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Wi-Fi Evolutionary Roads Technologies, Applications and Markets

Wi-Fi Evolutionary Roads Technologies, Applications and Markets

This report addresses advanced developments in one of the most established and powerful wireless technology – Wi-Fi. Originated in the 20s century, this WLAN family belongs to a very small group of communications technologies that do not getting obsolete with time. The family continues to grow adding new members that bring WLAN to the forefront of today innovations in communications with multiple applications and pushing up the limits in performance.

The report goal is to analyze recently introduced or still in the development advanced Wi-Fi technologies, their applications and marketplace. It also surveys related industries.

In particular, it addresses such developments as:

1. 802.11n. The technology already produced a multi-billion market, improving such communications characteristics as the rate of transmission, coverage and other. It significantly increased the spectrum of Wi-Fi applications. In the recent years, 802.11n products dominated the Wi-Fi market; but this technology is gradually losing its leading position to newer members of the Wi-Fi family, such as:

2. 60 GHz Wi-Fi – 802.11ad. This is the Wi-Fi industry response on the users’ new requirements to support gigabits per second transmission rates over shorter ranges for such applications as a home/office distribution of HDVD and similar bandwidth-hunger applications. The report addresses specifics of 60 GHz channels and details WiGig/802.11ad technology. It also introduces NG 60 GHz 802.11ay standard.

3. White Spaces Wi-Fi (White Wi-Fi – 802.11af). This technology allows utilizing the property of sub-gigahertz transmission together with Wi-Fi advances. It utilizes unused windows of the TV spectrum and in a future will work with Cognitive Radios.

4. Sub - 6 GHz Wi-Fi – 802.11ac. This development allows gigabits per second speed and improves characteristics of IEEE 802.11n technology in the wide spectrum of characteristics.

5. Sub - 1 GHz Wi-Fi (excluding White Spaces) – 802.11ah.

6. IEEE standards in the development: P802.11ax, which stretch Wi-Fi characteristics beyond imaginable just a few years ago.

7. WAVE 802.11p – Dedicated Short Reach Communications 5.9 GHz– contribution of Wi-Fi to the development of the connected car.

8. Other.

The report details technical and marketing specifics of these types of WLAN technologies as well as surveys their industries.

The report was developed for technical and managerial personnel working on the Wi-Fi related projects to give them better understanding specifics of this family technologies and markets.

The report also includes the survey of 2016-2018 patents related to discussed technologies.


