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Energy Harvesting: Off-grid Renewable Power for Devices, Vehicles, Structures 2015-2025

Energy Harvesting: Off-grid Renewable Power for Devices, Vehicles, Structures 2015-2025

Energy harvesting is a booming business at the level of watts to kilowatts and there is now reason to believe that lower power versions will also have considerable success over the coming decade. Electrical and electronic equipment needs less and less power and energy harvesting is producing more power, energy storage becoming more useful as well. This is underwritten by both strong demand for high power already and a recent flood of important new inventions that increase the power capability and versatility of many of the basic technologies of energy harvesting.

This unique report reflects the new reality that energy harvesting - creation of off-grid electricity where it is needed, using ambient energy - is now one subject from microwatts for wireless sensors to kilowatts for vehicles and buildings. This is because it increasingly involves the same technologies, locations and companies. Vehicles, for example, need everything from wireless sensors driven by local harvesting providing milliwatts to traction battery charging from harvesting that can reach many kilowatts. Some technologies previously only capable of signal power are now proving scalable to higher power. It is all one business now but, for the coming decade, the largest addressable value market lies in the range of one watt to 10 kW so this will receive particular attention.

Only a global up-to-date view makes sense in this fast-moving subject. Therefore the multilingual PhD level IDTechEx analysts have travelled intensively in 2015 to report the latest research and expert opinions and to analyse how the markets and technologies will move over the coming decade. Original IDTechEx tables and infographics pull together the analysis.
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1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1. Definition and characteristics
1.1.1. Definition
1.1.2. Characteristics
1.1.3. Exclusions
1.2. Low and high power is now one business
1.3. Some technologies succeeding faster than others
1.4. Technological options
1.5. EH is sometimes introduced then abandoned
1.6. The needs for EH in the future
1.6.1. Main market drivers and applications
1.6.2. Power needs
1.7. Market overview
1.7.1. Largest value market by power
1.7.2. Examples of high volume needs by number
1.7.3. Difficult to value
1.7.4. Maturity of market by application
1.7.5. Success at all power levels but a problem sector
1.8. Technology success by type
1.8.1. By numbers and potential
1.8.2. Examples of successes and technologies used
1.8.3. High adoption begins with vehicles
1.9. Electric and other vehicles
1.10. EH systems
1.10.1. Anatomy
1.10.2. Transducer options compared for key applications
1.10.3. Winners and losers
1.11. Nature of technological options by intermittent power generated
1.12. Hype curve for EH technologies
1.13. Detailed parameters by technology
1.14. Multiple energy harvesting
1.14.1. Strong need
1.14.2. Huge scope for multi-mode electrodynamics
1.14.3. Multi-mode end game is structural electronics?
1.15. Market forecast 2015-2025
1.15.1. Forecasts by technology
1.15.2. Market for power conditioning
1.15.3. Technology timeline 2016-2025
1.16. Detailed technology sector forecasts 2015-2025
1.16.1. Electrodynamic
1.16.2. Photovoltaic
1.16.3. Thermoelectrics
1.16.4. Piezoelectrics
1.17. Territorial differences
1.17.1. Emphasis
1.17.2. Leading continents and countries
1.18. Energy harvesting, wireless charging and plug-in 2025
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1. Overview
2.1.1. Applicational sectors
2.1.2. System design: transducer, power conditioning, energy storage
2.2. The environmental argument
2.3. What is needed
2.4. Technologies compared
2.4.1. Parametric
2.4.2. The favourite technologies
2.5. Vibration, pressure and pulse harvesting
2.5.1. Technologies competing
2.6. Energy harvesting exotica in 2015
2.6.1. Self-powered camera
2.6.2. EH elastic tape - many options now
2.6.3. Harvesting all energy from electromagnetic waves?
2.6.4. Harnessing multiple electromagnetic energy
2.6.5. Smart window harvesting wind and rain energy
2.6.6. Super-efficient wave energy
2.6.7. Harvesting bird and moth wings
2.6.8. Energy harvesting to power life on Mars
2.7. Significance of printing
2.8. Combined harvesting and storage including flywheels
3. ELECTRODYNAMIC HARVESTING
3.1. Definition and scope
3.2. Many modes and applications compared
3.2.1. Options by medium
3.2.2. Examples compared
3.3. Flywheels
3.4. Active regenerative suspension: Levant Power
3.5. Aerial power generation
3.6. Regenerative braking
3.6.1. Principle
3.6.2. Forklift
3.7. Energy harvesting shock absorbers
3.7.1. Linear shock absorbers
3.7.2. Wattshocks
3.7.3. Rotary shock absorbers
3.8. Airborne Wind Energy AWE
4. PHOTOVOLTAIC HARVESTING
4.1. Photovoltaic
4.1.1. Flexible, conformal, transparent, UV, IR
4.1.2. Technological options
4.1.3. Principles of operation
4.1.4. Options for flexible PV
4.1.5. Many types of photovoltaics needed for harvesting
4.1.6. Spray on power for electric vehicles and more
4.2. Powerweave harvesting and storage e-fiber/ e-textile
5. THERMOELECTRIC HARVESTING
5.1. The Seebeck and Peltier effects
5.2. Designing for thermoelectric applications
5.3. Thin film thermoelectric generators
5.4. Material choices
5.5. Organic thermoelectrics - PEDOT:PSS, not just a transparent conductor
5.6. Other processing techniques
5.7. Manufacturing of flexible thermoelectric generators
5.8. AIST technology details
5.9. Automotive applications
5.9.1. BMW
5.9.2. Ford
5.9.3. Volkswagen
5.9.4. Challenges of Thermoelectrics for Vehicles
5.10. Wireless sensing
5.10.1. TE-qNODE
5.10.2. TE-CORE
5.10.3. EverGen PowerStrap
5.10.4. WiTemp
5.10.5. GE- Logimesh
5.11. Aerospace
5.12. Wearable/implantable thermoelectrics
5.13. Building and home automation
5.14. Other applications
5.14.1. Micropelt-MSX
5.14.2. PowerPot™
5.15. Solar TEG
6. PIEZOELECTRIC HARVESTING
6.1. Technology options
6.2. Materials
6.2.1. Classic PZT
6.2.2. Piezo polymers
6.2.3. Piezo-composites
6.2.4. Research frontiers
6.3. Unusual capabilities
7. ELECTROSTATIC, MAGNETOSTRICTIVE, RECTENNA, OTHER
7.1. Electrostatic / capacitive
7.2. Magnetostrictive
7.3. Nantenna-diode rectenna arrays
7.3.1. Idaho State Laboratory, University of Missouri, University of Colorado, Microcontinuum
7.3.2. University of Maryland
7.4. Thermoacoustic
7.5. Not quite energy harvesting: microbial fuel cells, directed RF, betavoltaics
8. MULTI-MODE ENERGY HARVESTING
9. EXAMPLES OF IDTECHEX INTERVIEWS AND EH RESEARCH IN 2015
9.1. Agusta Westland Italy
9.2. Enerbee France
9.3. Eight19 UK
9.4. Faradair Aerospace UK
9.5. Fraunhofer IIS Germany
9.6. Fraunhofer IZM Germany
9.7. Green GT Switzerland
9.8. IFEVS Italy
9.9. Jabil USA
9.10. Komatsu KELK Japan
9.11. LG Chem Korea
9.12. Marlow USA
9.13. Medtronic USA
9.14. Pavegen UK
9.15. Piezotech France
9.16. RMT Russia and TEC Microsystems Germany
9.17. Thhink Wireless Technologies UK
9.18. Witt Energy UK
9.19. Examples of recent research

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