“Role of Wireless ICT in Healthcare: M2M, WBAN and Underlying Technologies”

“Role of Wireless ICT in Healthcare: M2M, WBAN and Underlying Technologies”

This report reviews, updates and extends the Practel M2M/IoT project that has been launched a couple years ago. In particular, it concentrates on the fast-growing healthcare and related to healthcare segments of M2M/IoT communications.

Ambient Intelligence is a vision where environment becomes smart, friendly, context-aware and responsive to any type of human needs. In such a world, computing and networking technology coexist with people in a ubiquitous, friendly and pervasive way. Numerous miniature and interconnected smart devices create a new intelligence and interact with each other seamlessly. For healthcare, this translates into proliferation of remote monitoring and telemedicine supported by M2M/IoT networking.

The report addresses recent advances in wireless communications technologies for medical/fitness applications. Particular, it analyzes the following related developments:

Status of M2M standardization, market and development in general and specifically for medical/wellness applications

Development and standardization of the Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) and Medical Body Area Network (WMBAN), including their markets specifics.

-Underlying technologies:

Bluetooth and its Medical Profile

ZigBee and its Medical Profile

Wi-Fi low-power consumption technology


Self-powered wireless sensors

Continua Health Care Alliance activities in the selection of WICT for healthcare

Survey of related industries

Estimate of related market segments.

The report emphasizes the necessity of further proliferation standardized wireless communications in medicine and wellness to reduce the cost and enhance quality of services.

It also includes the survey of patents related to the discussed subjects.

The report is written for service providers, IT departments of hospitals and other medical organizations, retail operators, vendors, network operators and managers, investors and end users seeking to gain a deeper understanding of new trends in wireless communications medical/wellness applications.

For systems integrators, the report provides an analysis and assessment of competing products currently available as well as an estimation of the overall opportunities in the coming years.

