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Analyzing Osmotic Power 2018

Analyzing Osmotic Power 2018

With the threat of the global climate change looming large over our heads, more and more research has been ongoing into renewable energy. One such upcoming renewable energy is that of osmotic power. There are many unknown facts about this particular source of renewable energy. The mixing of freshwater and saltwater releases a large amount of energy. Harnessing this energy is the entire concept behind osmotic power.

While the technology is relatively new in the energy industry, Statkraft AS is emerging as a leader in this field, having already established its prototype plant in Norway. Using the pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) process, Statkraft has successfully begun the process of taking the technology of osmotic power towards commercialization.

However, the high cost of this technology and the entire setup of the power plant are impediments to the wide-scale use of osmotic power at the moment.

Aruvian Research brings a research report that analyzes the technology of osmotic power in its report Analyzing Osmotic Power 2018.

Beginning the analysis with an understanding of the potential of ocean sources of renewable energy, Analyzing Osmotic Power 2018 looks at the potential of osmotic power through an understanding of the salinity gradient power, along with its mechanics and concepts.

The processes involved in osmotic power, namely reverse electrodialysis, pressure retarded osmosis, and vapor compression, are all analyzed in the report, along with an analysis of the potential power produced from the process of osmotic power. The various power plant designs, pros and cons of osmotic power, as well as the power plants using osmosis are all analyzed in-depth in this research report.

The negative impact osmotic power has on the environment is analyzed in section D of the report, followed by a comprehensive analysis of the stages of salt permeability, concentration polarization, reverse osmosis, hybrid OP-RO process, and an energy analysis of the osmotic power process.

A cost analysis of osmotic power is carried out in section I in Financial Aspects of Osmotic Power.

Moving on, section J to L looks upon the overall potential of osmotic power in terms of business potential, commercialization value, as well as the technological potential of the entire process.

Case studies of Statkraft’s osmotic power technology and its prototype plant in Norway serve to complete the overall understanding of this technology, along with giving the reader a comprehensive idea about how Statkraft has commercialized this technology.

The role of osmotic power at Ijmuiden, Netherlands is also analyzed in another case study.

Analysis of three major players in the industry, namely Statkraft AS, Flowserve Corporation and Energy Recovery Inc., completes this report on Osmotic Power. SWOT analysis of Statkraft AS and Flowserve Corporation give the reader and idea of where these companies stand in today’s difficult industry scenarios.


