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Analyzing Algae as a Source of Fuel 2016

Analyzing Algae as a Source of Fuel 2016

Algae fuel or algal biofuel is an alternative to fossil fuel that uses algae as its source of natural deposits. The allure of using algae to power the world’s vehicles has been at the heart of many business plans over the years. Solazyme was one of the first firms to focus on the alternative chemicals and personal care markets, developing a small but steady revenue stream as it braced itself for the difficulty of churning out its algae oil at a scale and cost that can compete with oil for transportation.

Algae production has the potential to outperform other potential biodiesel products such as palm or corn. For example, a 100-acre algae biodiesel plant could potentially produce 10 million gallons of biodiesel in a single year. Experts estimate it will take 140 billion gallons of algae biodiesel to replace petroleum-based products each year. To reach this goal, algae biodiesel companies will only need about 95 million acres of land to build biodiesel plants, compared to billions of acres for other biodiesel products. Since algae can be grown anywhere indoors, it's a promising element in the race to produce a new fuel. However, finding a market for biodiesel is another issue. If algae-based transportation fuels were offered at service stations today, the cost would be quite expensive making it a less attractive option than petroleum fuels.

The possibilities of algae as an all-inclusive biofuel are literally infinite. Whereas most other biofuels must be slowly developed, and can only be harvested at particular times of the year, algae can double in volume overnight and can be harvested day after day. They also utilize carbon dioxide and are nearly 50% oil (whereas palms are only about 20%).

Aruvian Research presents its research report Analyzing Algae as a Source of Fuel 2016 – which covers the huge potential of Algae to serve as fuel for the energy-hungry world we live in. The report explores the technologies involved in the process of converting algae into biofuel, the advantages and disadvantages of algae, the challenges facing the industry in commercializing this technology and much more. A section on algae and carbon capture along with the scenarios of regulated versus unregulated carbon marketplace is further included in this research report.

The report also takes a look at the potential competition that algal development faces in this particular field, that is, from petroleum, unconventional fossil fuels, and other biofuels.

A profile of the leading players in this emerging field who are making waves in technological developments is included in the report. Also of interest are three case studies – one on using algae as jet fuel in the future; one of the Maalaea Power Plant based in Hawaii and how it is deriving power from algae; and one on the relationship between algae and coal.

Basic information about algae is also provided in the report.

