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Global LNG Market 2015

Global LNG Market 2015

New supply start-ups from Australia in the year 2015 combined with the opening up of new markets increased the volatility in the global LNG market this year. The start-up in Australia was the first of its kind large-scale coal bed methane to LNG project. This has also diversified the LNG trade and the global market has witnessed a good growth in LNG imports into Asia so far in 2015.

However, imports for Japan and China was weaker than expected and South Korea was also lower year-on-year. This was particularly due to a weaker structural demand as a result of slower economic growth in the region, particularly as the Chinese economy is witnessing a drastic slowdown.

Aruvian Research analyzes the Global LNG Market in its latest research offering. The report begins with an introduction to Liquefied Natural Gas. We provide background information on the growth of the LNG industry through the years, uses of LNG, the competitiveness of LNG as a source of natural gas, and the impact of unconventional gas. We also compare LNG to GTL and CNG.

The global LNG Market is analyzed through an industry overview, global LNG demand and liquefaction capacity, LNG trade and prices, emerging LNG markets, pipeline competition and other factors like China's growing requirement for LNG, Iran's gas reserves versus production and Qatar’s moratorium on LNG production.

The report analyzes the major technologies used for liquefaction such as floating liquefaction and primary liquefaction technologies. Factors impacting the industry such as industry trends, price trends, trends in LNG contracts, trends in project financing, and gas quality.

We also include a lifecycle analysis of LNG that goes through exploration and production, liquefaction, shipping, storage and distribution.

Factors driving growth in the global LNG industry are analyzed. Some of these growth drivers include supply and demand scenario of natural gas, economic drivers, environmental drivers, challenges with reserves, emergence of offshore East Africa as a new LNG market, and others.

Issues facing the global LNG market such as doubts on the Australian LNG stall, environmental pressures, problems with shipping, safety concerns, political unrest in areas where LNG is explored, issues with the Strait of Hormuz and others are explored in the report.

Moving on, we analyze the various LNG receiving terminals in the global LNG industry and the capacity of the LNG receiving terminals by country and region. Market for LNG carriers is looked at through LNG carrier vessel types, capacity and age of LNG carriers, LNG charter market and newbuild vessel orders.

We analyze the leading players in the global LNG industry such as Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., BG Group, Chevron Corporation, ConocoPhillips, Exxon Mobil, Gazprom OAO, and others. Each player is analyzed through a corporate profile, an analysis of the segments they operate through and a SWOT analysis. In total we analyze 17 major market players.


