech: Making Photovoltaics Possible 2017

Photovoltaics is the technical term for generating electricity from light and today it is fast becoming an important industrial product. Presently the PV market is dominated by wafer based crystalline Si cells, but is hampered with high costs. Today’s solar cells are simply not efficient enough and are currently too expensive to manufacture for large-scale electricity generation. However, the cost of these cells is likely decrease in the future by using thinner wafers and devices with higher conversion efficiency. It is here where nanotechnology is expected to will play an important role in the longer run in order to further lower the PV cost. PV is also likely to profit from cross fertilization with micro- and nano-electronics.

Nanotechnologies are worldwide regarded as key technologies for innovations and technological progress in almost all branches of economy. Nanotechnologies as key and cross-sectional technologies exhibit the unique potential for decisive technological breakthroughs in the energy sector, thus making substantial contributions to sustainable energy supply. In recent years, nanotechnology researchers are achieving astonishing results in many fields of medicine and electronics: from microscopic sensors to transistors constantly decreasing in size, industry is pushing to innovate and find always new, cost-effective solutions. One of the most promising and exciting progress has been shown in the field of solar cells development.

The range of possible nanoapplications in the energy sector comprises gradual short and medium-term improvements for a more efficient use of conventional and renewable energy sources as well as completely new long-term approaches for energy recovery and utilization.

Presently, the climate of economic difficulty facing the world is resulting in a rising demand for going green. An attempt is being made to stimulate economies by an expansion of government spending in the areas of sustainability, energy conservation and renewable energy. However the credit crunch and wild swings in the price of oil could get in the way of these nanotech solutions being aggressively pursued.

In this scenario, Aruvian Research brings to you its research report – Nanotech: Making Photovoltaics Possible. This research report takes a look at how nanotechnology is changing the world of solar photovoltaics and making possible advances which earlier one could not even possibly imagine. The report looks at the technology which is making this possible. Basics of nanotechnology, of photovoltaics, of the current PV industry worldwide, and of course, of the usage of solar power worldwide, is all analyzed in this report. Information on companies making possible the usage of nanotechnology to further increase the profitability of photovoltaics is also provided in this report.

