Flame resistant fibres, fabrics and apparel: balancing protection, comfort and durability

Flame resistant fibres, fabrics and apparel: balancing protection, comfort and durability

Flame resistant fabrics play a crucial role in providing protection from hazards such as heat, flames, electric arcs and molten metal. As such, they are widely used in the manufacture of protective apparel for personnel working in a number of industries, as well as for firefighters and military personnel. Manufacturers of flame resistant fabrics have a broad range of flame retardant finishes and inherently flame resistant fibres from which to choose when developing their products. Also, the range of flame resistant fabrics available is extremely diverse and includes denim style fabrics, fleece fabrics, heavy duty fabrics, knitted fabrics and lightweight shirt fabrics. Manufacturers of flame resistant fabrics are continuing to innovate, and there is a trend towards the development of flame resistant fabrics which incorporate additional properties such as breathability and moisture management in order to improve comfort. Overall, global demand for flame resistant fabrics is forecast to grow at a healthy pace in the coming years, reflecting the implementation of stricter safety standards and a spur in infrastructure projects in developing markets. However, the market faces some challenges -- notably those associated with environmental sustainability. This report provides a wealth of information on recent developments in the market for flame resistant fabrics, and discusses the opportunities and challenges facing the market. Topics explored in the report include: markets for flame resistant fibres, fabrics and apparel; the flammability of different fibres; factors affecting the flammability of apparel; measuring flame resistance; testing the flammability of fabrics designed for use in the manufacture of consumer products; different types of flame resistant fibres, fabrics and apparel; flammability regulations; standards for flame resistant personal protective apparel; key producers of flame retardant finishes and additives and their products; and key producers of flame resistant fibres, yarns and fabrics and their products. Also, the report provides an outlook for the future.