A. Executive Summary
B. Introduction
B.1 Overview
B.2 Ocean Sources of Renewable Energy
B.3 Why Opt for Salinity Gradient Power?
C. What is Osmotic Power?
C.1 Overview
C.2 History of Osmotic Power
C.3 Understanding the Salinity Gradient Power
C.4 Mechanics & Concepts of Salinity Gradient Power
C.5 Understanding the Osmotic Process: Brief Profile
C.5.1 Reverse Electrodialysis
C.5.2 Pressure Retarded Osmosis
C.5.3 Vapor Compression
C.5.4 Hydrocratic Generator
C.6 Potential Power Production
C.7 Pros and Cons of the Process
C.8 Power Plant Designs
C.8.1 Sea Level PRO Power Plant
C.8.2 Sub-sea PRO Power Plant
C.8.3 PRO Power Plant Below Sea Level
C.8.4 Energy Efficiency of Plant Designs
C.9 Power Plants Using Osmosis
C.9.1 SHEOPP Converter
C.9.2 Underground PRO Plant
C.10 Development Trends
C.11 Future Perspective
D. Environmental Impact
E. In-depth Analysis of the Osmotic Power Process
E.1 Process Overview
E.2 Salt Permeability
E.3 Concentration Polarization
F. In-depth Analysis of the Reverse Osmosis Process
G. Hybrid OP-RO Process
H. Energy Analysis of the Osmotic Power Process
I. Financial Aspects of Osmotic Power
J. Potential of Osmotic Power
K. Commercial Potential of Osmotic Power
L. Technological Potential of Osmotic Power
M. Case Study: Statkraft’s Osmotic Power Technology
M.1 Overview
M.2 System Analysis
M.3 Development of the Membrane
M.4 Consideration for the Environment
M.5 Energy Potential
M.6 Investment in the System and Future Price Analysis
M.7 Feasibility in terms of Technology, Commercialization & Environment
M.7.1 Technological Feasibility
M.7.2 Commercial Feasibility
M.7.3 Environmental Feasibility
M.8 Conclusion
N. Case Study: World’s First Osmotic Power Plant in Norway’s
O. Case Study: Producing Energy from Salinity Gradients at Ijmuiden, Netherlands
O.1 Introduction
O.2 System Profile
O.3 Computational Model Utilized
O.3.1 Estuarine Level
O.3.2 Module Results
O.4 Conclusion
P. Analysis of Statkraft AS
P.1 Corporate Profile
P.2 History of the Company
P.3 Key Employees
P.4 Business Segment Analysis
P.5 Major Products & Services
P.6 Financial Analysis
P.7 SWOT Analysis
P.7.1 Strengths to Build Upon
P.7.2 Weaknesses to Overcome
P.7.3 Opportunities to Exploit
P.7.4 Threats to Overcome
P.8 Future Perspective
Q. Analysis of Flowserve Corporation
Q.1 Corporate Profile
Q.2 History of the Company
Q.3 Key Employees
Q.4 Business Segment Analysis
Q.5 Major Products & Services
Q.6 Financial Analysis
Q.7 SWOT Analysis
Q.7.1 Strengths to Build Upon
Q.7.2 Weaknesses to Overcome
Q.7.3 Opportunities to Exploit
Q.7.4 Threats to Overcome
Q.8 Future Perspective
R. Analysis of Energy Recovery, Inc.
R.1 Corporate Profile
R.2 History of the Company
R.3 Business Segment Analysis
R.4 Major Products & Services
R.5 SWOT Analysis
R.5.1 Strengths to Build Upon
R.5.2 Weaknesses to Overcome
R.5.3 Opportunities to Exploit
R.5.4 Threats to Overcome
S. Appendix
T. Glossary of Terms
List of Figures
Figure 1: Marine Renewable Resources
Figure 2: Sea Level PRO Power Plant
Figure 3: Sub-sea PRO Power Plant
Figure 4: PRO Power Plant Below Sea Level
Figure 5: Diagram of the SHEOPP Converter
Figure 6: Underground PRO Plant
Figure 7: Basic Osmotic Power Process
Figure 8: Osmotic Power Process with High Efficiency
Figure 9: Comparison of Membrane Flows in RO and OP Operating Modes
Figure 10: Representation of Solvent Flow in FO, PRO, and RO. Membrane Orientation is Indicated in Each System by the Thick Black Line Representing the Membrane Dense Layer
Figure 11: Illustration of osmotic driving force profiles for an asymmetric membrane with the dense layer facing the draw solution (PRO mode). Internal and external concentration polarization are also shown.
Figure 12: Seawater Reverse Osmosis Process
Figure 13: Hybrid OP-RO Process
Figure 14: Principle of Osmotic Power Plant
Figure 15: North Sea Canal (left) and IJmuiden Sluice Complex (right)
Figure 16: Average Salinity Distribution over the North Sea Canal
Figure 17: Detail of Computational Grid in the Outer Harbor of IJmuiden
Figure 18: Statkraft Sales by Segment (%), 2017
Figure 19: Power Sales of Statkraft (%), 2017
Figure 20: Salt to Electricity
Figure 21: Potential Resources for Osmotic Power
Figure 22: Competitiveness of Osmotic Power
Figure 23: Reducing the Cost of Osmotic Power
Figure 24: Prototype Statkraft Site at Tofte
Figure 25: Osmotic Power and the Energy Market
Figure 26: Osmotic Power Prototype
Figure 27: Pressure Retarded Osmosis
Figure 28: Producing Power with Pressure Retarded Osmosis
Figure 29: Membrane Module Rack
Figure 30: Power Plant in Sub-Sea Rock Cavern
Figure 31: Potential of Osmotic Power
Figure 32: Reverse Osmosis
Figure 33: Forward Osmosis Process
List of Tables
Table 1: Energy Efficiency for Different Plant Designs
Table 2: Energy Analysis of 2,000 m3/day (367 gpm) OP Process Fed with Seawater
Table 3: Energy Analysis of 2,012 m3/day (369 gpm) SWRO Process
Table 4: Energy Analysis of 2,000 m3/day (367 gpm) OP Process fed with Brine
Table 5: Profit & Loss Statement of Statkraft (in NOK million), 2006-2018
Table 6: Statkraft Cash Flow (in NOK million), 2006-2018
Table 7: Statkraft Balance Sheet (in NOK million), 2006-2018

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