A. Executive Summary
B. Introduction to Liquefied Natural Gas
B.1 What is LNG?
B.2 Background of LNG
B.3 Does the U.S. Need LNG?
B.4 Uses of LNG
B.5 Is LNG a Competitive Source of Natural Gas?
B.6 LNG, GTL, and CNG
B.7 Impact of Unconventional Gas
C. Global LNG Market
C.1 Industry Overview
C.2 Global LNG Demand
C.3 Global Liquefaction Capacity
C.4 Supply & Demand Scenario
C.5 Qatar and the Moratorium on Production
C.6 Iran’s Gas Reserves versus Production
C.7 China’s Growing Requirement for LNG
C.8 LNG Boom Expected in Australia
C.9 LNG Trade
C.9.1 LNG Exports
C.9.2 LNG Imports
C.9.3 Inter-basin Trade Flows
C.9.4 LNG Spot Market
C.10 LNG Prices
C.11 Emerging LNG Markets
C.12 Pipeline Competition
C.13 Industry Forecast
D. Major Technologies for Liquefaction
D.1 Primary Liquefaction Technologies
D.2 Floating Liquefaction
E. Factors Impacting the Industry
E.1 Industry Trends
E.2 Price Trends
E.3 Trends in LNG Contracts
E.4 Trends in Project Financing
E.5 Gas Quality
F. Lifecycle Analysis
F.1 Introduction
F.2 Exploration and Production
F.3 Liquefaction
F.4 Shipping
F.5 Storage
F.6 Distribution
G. Growth Drivers
G.1 Supply-Demand Scenario of Natural Gas
G.2 Economic Drivers
G.3 Environmental Drivers
G.4 Challenges with Reserves
G.5 Industry Globalization
G.6 Emergence of Offshore East Africa as New LNG Market
H. Issues & Challenges
H.1 Doubts on Australian LNG Stall
H.2 Environmental Pressures
H.3 High Associated Costs
H.4 Problems with Shipping
H.5 Lack of Terminal Capacity
H.6 Safety Concerns
H.7 High BTU Content
H.8 Political Unrest, Piracy and Terrorism
H.9 Issues with Strait of Hormuz
I. LNG Receiving Terminals
I.1 Overview
I.2 Capacity of LNG Receiving Terminals
I.3 LNG Terminal Capacity by Country & Region
J. Market for LNG Carriers
J.1 Overview
J.2 LNG Carrier Vessel Types
J.3 Vessel Types
J.4 Capacity & Age of LNG Carriers
J.5 LNG Charter Market
J.6 Newbuild Vessel Orders
K. Leading Global Players
K.1 Air Products & Chemicals, Inc.
K.1.1 Corporate Profile
K.1.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.1.3 SWOT Analysis
K.2 BG Group Plc
K.2.1 Corporate Profile
K.2.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.2.3 SWOT Analysis
K.3 BP Plc
K.3.1 Corporate Profile
K.3.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.3.3 SWOT Analysis
K.4 Cheniere Energy, Inc
K.4.1 Corporate Profile
K.4.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.4.3 SWOT Analysis
K.5 Chevron Corporation
K.5.1 Corporate Profile
K.5.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.5.3 SWOT Analysis
K.6 ConocoPhillips
K.6.1 Corporate Profile
K.6.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.6.3 SWOT Analysis
K.7 Exxon Mobil Corporation
K.7.1 Corporate Profile
K.7.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.7.3 SWOT Analysis
K.8 Gazprom OAO
K.8.1 Corporate Profile
K.8.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.8.3 SWOT Analysis
K.9 Inpex Corporation
K.9.1 Corporate Profile
K.9.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.9.3 SWOT Analysis
K.10 Petronas
K.10.1 Corporate Profile
K.10.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.10.3 SWOT Analysis
K.11 Repsol SA
K.11.1 Corporate Profile
K.11.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.11.3 SWOT Analysis
K.12 Royal Dutch Shell Plc
K.12.1 Corporate Profile
K.12.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.12.3 SWOT Analysis
K.13 Sonatrach SPA
K.13.1 Corporate Profile
K.13.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.13.3 SWOT Analysis
K.14 Total SA
K.14.1 Corporate Profile
K.14.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.14.3 SWOT Analysis
K.15 Woodside Petroleum Limited
K.15.1 Corporate Profile
K.15.2 Business Segment Analysis
K.15.3 SWOT Analysis
K.16 Qatar Petroleum
K.17 Petroleos de Venezuela SA
L. Appendix
L.1 Propane-Air Storage vs. LNG Storage
L.2 Figures & Tables
M. Glossary of Terms
List of Figures
Figure 1: U.S. LNG Facilities as of June 2014
Figure 2: LNG Transportation Costs
Figure 3: US Natural Gas Production
Figure 4: Percentage of Shale Gas Share in US Gas Production
Figure 5: Forecast for US LNG Imports
Figure 6: US LNG Imports vs. US Regasification Capacity
Figure 7: Net Trade of the US with Canada & Mexico