A. Executive Summary
B. Introduction to Solar Energy
B.1 Overview
B.2 Deriving Energy from the Sun
C. About Nanotechnology
C.1 The Basics
C.2 Usage of Nanotechnology
C.2.1 Sensors
C.2.2 Nanofibres
C.2.3 Ultra-Light Materials
C.2.4 Corrosion and Corrosion Prevention
C.2.5 Nanocomposites
C.2.6 Nanocrystals
C.2.7 Nanoparticles
C.2.8 Nanostructured Materials
C.2.9 Nanoclays and Nanocomposites
C.2.10 Nanocomposite Coatings
C.2.11 Nanotubes
C.2.12 Nanocatalysts
C.2.13 Nanofilters
C.3 Challenges of Using Nanotechnology
C.3.1 Brief Look on the Ethical Position
C.3.2 Potential Risks
C.3.3 Security Risk
C.4 Future Trends in Nanotechnology Developments
D. Introduction to Solar Photovoltaics
D.1 Overview
D.2 Photovoltaic Systems
D.3 Looking at the Balance of System (BOS)
D.4 Analyzing the 3 Generations of Photovoltaic Cells
D.4.1 First Generation PV Cells
D.4.2 Second Generation PV Cells
D.4.3 Third Generation PV Cells
D.5 What are Concentrator Cells?
D.6 Applications of Solar Cells
D.7 Types of Solar Cells
D.8 PV Technology in Isolated Generation
D.9 Novel PV Technologies
D.10 Socio-economic Aspects of Large-Scale PV Use
E. Photovoltaics and Nanotechnology
E.1 Nanotechnology and Sustainable Energy
E.2 Nanotechnology for Energy Sources
E.3 Nanotech Uses in the Energy Sector Snapshot
E.3.1 Chemical
E.3.2 Mechanical
E.3.3 Optical
E.3.4 Electronic
E.3.5 Thermal
E.4 Global Scenario of Nanotechnologies in Energy
E.4.1 Photovoltaics
E.4.2 Solar Thermal Energy
E.4.3 Energy Conversion
E.4.4 Fuel Cells
E.4.5 Photoelectric and Photovoltaic Devices
E.5 Solar Cells
E.5.1 Benefit to Solar Cells from Nanoparticles
E.5.2 Polymer Cells
E.5.3 Quantum Dots
E.5.4 Quantum Wells
E.5.5 Carbon Nanotubes and Fullerenes
E.5.6 Plastic Solar Cell
E.6 Nanotech for Solar Power is Here
E.7 Working of Traditional Solar Cells & Role of Nanotechnology
E.8 Some Examples of Use of Inexpensive Solar Cells
E.8.1 Usage in Environment
E.8.2 Usage in Military
E.8.3 Usage in Rural Areas
E.8.4 Usage in Electronics Industry
E.9 Solar Cell Generations
E.10 Working of Nanotech Solar Cells
E.11 Cost and Efficiency
F. Applications of Nanotechnology in Energy
F.1 Use in Solar Cells
F.2 Thin-Layer Solar Cells
F.3 Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Dye Solar Cells
F.4 Fullerene Derivates as Electron Acceptors in Polymer Solar Cells
F.5 Nanolayers in Stack Cells
F.6 Quantum Dots for Solar Cells
F.7 Nanostructured Antireflection Layers
F.8 New Materials for Photovoltaics
F.9 Marketing Potential of Nanotechnologies in Energy
G. Global Scenario and R&D of Nano in Solar Cells
H. Research Trend in Nano Solar Cells
H.1 Overview
H.2 Major Players
I. Technological Advancements that will Grow Nano PV Cells
J. Present Market Economics of Nano & Future Prospects
J.1 Overview
J.2 Future Prospects
J.3 Future of Nano PV Cells as Solar as Price for Solar Falls
J.4 Major Issues to Overcome
K. Leading Industry Contributors
K.1 Competitive Landscape
K.2 Applied Materials
K.3 BASF Corporation
K.4 DuPont
K.5 Merck KGaA
K.6 Nano-C Inc.
K.7 NanoFlex Power Corporation
K.8 NanoGram Corporation (part of the Teijin Group)
K.9 PV Nano Cell
K.10 Samsung Group
K.11 SunFlake
L. Appendix
L.1 Rising Greenhouse Gas Emissions & Its Impact – The Need for Solar Photovoltaics
L.2 Conditions Impacting the Performance of Solar PV Cells
L.2.1 Sunlight Conditions
L.2.2 Weather Conditions
L.2.3 Environmental Impact of Solar PV Cells
L.3 Challenges & Barriers Facing PV Technology Development
L.3.1 Very High Costs
L.3.2 High Transaction Costs
L.3.3 No Dominant Player in the Market
L.3.4 No Public Awareness
L.3.5 Lack of Incentives
L.3.6 No Public Interest
L.3.7 Lack of Proper Infrastructure
L.3.8 Institutional Barriers
L.3.9 Lack of R&D Initiatives
L.4 Figures & Tables
M. Glossary of Terms
List of Figures
Figure 1: Breakdown of Incoming Solar Energy
Figure 2: A Solar Cell Made from a Monocrystalline Silicon Wafer
Figure 3: Examples for Potential Applications of Nanotechnology along the Value-Added Chain in the Energy Sector
Figure 4: Market Shares of Different Solar Cell Types Worldwide in 2015
Figure 5: Basic Structure and Efficiency of Current Solar Cell Types
Figure 6: Diagram of a Photovoltaic Solar Cell
Figure 7: Diagram of a Nano Solar Cell
Figure 8: Electron-Microscopic Photo and Schematic Structure of a Cadmium Telluride Thin-Layer Solar Cell
Figure 9: Principle Structure and Functional Principle of an Organic Solar Cell
Figure 10: Processability of Nanomaterials (High Productivity Possible through Printing Processes)
Figure 11: Global Market Evaluation for Nanotechnology Applications in the Energy Sector (in USD Million), 2008-2015
Figure 12: Basic Research Underway with the Technology Developments Required to Achieve the Desired Applications
Figure 13: Activity & Diversity of Top 10 Countries in Nanotechnology Thin-film Solar Cells Publications
Figure 14: Number of Patents in this Domain, 2005-2015
Figure 15: Countries Leading the Research in the Field of Nano Photovoltaics, 2005-2015
Figure 16: Patents Filed by Universities in the Field of Nano Photovoltaics, 2005-2015
Figure 17: Where the Market for Nano PV Cells Stands Currently (Patents Filed in Last 5 Years as of 2015)
Figure 18: Number of Patents in Nano Photovoltaics Filed by Companies, 2005-2015 Total
Figure 19: Worldwide Solar Insolation Levels
Figure 20: A Schematic Arrangement of a PV Cell
Figure 21: Solar Parabolic Trough System Combined with Fossil Fuel Firing to Generate Electrical Power
Figure 22: Arrangement of a Central Receiver Solar Thermal System
Figure 23: A Solar Pond Arrangement
Figure 24: Integrated Solar/Combined Cycle System (ISCC)
Figure 25: Solar RFC Power System
Figure 26: Space Application of RFC Power System
Figure 27: Power Density Spectrum of the Sunlight at the Surface of Earth (Light Gray) and its Fraction Available for Conversion by a Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell (Dark Gray)
Figure 28: Global Energy Consumption Forecast (2003-2030)
Figure 29: Global Energy Consumption Forecast by Fuel Type (1980-2030)
Figure 30: PV Family Tree – A Diagrammatic Representation
Figure 31: Major Policy Drivers for Solar PV in 2015
Figure 32: Generation Cost of Solar Electricity in Comparison with Other Power Sources
Figure 33: Price Offers for Solar PV and Wind Onshore Power Plants by Countries
Figure 34: Global Solar PV Installed Capacity (in GW), 2000-2015
Figure 35: Total Solar PV Installed Capacity (in GW), 2000-2015
Figure 36: Annual PV Installations by Regions (in Percentage), 2010-2015
Figure 37: Leading 10 Solar PV Markets by Total Installed Share at end-2015 (%)
Figure 38: Contribution of PV to the Electricity Demand in EU 28 in 2015 (in Percentage)
Figure 39: Capacity Additions of Leading 10 Solar PV Markets in Europe (%), 2015 & 2020
Figure 40: Annual Solar PV Market Scenarios till 2020 (in GW)
Figure 41: Leading 20 Countries in Solar PV Additions during High and Low Scenarios (in GW), 2016-2020
List of Tables
Table 1: Some Examples of Clean Technologies
Table 2: Early Solar Thermal Power Plants
Table 3: Comparison of Solar Thermal Power Technologies
Table 4: Cost Reductions in Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Power Plants
Table 5: Cost Breakdown for a 100 kWP-10 MWP Concentrator Photovoltaics Installation

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