1.0 Introduction
1.1 General
1.2 Scope
1.2.1 Choices
1.3 Status
1.4 Requirements
1.6 Bluetooth
1.7 ZigBee
1.8 Wi-Fi
1.9 Demand
1.10 Crisis
1.11 Focus
1.12 Research Methodology
1.13 Target Audience
2.0 WBAN/WMBAN – Features and Standardization
2.1 General
2.2 Reasons
2.3 Definition
2.3.1 Structure
2.4 Overview
2.4.1 WBAN Requirements
2.5 Groups
2.5.1 By Application
2.5.2 By Transmission Medium
2.5.3 By Number of Nodes
2.5.4 By Environment
2.5.5 By Radio Type
2.5.6 By Place
2.5.7 By Response
2.5.8 By User Condition
2.5.9 By Frequency Spectrum
2.6 FCC Regulations-Frequency Spectrum
2.7 Standardization
2.7.1 General
2.7.2 IEEE 802.15.6 Scope Status Structure Major Characteristics Specifics Overview Technology Characterization IEEE 802.15.6: Major Points Areas of Applications Physical Layers Narrow Band UWB PHY HBC PHY MAC Security Power Savings Summary
2.7.3 IEEE 802.15.4j – Medical BAN (MBAN) Scope Differences Timeline Characteristics Spectrum and Channel Plan Major Parameters Benefits
2.7.4 ISO/IEEE 11073 – Personal Health Data Family IEEE 11073 Scope
2.8 Market Considerations
2.9 ETSI eHealth
2.9.1 Scope
2.9.2 ETSI TR 101 557 V1.1.1 (2012-02) - MBANS General ETSI – MBANS Market Characteristics Technical Details
2.10 Major WBAN Applications
2.10.1 Healthcare
2.10.2 Wellness
2.10.3 First Responders and Military
2.11 Industry
AirStrip Technologies
Sotera Wireless
2.12 Summary: WBAN Current and Future Trends
3.0 Underlying Technologies
3.1 IEEE 802.15.1 (Bluetooth-BT)
3.1.1 BT Protocol Stack Transport layer Radio Layer Baseband and Link Manager Layers Middleware Layer
3.1.2 Profiles
3.1.3 Power Consumption – ULP/BLE
3.1.4 Health Device Profile IEEE 11073 and BT
3.1.5 Highlights The Standard: The Technology:
3.1.6 Evolution BT v2.1 BT v3.0 BT v4.0 and Further Development BT v5.0, v5.1 and v5.2
3.1.7 Market Estimate
3.1.8 BT Industry-HDP
Cambridge Consultants
Continua (now part of PCHA)
Laird Technologies
Nordic Semiconductor
Silicon Labs
3.2 ZigBee
3.2.1 General
3.2.2 Technology Major Features
3.2.3 Device Types
3.2.4 Protocol Stack Physical and MAC Layers – IEEE802.15.4 Frame Upper Layers Network Layer Responsibilities Application Layer
3.2.5 Interoperability
3.2.6 Security
3.2.7 Platform Considerations Battery Life
3.2.8 ZigBee Technology Benefits and Limitations
3.2.9 Standardization Process ZigBee Alliance Objectives IEEE 802.15.4-2015 and ZigBee IEEE 802.15.4 Radio
3.2.10 Applications Specifics Personal, Home and Hospital Care (PHHC) Profile –ZigBee Healthcare Objectives Details Use Cases
3.2.11 Market Segments Forecast
3.2.12 Industry
CEL (modules)
Digi (Radio, Medical Application)
Lamprey Networks, Inc. (LNI)
Philips Applied Technologies (Healthcare)
Renesas (Platforms)
Silicon Laboratories (Chipsets, Modules, Medical)
Synapse (Modules, Protocols)
TI (Chipsets)
Qorvo (Modules)
3.3 Low-power Consumption Wi-Fi
3.3.1 General
3.3.2 802.11ah (Wi-Fi HaLow) Standard Goal and Schedule Attributes Use Cases PHY Bandwidth Channelization Transmission Modes and MIMO MAC Layer
3.3.3 Summary
3.3.4 Marketing Data
3.3.5 Industry
Morse Micro
Orca Systems
Telit (former GainSpan)
3.4 Z-Wave
3.4.1 General
3.4.2 Z-Wave Alliance
3.4.3 Benefits
3.4.4 Details Background Characteristics G.9959
3.4.5 Advanced Energy Control Framework Further Enhancements
3.4.6 Selected Vendors
Aeon Labs-Aeotec
Vera Control
3.4.7 Market Estimate Model Results
3.5 Selection – Continua Health Alliance
3.5.1 General
3.5.2 Continua Design Guidelines (CDG)
4.0 Self-powered Wireless Sensors
4.1 Methods
4.2 Batteries
4.3 Power Harvesting Technologies
4.3.1 Nodes
4.3.2 Energy Sources General Solar Energy Thermoelectric Mechanical RF Power Summary
4.4 Green Technologies Features and Requirements
