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Progress in Development: Connected Car

Progress in Development: Connected Car

This report addresses the current status of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), their structure, major applications, standardization and markets. The Intelligent Transportation Systems aim to improve the economy by reducing the number of road accidents, the amount of car air pollutions and making smooth flow of the traffic.

The advances in the ITS are presently tied with the development of a “connected car” (CC) – a moving car that is wirelessly connected with surrounding cars and the infrastructure. Such a car opens a spectrum of new and exciting opportunities for automakers, service providers and users.

CC programs are now under development all around the globe. Though there are many technological choices to support CC communications with the outside world, two technologies are leading at the present time. They are:

  • 5.9 GHz DSRC, and
  • LTE-A.
The report concentrates on those leaders; and analyzes their characteristics, parameters, marketing statistics, industries and the spectrum of applications. It also compares these technologies and their applicability to CC communications.

5.9 GHz DSRC technology is being tested and trialed in the U.S. for the last 10-15 years; and a rich collection of communications channels statistics has been gathered. This technology is now in the process of standardization by the U.S. DOT for CC communications. It has many attractions, such as the economies of scale based on the IEEE 802.11p standard, network simplicity and other. It also standardized and accepted in Europe. The report also addresses the current discussion in the industry and the FCC concerning opening the 5.9 GHz band for Wi-Fi communications and related consequences for road safety applications.

Utilization LTE-A and its modifications for C-V2X communications attracts users by longer reaches, higher speeds, possibility of low latency (1-3 ms), and utilization of the cellular infrastructure in which CC communications will be only one of many use cases. The standard is not ready yet to fully apply to CC connectivity; and the 3GPP is introducing it gradually with a promise to finalize in 1-2 years. Two methods are being developed: a) D2D communications, and b) Broadcast communications. They are discussed in the report.

The report details specifics of 5.9 GHz DSRC and LTE-A for CC communications, their marketing aspects, and the related legislative work. It also concentrates on benefits and limitations of each technology and surveys related industries.

The report is intended for a wide audience of technical and managerial staff involved in the ITS development; and particular concerns with marketing and technological aspects of a connected car; and for specialists in communications technologies that support advances in connected cars programs. For them, it will provide the following up-to-date information and results of the analysis:
  • ITS features, major goals, structure and market analysis
  • CC concept, applications, properties, specifics and market analysis
  • CC 5.9 GHz DSRC technology, standardization, protocols, industry and market analysis
  • C-V2X LTE-A technology, standardization process, specifics and current status
  • Comparison 5.9 GHz DSRC and C-V2X LTE-A technologies as they apply to CC communications
  • Analysis of the LTE technology: benefits, properties, industry and market
  • Survey of patents related to IEEE 802.11p.