  • SUMMARY
  • INTRODUCTION
  • MARKETS FOR FLAME RESISTANT FIBRES, FABRICS AND APPAREL
    • Flame retardant treated (FRT) fabrics
    • Inherently flame resistant fabrics
    • TRENDS IN THE MARKET FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS
    • TRENDS IN THE MARKET FOR ARAMID FIBRES
    • TRENDS IN THE MARKET FOR FLAME RESISTANT FABRICS
      • Trends in flame resistant fabrics
      • Challenges associated with flame resistant fabrics
    • TRENDS IN THE MARKET FOR FLAME RESISTANT APPAREL
  • FLAMMABILITY OF FIBRES
  • FACTORS AFFECTING THE FLAMMABILITY OF APPAREL
    • FIBRE CONTENT
      • Table Ignition temperature and maximum flame temperature of selected fibre types
      • Table Burning characteristics of selected fibre types
    • FABRIC CONSTRUCTION
      • Fabric weight
        • Table Effect of fabric weight on the burning rate of cotton fabrics and viscose rayon staple fabrics
      • Fabric construction
    • FABRIC SURFACE TEXTURE
    • MOISTURE CONTENT
    • PRESENCE OF ADDITIVES OR CONTAMINANTS IN THE FABRIC
    • GARMENT DESIGN
    • EFFECT OF COMPONENTS USED IN APPAREL
    • LAUNDERING OF THE APPAREL AFTER USE
  • DEFINITION AND MEASUREMENT OF FLAME RESISTANCE
    • DEFINITION OF A FLAME RESISTANT FABRIC
    • MEASUREMENT OF FLAME RESISTANCE
      • Table Ignitability of different fibre types
  • FLAMMABILITY TESTING OF FABRICS FOR USE IN THE MANUFACTURE OF CONSUMER PRODUCTS
    • Table Selected flammability tests, 2019
    • Table USA: Flammable Fabrics Act: classes of fabric flammability
  • FLAME RESISTANT FIBRES AND FABRICS
    • INHERENTLY FLAME RESISTANT FIBRES
      • Aromatic polyamides (aramids)
      • Polybenzimidazole (PBI)
      • Polybenzoxazole (PBO)
    • FIBRES CONTAINING FLAME RETARDANTS
      • Flame resistant viscose
      • Flame resistant polyester
    • FABRICS CONTAINING FLAME RETARDANTS
      • Mode of action
      • Flame retardant technologies
  • FLAME RESISTANT CLOTHING
    • FIREFIGHTERS' APPAREL
      • Standards
      • Advances in fibre and fabric technology
      • Functions of fabrics used in clothing for firefighters
      • Multi-layer structure
      • Fit
      • Compatibility with other items
      • Comfort and freedom of movement
      • Enhancing the performance of turnout gear while reducing weight
    • INDUSTRIAL WORKWEAR
      • Common causes of ignition and burning in industrial workwear
      • Types of fabrics, treatments and testing
      • Multi-functional industrial workwear
    • MILITARY CLOTHING
      • Usage of flame resistant military clothing
    • MOTOR RACING APPAREL
      • Developments in the design and construction of apparel for racing drivers
      • Testing and approval
      • Components of racing driver apparel
      • Importance of comfort
  • FLAMMABILITY REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR FLAME RESISTANT PERSONAL PROTECTIVE APPAREL
    • Table Standards for the certification of flame resistant personal protective apparel, 2019
  • KEY PRODUCERS OF FLAME RETARDANT FINISHES AND ADDITIVES AND THEIR PRODUCTS
    • ALEXIUM INTERNATIONAL GROUP (ALEXIUM): ALEXIFLAM FR AND ALEXIFLAM NF
    • CLARIANT: EXOLIT
    • HUNTSMAN TEXTILE EFFECTS: PYROVATEX CP NEW AND PYROVATEX CP-LF
    • LUBRIZOL: FLAME RETARDANT COATINGS AND ADDITIVES
    • SOLVAY: PROBAN
  • KEY PRODUCERS OF FLAME RESISTANT FIBRES AND YARNS AND THEIR PRODUCTS
    • DUPONT: NOMEX
    • EVONIK FIBRES: P84
      • Table Properties of P84 polyimide fibre
    • FILIDEA: PROTAL GREEN YARN
    • FIRE-DEX: TECGEN FIBRE
    • GUN EI CHEMICAL INDUSTRY: KYNOL FIBRES
      • Table Properties of Kynol novoloid fibres
    • KANEKA CORPORATION: KANECARON AND PROTEX
    • KERMEL: KERMEL
    • LENZING: LENZING FR
    • PBI PERFORMANCE PRODUCTS: PBI
    • RADICIGROUP: STARLIGHT FR YARN
    • TEIJIN ARAMID: TWARON AND TEIJINCONEX
    • TOYOBO: ZYLON
      • Table Properties of Zylon and other performance fibres
    • YANTAI TAYHO ADVANCED MATERIALS (TAYHO): NEWSTAR META-ARAMID FIBRE
  • KEY PRODUCERS OF FLAME RESISTANT FABRICS AND THEIR PRODUCTS
    • CARRINGTON TEXTILES: FLAME RETARDANT TREATED (FRT) FABRICS AND INHERENTLY FLAME RESISTANT FABRICS
    • DALETEC: METALSHIELD, RIGSHIELD AND SPARKSHIELD FABRICS
    • GLEN RAVEN: GLENGUARD FR AND GLENGUARD HI-VIS
    • MILLIKEN & COMPANY (MILLIKEN): RESQ AND WESTEX BRANDED FLAME RESISTANT FABRICS
      • ResQ
      • Tecgen71
      • Westex by Milliken and Westex fabrics
        • Table Westex by Milliken: flame resistant fabric product portfolio, 2019
    • MOUNT VERNON FR: FLAME RESISTANT FABRICS
    • NATIONAL SAFETY APPAREL: DRIFIRE
    • PBI PERFORMANCE PRODUCTS: FABRICS
    • POLARTEC: FLAME RESISTANT FABRICS WITH ADDITIONAL PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES
      • Table Polartec: flame resistant fabric product range, 2019
    • TENCATE PROTECTIVE FABRICS: FLAME RESISTANT FABRICS FOR WORKWEAR AND FIREFIGHTERS' APPAREL
      • Flame resistant fabrics for workwear
        • Table TenCate Protective Fabrics: flame resistant fabrics for workwear, 2019
      • Flame resistant fabrics for firefighters' apparel
        • Table TenCate Protective Fabrics: fabrics for firefighters' apparel, 2019
      • Flame resistant fabrics for military applications
    • W L GORE & ASSOCIATES: GORE PYRAD FABRIC
  • OUTLOOK

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