5.0 Medical WICT and M2M Communications
5.1 M2M Specifics
5.1.1 Definition and Process
5.1.2 Statistics
5.1.3 Properties
5.1.4 P2P and M2M
5.1.5 Choices Cellular Short-range Open Standard
5.1.6 Challenges
5.1.7 Advances Examples
5.2 M2M Standardization
5.2.1 Health Care Specifics
5.2.2 OneM2M Alliance Varieties Service Layer Architecture Benefits oneM2M Standards
5.2.3 M2M Alliance
5.2.4 Open Mobile Alliance (OMA)
5.2.5 ETSI Efforts Architecture Use Case-Healthcare
5.2.6 ITU ITU-T Focus Group - Healthcare
5.2.7 Global M2M Association (GMA)
5.2.8 IETF and IP/WSN Major Projects 6LoWPAN WG ROLL WG
5.2.9 Summary
5.3 Healthcare-M2M Specifics
5.3.1 Role
5.3.2 Monitoring
5.3.3 Cost
5.3.4 Advantages General Savings Categories and Benefits Details
5.3.5 Components
5.3.6 Examples
5.3.7 Issues
5.4 M2M Industry
Kore Telematics
Wireless Logic
5.5 M2M Markets and Applications
5.5.1 Situation
5.5.2 Structure
5.5.3 Statistics
6.0 Conclusions
Attachment I: IEEE 802.15.4a-2007
Attachment II: MBAN – related Patents Survey (2017-2020)
Attachment III: 802.11ah – related Patents Survey (2017-2020)
Figure 1: WBAN Illustration
Figure 2: Intelligent Sensor
Figure 3: WBAN Characteristics
Figure 4: IEEE 802.15.6: Process
Figure 5: 802.15.6 – PHY and MAC
Figure 6: IEEE 802.15.6 Areas of Applicability
Figure 7: Network Topology
Figure 8: ISO/IEEE 11073 Protocol Family
Figure 9: Estimate: U.S. Annual Healthcare Expenditures ($T)
Figure 10: Estimate: U.S. WBAN Equipment Sales - Medical Applications ($B)
Figure 11: Estimate: Global – Medical Devices Connectivity Market ($B)
Figure 12: Estimate: Patients Wireless Monitoring Devices Sales- Europe ($M)
Figure 13: Bluetooth Protocol Stack
Figure 14: Piconets Illustration
Figure 15: ULP BT Layers
Figure 16: BT HDP Building Blocks
Figure 19: BT Market Geographical Segmentation
Figure 20: Estimate: BT- HDP Modules Global Sales (Bil. Units)
Figure 21: Estimate: BT- HDP Modules Global Sales ($B)
Figure 22: ZigBee Channels
Figure 23: ZigBee Protocol Stack
Figure 24: Applications-Illustration
Figure 25: Estimate: Global Market Size – ZigBee Chips ($B)
Figure 26: Estimate – Global Market – ZigBee Healthcare Applications ($B)
Figure 27: ZigBee Market Segmentation (2020)
Figure 28: ZigBee Market Segmentation (2024)
Figure 29: Backhaul Use Case Illustration
Figure 30: Standardized Frequency Spectrum (sub-1 GHz)
Figure 31: 802.11ah – Channelization Plan in U.S.
Figure 32: Estimate: Low Power Consumption Wi-Fi Modules Sales – U.S. ($B)
Figure 33: Estimate: U.S. Small SH Z-Wave IC Market ($B)
Figure 34: Estimate: U.S. Large SH Z-Wave IC Market ($B)
Figure 35: M2M Process - Illustration
Figure 36: Major Layers
Figure 37: M2M Use Cases and ETSI Documentation
Figure 38: Healthcare Expenses – Percent of GDP (2019)
Figure 39: Annual Savings – Adoption of Remote Monitoring (Illustration)
Figure 40: Details
Figure 41: M2M Applications
Figure 42: Projections: M2M Traffic Growth (PB/Month)
Figure 43: Estimate- Global Wireless M2M Market Revenue ($B)
Figure 44: Estimate: Global-Healthcare Sector-M2M Communications Market ($B)
Table 1: ZigBee and 802.15.6 Radios
Table 2: Sensors Classification - Placing
Table 3: MedRadio Spectrum
Table 4: Allowable Power Density
Table 5: NB PHY Characteristics
Table 6: HBC Characteristics
Table 7: Summary – 802.15.6 Properties
Table 8: Modulation Parameters
Table 9: Transports
Table 10: WBAN Medical Applications
Table 11: Bluetooth Profiles and Protocols - Samples
Table 12: BT v4.2 vs v5.0
Table 13: ZigBee Parameters
Table 14: 802.11ah Features Summary
Table 15: Continua Design Guidelines
Table 16: Power Sources
Table 17: Data - Illustration
Table 18: Components
Table 19: Standard Bands

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