1.0 Introduction
1.1 Data
1.2 Goal
1.3 Scope
1.4 Research Methodology
1.5 Target Audience
2.0 ITS: System in Actions
2.1 General
2.2 Composition
2.2.1 Formation
2.2.2 Subsystems
2.2.3 Layers and Components-Roadways
2.3 Key Technologies
2.4 ITS Standardization: In Progress
2.4.1 Overview
2.4.2 ETSI - Europe
2.4.3 U.S. General National Transportation Communications for ITS Protocol (NTCIP) Scope Family
2.4.4 International General ITU
2.4.5 Summary
2.5 ITS Functionalities
2.5.1 Intelligent Infrastructure
2.5.2 Intelligent Vehicles
2.6 ITS Market Statistics
2.6.1 General
2.6.2 Assumptions
2.6.3 Estimate
3.0 Connected Car Specifics
3.1 General
3.1.1 Types of Connectivity
3.2 Legislation
3.2.1 U.S. NHTSA Actions and Plans
3.2.2 Directions EU and England Varieties
3.3 Properties and Requirements
3.3.1 Methods
3.3.2 Network Requirements
3.3.3 Functional Technologies
3.4 Driving Forces
3.5 Major Use Cases
3.6 Market
4.0 5.9 GHz DSRC
4.1 General
4.1.1 History- Spectrum Recent Developments – Spectrum Sharing -Opinions
4.2 Industry Efforts - Cooperation
4.3 Place
4.4 Structure and Protocols
4.4.1 Requirements
4.4.2 Milestones
4.4.3 IEEE 802.11p General Objectives and Status ASTM Contributions Characteristics
4.4.4 IEEE 1609 General Overview IEEE 1609 in Use
4.4.5 ETSI ITS-G5 – Major Features
4.4.6 ISO and DSRC
4.4.7 SAE and DSRC
4.5 Components and Procedures
4.5.1 Components
4.5.2 Procedures
4.6 Major Applications
4.6.1 EPS
4.7 Spectrum – DSRC - International
4.7.1 Channels Designation
4.8 Services
4.8.1 Major Services
4.8.2 Service Categories/QoS
4.8.3 Service Requirements
4.9 Summary: DSRC (5.9 GHz) Characteristics
4.10 Benefits and Limitations – 5.9 GHz DSRC
4.10.1 General
4.10.2 Toll Industry Benefits
4.10.3 Limitations
4.11 Comparison
4.11.1 915 MHz DSRC and 5.9 GHz DSRC
4.11.2 CEN278 (5.8 GHz) DSRC and 5.9 GHz DSRC
4.12 Market Segment and Industry
4.12.1 Market Drivers
4.12.2 Market Requirements
4.13 Market Estimate
4.14 Industry
4.14.1 Industry Coalition
4.14.2 Recent Progress
4.14.3 Vendors
Cohda Wireless
Redpine Signals
4.15 Governing and Opinions
5.0 LTE and Connected Car
5.1 Two Technologies
5.2 3GPP Activities
5.2.1 D2D Communications
5.2.2 C-V2X Broadcast
5.2.3 Performance Comparison
5.2.4 Further Steps
5.3 Industry
6.0 Comparison: DSRC-802.11p and C-V2X
6.1 General
6.2 Details
6.2.1 Readiness
6.2.2 Legislation
6.2.3 Networking
6.2.4 Range
6.2.5 Response
6.2.6 Scalability
6.2.7 Economics
6.2.8 Speed of Transmission
6.2.9 Versatility
6.2.10 Telematics
6.2.11 5G Vision
7.0 Connected Car - Groups and Alliances
7.1 Open Automotive Alliance
7.2 4G Venture Forum for Connected Cars
7.3 Apple – iOS in the Car
7.4 Connected Vehicle to Everything of Tomorrow Consortium (ConVeX)
7.5 WWW Consortium
7.6 GSMA Connected Car Forum
7.7 Car Connectivity Consortium
7.8 Towards 5G Partnership
8.0 Conclusions
Appendix I: Patents Survey – IEEE 802.11p (2016-2017)
Appendix II: LTE Technology and Markets
A.1 De-Facto Standard
A.2 Broadband Wireless Communications Stages
A.2.1 LTE Standardization-Industry Collaboration
A.2.1.1 Industry Initiative
A.2.1.2 LTE Timetable
A.2.1.3 Initial Releases
A.3 Key Features of LTE
A.3.1 Comparison
A.4 Details
A.4.1 Evolved UMTS Radio Access Network (EUTRAN) - eNB
A.4.2 UE Categories
A.4.3. Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
A.4.4 LTE Layers
A.5 LTE Advanced
A.6 Self-organized Network (SON)
A.7 Market: LTE
A.7.1 General
A.7.2 Market Drivers
A.7.3 Demand: Wireless Broadband
A.7.4 LTE Market Projections
A.8 Summary of LTE Benefits
A.9 Industry
Alcatel-Lucent (Nokia)
Lime Microsystems
Motorola Solutions
Figure 1: Wireless Communications: ITS Environment
Figure 2: Europe – Standardization Organizations
Figure 3: Standardization Bodies – ITS U.S.
Figure 4: NTCIP Structure
Figure 5: International –Standardization Bodies
Figure 6: Estimate: Global ITS Market ($B)
Figure 7: Estimate: ITS WICT- Global Market ($B)
Figure 8: ITS Equipment Sales by Regions ($B)
Figure 9: NHTSA DSRC Project – Prior 2015
Figure 10: NHTSA – Further DSRC Project Development
Figure 11: Connected Car: Network Requirements
Figure 12: Connected Car: Communications Technologies
Figure 13: Estimate – Connected Car Market Value - Global ($B)
Figure 14: Estimate: Global Automotive Wireless Market – Equipment Sales ($B)
Figure 15: Estimate – Global – Service Providers Revenue – Connected Car ($B)
Figure 16: Estimate – U.S. Auto Market – CC Penetration (%)
Figure 17: 5.9 GHz DSRC – Frequencies Allocation and Channelization
Figure 18: DSRC - Modified Spectrum
Figure 19: Industry Cooperation
Figure 20: ITS-5.9 GHz DSRC - Illustration
Figure 21: Communications Model
Figure 22: 802.11p - Communications
Figure 23: 1609 Protocol - Illustration
Figure 24: Signals Logical Flow – 5.9 GHz DSRC
Figure 25: Collision Detection/Avoidance System
Figure 26: Work Zone Warning
Figure 27: “Smart” Car
Figure 28: DSRC Worldwide – Spectrum Allocation
Figure 29: DSRC: Spectrum Allocation Details (Global)
Figure 30: Channel Assignment – 5.9 GHz DSRC
Figure 31: 5.9 GHz DSRC Transmission Characteristics and Channelization
Figure 32: Spectrum Details – Overlapping Wi-Fi
Figure 33: Major Categories-DSRC Services
Figure 34: 5.9 GHz DSRC Rate vs. Distance
Figure 35: 5.9 GHz DSRC Protocols – Summary
Figure 36: Estimate: CC Market Value– U.S. – 5.9 GHz DSRC ($B)
Figure 37: C-V2X Modes of Communications
Figure 38: 3GPP Schedule – D2D Communications (V2X)
Figure 39: D2D Communications – Evolution
Figure 40: LTE ProSe Functions – Discovery and Communications
Figure 41: Further Evolution – C-V2X
Figure 42: Networking
Figure 43: Evolution Path
Figure 44: Towards Wireless Mobile Broadband
Figure 45: LTE – IP
Figure 46: Major LTE Advantages
Figure 47: LTE – Reference Architecture
Figure 48: LTE Layers
Figure 49: Estimate: Global Broadband Mobile Subscribers Base (Bil.)
Figure 50: Estimate: LTE-Subscribers’ Base-Global (Bil)
Figure 51: LTE Equipment Global Sales ($B)
Table 1: Road Crashes Statistics
Table 2: 5G Network Characteristics
Table 3: ETSI G5 Channels and Services
Table 4: Service Categories - DSRC
Table 5: Users Service Requirements
Table 6: 5.9 GHz DSRC Characteristics
Table 7: 5.9 GHz DSRC Benefits
Table 8: 915 MHz and 5.9 GHz DSRC Differences
Table 9: LTE - D2D and Broadcast Modes – Features
Table 10: Major Features – Comparison
Table 11: 3GPP Releases
Table 12: Initial LTE Characteristics
Table 13: Users Equipment Categories (Initial)
Table 14: UE Categories - Extended

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