Market Research Logo

2008 Technology - Internet - Volume 5 - Routing & Addressing Crisis

This new Biennial Report covers the Routing and Addressing Problem (ROAP): Border Gateway Protocol, global BGP routing table, multihomed and transit routers in the Default Free Zone, exhaustion of fresh IPv4 address space, Provider Aggregatable (PA) and Provider Independent (PI) address space, Internet scaling problems, Internet Architecture Board Workshop on Routing and Addressing (RAWS), Regional Internet Registry (RIR) IPv6 end-user PI space allocation policy, Route Aggregation, improving IPv4 address space utilisation, Forwarding Information Base (FIB) technologies, Ternary Content Addressable Memory (TCAM), TCAM update time and power consumption problems, Tree-Bitmap Algorithm, Routing Information Base (RIB), BGP stability and convergence, path hunting, Minimum Route Advertisement Interval (MRAI) Timer, Flap Damping, Path Length Damping, Root Cause Notification, Ingress Tunnel Routers (ITRs), Egress Tunnel Routers (ETRs), LISP-NERD, LISP-CONS, eFIT-APT, Ivip, multihoming service restoration, ‘push’ and ‘pull’ approaches to mapping database distribution.

This handbook also contains discussion of:

  • Improvements to BGP.
  • Locator-ID separation and tunneling protocols.
  • Needs of ISPs and end-users requiring portability, multihoming and traffic engineering.
  • Tension between multihoming upstream diversity and route aggregation.
  • Comparison of IP-based tunneling locator-ID separation protocols.
  • Implications of IP-based solutions for security, packet overhead, Path MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit)
  • Discovery and packet fragmentation.
  • Reachability of from hosts in networks which have not adopted the new architecture.
  • Researcher:- Robin Whittle


1. TCP, UDP & SCTP
1.1 Introduction
1.2 TCP/IP packets
1.2.1 IPv4 header
1.2.2 Routing
1.2.3 UDP packet
1.2.4 TCP
1.3 IP Addresses
1.3.1 Overview
1.3.2 TCP and UDP port numbers
1.3.3 Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)
1.3.4 Network and broadcast address
1.4 Transition to IPv6
1.4.1 IPv6 islands in an IPv4 sea
1.4.2 Dual stack networks
1.4.3 Avoiding Network Address Translation (NAT)
1.4.4 IPv6 benefits


2. IP Routing & Addressing Crisis
2.1 User requirements
2.1.1 Introduction
2.1.2 Routing and Addressing Problem (ROAP)
2.1.3 Needs and desires
2.1.4 Route aggregation and address utilisation
2.1.5 Multihoming
2.2 Forwarding Information Base (FIB)
2.2.1 FIB rules
2.2.2 Costs and limitations of three FIB technologies
2.2.3 The ideal of ‘flat routing’
2.3 RIB & BGP
2.3.1 Introduction
2.3.2 The BGP routing system
2.3.3 Routers in the Default Free Zone (DFZ)
2.3.4 Routing Information Base (RIB)
2.3.5 BGP stability
2.4 Goals and BGP solutions
2.4.1 Introduction
2.4.2 IAB, IETF, IRTF and other organisations
2.4.3 Goals and solutions
2.4.4 Improving BGP
2.5 LISP - Locator-ID-Separation
2.5.1 Introduction
2.5.2 Postal redirection analogy
2.5.3 Locator-Identifier Separation Protocol (LISP)
2.6 APT & Ivip
2.6.1 APT
2.6.2 Ivip Internet Vastly Improved Plumbing (Ivip)
2.6.3 Challenges for all proposals


3. Glossary of Abbreviations
Exhibit 1 - An 8 address TCP/IP subnet

Download our eBook: How to Succeed Using Market Research

Learn how to effectively navigate the market research process to help guide your organization on the journey to success.

Download eBook

Share this report