A. Executive Summary
B. The World of Algae
B.1 Introduction to Algae
B.2 Ecology
B.3 Classifying Algae
B.3.1 Primoplantae/Archaeplastida
B.3.2 Excavata and Rhizaria
B.3.3 Chromista and Alveolata
B.4 Forms of Algae
B.5 Algae in Symbiotic Relations
B.6 Life-cycle of Algae
B.7 Algae Production Methods
B.8 Looking at Terrestrial versus Aquatic Biomass
B.9 State of the Industry
B.10 Algal Fuel Crop Candidates
B.11 Revival of Algae
B.12 Requirements for Algal Cultivation
B.13 Challenges Relating to Plant Physiology, Metabolism, & Behavior
B.14 Fuels from Algae
B.14.1 Biodiesel
B.14.2 Biobutanol
B.14.3 Biogasoline
B.14.4 Methane
B.14.5 Straight Vegetable Oil
B.14.6 Traditional Transport Fuels
B.14.7 Jet Fuel
C. Various Uses of Algae
C.1 Usage as Fertilizer
C.2 Usage as an Energy Source
C.3 Controlling Pollution with Algae
C.4 Algae as Nutrition
C.5 Other Uses
D. Looking at Basic Biological Hydrogen Production by Algae
D.1 Introduction
D.2 History of Algaculture
D.3 Timeline of Developments
D.4 History of Biohydrogen Production from Algae
D.5 Technological Evolution
D.6 Design Issues related to the Bioreactor
D.7 Principle of Biohydrogen Production from Algae
D.8 Applications
D.9 Ongoing Research & Economics of Biological Hydrogen Production
D.10 Improving the Process by Adding Copper
E. Algae & Humans
F. Applications of Algae for Transport & Power Generation
G. Producing Fuel from Algae
G.1 Introduction
G.2 Basics of Fuel Production from Algae
G.3 Production Strategies and Technologies
G.3.1 Production Infrastructure
G.4 Products & Co-products
G.4.1 Biodiesel
G.4.2 Ethanol from Algal Biomass
G.4.3 Hydrocarbons
G.4.4 Mixed Alcohols
G.4.5 Co-products
G.5 Advantages of Algae-based Fuel Production
G.6 Challenges Facing the Industry
G.7 Emerging Players in the Market
G.8 Methods to Improve Yield
H. Looking at the Technology Involved
H.1 Looking at the Biological Concepts
H.2 Producing the Algae
H.3 Options for Fuel Production
H.4 Producing Biodiesel from Algae
H.5 Producing Ethanol from Algae
H.6 Producing Hydrocarbons from Algae
H.7 Algal Oil Extraction
H.8 Types of Biofuel Produced
I. Integrated Biodiesel Production for Microalgae
I.1 Environmental Problems
J. Production of Microalgal Biomass
K. Direct Liquefaction of Algae for Biodiesel Production
L. Algae and Carbon Capture
L.1 Overview
L.2 Looking at the Unregulated Carbon Marketplace
L.3 Looking at the Regulated Carbon Marketplace
L.4 Development of Carbon Networks
M. Analyzing Algal Fuel in the United States
N. Why Use Microalgae – Benefits for the United States
N.1 Introduction
N.2 Energy Security
N.3 Dealing with Climate Change
N.4 Coal and Microalgae
N.5 No Requirement for Land
O. Competition for Algae
O.1 Petroleum
O.2 Other Competitors
O.2.1 Unconventional Fossil Fuels
O.2.2 Other Biofuels
P. Are Algae Biofuels the Future?
P.1 Introduction
P.2 Looking at Global Biodiesel Production
P.3 R&D into Algal-Oil Production for Biodiesel Purposes
P.4 Sequestration of CO2 through Algae Cultivation Plants
P.5 Challenges Facing Conventional Biodiesel Production
P.6 Conclusion
Q. Analyzing the Economics of Producing Microalgae & Biodiesel Processing
Q.1 Introduction
Q.2 Looking at Microalgae
Q.3 R&D on the Usage of Microalgae
Q.4 Cultivating Microalgae as a Business
Q.5 Conclusion
R. Fuel from Algae – At What Cost?
S. Case Study: Deriving Jet Fuel from Algal Lipids
T. Case Study: Coal & Microalgae
U. Case Study: Algae Driving the Maalaea Power Plant
V. Case Study: Algae-fuelled Car in Cross-Country Race
W. Leading Industry Contributors
W.1 A2BE Carbon Capture
W.2 Algae Floating Systems Inc
W.3 AlgaeLink
W.4 Algaewheel
W.5 AlgoDyne Ethanol Energy Corporation
W.6 Aquaflow Bionomic Corporation
W.7 Bio Fuel Systems
W.8 Blue Marble Energy
W.9 Cellana
W.10 Dao Energy, LLC
W.11 Diversified Energy Corporation
W.12 FuelBio
W.13 Global Green Solutions
W.14 Imperium Renewables
W.15 Infinifuel Biodiesel
W.16 Inventure Chemical
W.17 Live Fuels Inc
W.18 PetroSun
W.19 Sapphire Energy
W.20 Seambiotic
W.21 Solena Group
W.22 Solix Biofuels
W.23 Virgin Green Fund
Y. Appendix
Z. Glossary of Terms
List of Figures
Figure 1: Lineage of Algae according to Thomas Cavallier-Smith
Figure 2: Open ""Raceway"" Pond
Figure 3: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Figure 4: Structure of Chlamydomonas
Figure 5: Photobioreactor Design (A) and Picture (B)
Figure 6: Algae Bioreactors for Hydrogen Production
Figure 7: Fuel Cell
Figure 8: Functioning of Algae without Copper
Figure 9: Functioning of Algae with Copper
Figure 10: Algae Farm
Figure 11: Algal Oil
Figure 12: Mechanism of Production of Biodiesel from Algae
Figure 13: A Conceptual Model for Integrated Biomass Production and Conversion Integration System
Figure 14: Schematic of the Algae Biodiesel Production with Introduction of CO2 from Fossil Fuel Fired Power Plant
Figure 15: Necessary Total Arable Area for EU Goal of 8% Biodiesel Share in Comparison to 100% Biodiesel Share in Total Diesel Consumption, According to Rapeseed Yield
Figure 16: AlgaeLink Alga Photo-Bioreactors
Figure 17: AlgaeLink Photo-Bioreactor Installation
Figure 18: Oil being Released from Botryococcus braunii from Increased Pressure
Figure 19: Challenges of Producing Fuels from Algae
Figure 20: Laurencia, a Marine Red Alga from Hawaii
Figure 21: Glaucophyte
Figure 22: Relative Global Production Economics for Ethanol
Figure 23: Biofuels Immediate Value Chain
Figure 24: Regional Biofuels Drivers
Figure 25: Biofuels: A Subset of Renewable Energy
Figure 26: Growth Requirement for Algae
Figure 27: Greenhouse Growth System
Figure 28: Wind Farm/Seaweed Farm Growth System
Figure 29: Example of Classical Classification
Figure 30: Phylogenetic Classification
Figure 31: Microalgae
Figure 32: Seaweed
Figure 33: Comparison of Plant & Algae
Figure 34: Open Pond Spirulina Farm
Figure 35: Photo-bioreactors
Figure 36: Treating Seawater Using Algae
Figure 37: Cycle of Biofuel Produced by Algae
List of Tables
Table 1: Comparison of Microalgae Bio-Oil Yield and Common Cultures for Biodiesel Production
Table 2: Example of Typical Flue Gas Composition from Coal Fired Power Plant"

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