Figure 8: LNG Imports by Mexico
Figure 9: Prices of Natural Gas in US, Japan, UK & Germany
Figure 10: Gas Prices in Europe - Spot Prices vs. Oil-linked
Figure 11: Global Demand of LNG (in Million Tons per Year), 2000-2030
Figure 12: Global Liquefaction Capacity Build Out (in Million Tons per Annum), 1990-2018
Figure 13: Global LNG Industry Number of Trains Commissioned vs Average Train Capacity, 1964-2018
Figure 14: LNG Development Pipelines in Australia & Papua New Guinea
Figure 15: Trade Volumes of LNG (In MTPA), 1990-2013
Figure 16: Global LNG Exports by Country in 2013 (in MTPA) and Increase from 2012
Figure 17: Global LNG Exports by Country (%), 1990-2013
Figure 18: Global LNG Exports by Region (in MTPA), 1990-2013
Figure 19: Global LNG Re-Exports by Country (in MTPA), 2005-2013
Figure 20: Global LNG Imports by Country in 2013 (in MTPA) and Increase from 2012
Figure 21: Global Gas Trade (in BCM), 2000-2012
Figure 22: Global LNG Industry Inter-basin Trade Flows (in Percentage Share), 1964-2013
Figure 23: Global LNG Industry Inter-basin Trade comparing 2000 and 2013 Performance
Figure 24: Spot LNG Trade (by Volume) & Share of Total of LNG Trade, 2000-2011
Figure 25: Number of Spot Cargoes Traded & Exporters & Importers of Spot LNG
Figure 26: Global LNG Industry Monthly Average Gas Prices by Region (in USD/mmBtu), 2008-2013
Figure 27: Imports of LNG to Emerging Markets
Figure 28: Utilization Rates of LNG Terminals by Country, 2010 & 2011
Figure 29: Future Capacity Growth by Country
Figure 30: LNG Demand in 2025
Figure 31: Global Liquefaction Capacity by Technology Type, 2014
Figure 32: Floating Liquefaction Capacity (Proposed & Under Construction), by Country
Figure 33: Sources of LNG to the US (%)
Figure 34: Upper Limits of WI Ranges in European LNG Importing Countries & Typical WI of LNG by Source
Figure 35: Single Mixed Refrigerant (SMR) Process
Figure 36: Propane Pre-Cooled Mixed-Refrigerant (PPMR) Process
Figure 37: Cascade Process
Figure 38: Flow of U.S. Natural Gas Imports/Exports
Figure 39: Strait of Hormuz – Primary LNG Transport Route
Figure 40: LNG Receiving Terminals Start Ups, 2001-2016
Figure 41: Capacity of Receiving Terminals Worldwide, 2001-2016
Figure 42: Global LNG Receiving Capacity (in MTPA), Q1 2014
Figure 43: Capacity of Global LNG Receiving Terminals (in MTPA), 2000-2018
Figure 44: Historical & Expected Start-ups of LNG Receiving Terminals Worldwide, 1980-2018
Figure 45: Send-out Capacity of LNG Terminals Worldwide on Yearly Basis, 2013 & 2018
Figure 46: Global LNG Regasification Capacity by Country (in MTPA), 2013
Figure 47: Global Regasification Capacity by Region (%), 2013
Figure 48: Import Capacity at Global LNG Receiving Terminals by Countries, 2013 & 2018
Figure 49: Global LNG Carrier Fleet, 1969-2013
Figure 50: Global LNG Carrier Fleet by Containment System (%), at end of 2013
Figure 51: Capacity of the Global LNG Fleet by Number of Carriers and Percentage of Total, 2013
Figure 52: Global LNG Carrier Fleet by Age, 2013
Figure 53: LNG Charter Rates & Conventional New build Orders
Figure 54: Order Book for Newbuild Vessels & LNG Fleet, 2013
Figure 55: World Natural Gas Supply, 2014
Figure 56: Global LNG Pricing by Regions
Figure 57: US LNG Facilities
Figure 58: Typical Natural Gas Composition
Figure 59: Typical LNG Composition
Figure 60: LNG Value Chain
Figure 61: LNG Fleet Containment System
Figure 62: Decline in LNG Costs (Does not include Feedstock Prices)
Figure 63: LNG Capacity under Construction by Country (Cumulative Volume Additions), 2012-2020
Figure 64: LNG Capacity under Construction by Region (Cumulative Volume Additions), 2012-2020
Figure 65: LNG Demand Supply Balance 2001 – 2030
List of Tables
Table 1: Regional Distribution of LNG Storage
Table 2: Top 10 NGV Countries
Table 3: Economic Comparison of GTL & LNG Projects
Table 4: Comparison of CNG & LNG
Table 5: Global LNG Industry Trade between Basins (in MT), 2013
Table 6: Comparative LNG Economics for Greenfield Facilities ($/MCF)
Table 7: Representative LNG Shipping Rates to U.S. ($/MMbtu)
Table 8: LNG Composition (Mole Percent)
Table 9: Global LNG Trade Variations

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