1.0 Introduction
1.1 Wi-Fi Alliance
1.2 Elements
1.3 Legacy Wi-Fi
1.3.1 802.11b
1.3.1.1 Characteristics
1.3.1.2 Physical Layer
1.3.1.3 MAC Layer
1.3.2 Family – First Members
1.3.2.1 802.11a
1.3.2.2 802.11g
1.4 Report Scope
1.5 Details
1.6 Research Methodology
1.7 Target Audience
2.0 IEEE 802.11n
2.1 Status
2.1.1 Environment
2.1.2 Draft v. 1.0
2.1.3 Draft v. 2.0
2.1.4 Further Developments and IEEE Approval
2.2 IEEE 802.11n and Wi-Fi Alliance
2.3 802.11n Technology Specifics
2.3.1 Advances
2.3.1.1 MIMO
2.3.1.2 Spatial Division Multiplexing
2.3.1.3 OFDM
2.3.1.4 Channel Bonding
2.3.1.5 Packet Aggregation
2.3.2 PHY and MAC
2.4 Major Features: Summary
2.4.1 Specifics
2.4.2 Channel Bandwidth
2.4.3 Backward Compatibility
2.4.4 Adaptation
2.4.5 Security
2.4.6 Enhancements
2.5 Benefits and Applications
2.5.1 Benefits
2.5.2 Applications
2.6 Market
2.6.1 Drivers
2.6.2 Market Forecast
2.6.2.1 Model Assumptions
2.6.2.2 Forecast
2.7 Industry
Aerohive (APs)
Aruba-HP (APs)
Buffalo (Router, AP)
Broadcom (Chipsets)
Cisco (AP)
D-Link (Routers, WUSB)
Marvell (Chipsets)
Motorola Solutions (Tools, AP)
Netgear (Router, AP)
Redpine Signals (Chipsets)
Qualcomm (Chipsets, AP)
Quantenna (chipsets)
TP-Link
TrendNet (Routers, AP, WUSB)
ZyXel (AP, Router, WUSB)
3.0 IEEE 802.11ac
3.1 General – Improving 802.11n Characteristics
3.2 Approval
3.3 Major Features
3.4 Major Benefits
3.5 Usage Models
3.6 PHY
3.7 MAC Improvements
3.8 Market Projections
3.9 Industry
Aerohive
Broadcom
Buffalo
D-Link
Huawei
Linksys
Marvell
Netgear
Qorvo
Quantenna
Redpine Signals
4.0 P802.11ax
4.1 Scope
4.2 Pre-standard Products
Aerohive
Asus
Broadcom
Intel
Marvell
Qualcomm
5.0 60 GHz Wi-Fi
5.1 Goal
5.2 General
5.3 60 GHz Band Spectrum Specifics
5.3.1 Frequencies Allocation
5.3.2 Oxygen Absorption
5.4 Antenna
5.5 Radiation Limitations at 60 GHz
5.6 Combined Effect
5.7 Progress in the Chip Technology
5.7.1 Challenges and Efforts
5.7.2 Modulation
5.8 Summary
5.9 60 GHz WLAN
5.9.1 Benefits and Issues
5.9.2 WiGig Alliance
5.9.2.1 Specification: 60 GHz Wi-Fi
5.9.2.2 WiGig Protocol Adaption Layer Specifications
5.9.2.3 The WiGig Bus Extension and WiGig Serial Extension Specification
5.9.2.4 The WiGig Display Extension Specification
5.9.2.5 Union
5.9.3 IEEE 802.11ad – 60 GHz Wi-Fi
5.9.3.1 Status
5.9.3.2 Coexistence
5.9.3.3 Scope
5.9.3.4 Channelization
5.9.3.5 PHY
5.9.3.6 MAC
5.9.3.7 Specifics
3.9.3.8 Use Cases
5.9.4 Industry
Blu Wireless
Intel
Lattice
Nitero (acquired by AMD in 2017)
Peraso
Qualcomm
Tensorcom
TP-Link
5.9.5 Market
5.9.5.1 Market Drivers
5.9.5.2 Estimate
5.10 P802.11ay – Next Generation 60 GHz Wi-Fi
5.10.1 Purpose and Schedule
5.10.2 Scope
6.0 White-Fi
6.1 White Spaces
6.1.1 General
6.1.2 Digital Revolution
6.1.3 Factors
6.1.4 FCC Activity
6.1.4.1 Super Wi-Fi Hot Spots
6.1.4.2 Role of Database
6.1.4.3 Specifics
6.1.4.3.1 TV Spectrum Utilization
6.1.4.4 TVBD - Details
6.1.4.5 First Network
6.1.4.6 Use Cases
6.2 Industry Activity – Dynamic Spectrum Alliance
6.3 IEEE Standards
6.3.1 IEEE 802.11af
6.3.1.1 General: Expectations – White-Fi
6.3.1.2 Differences
6.3.1.3 Benefits
6.3.1.4 Specifics
6.3.1.4.1 Interference
6.3.1.4.2 Main Principles
6.3.1.4.3 PHY
6.3.1.5 Architecture
6.3.1.6 Market
6.3.2 Vendors
Aviacomm
Carlson Wireless
7.0 802.11ah (Wi-Fi HaLow)
7.1 General
7.2 Goal and Schedule
7.3 Attributes
7.4 Use Cases
7.5 PHY
7.5.1 Bandwidth
7.5.2 Channelization
7.5.3 Transmission Modes and MIMO
7.6 MAC Layer
7.7 Summary
7.8 Vendors
Morse Micro
Newracom-Aviacomm
8.0 IEEE 802.11p
8.1 General
8.2 Objectives and Status
8.3 IEEE 802.11p – Major Features
8.4 ETSI ITS-G5 – Major Features
8.5 ASTM Contributions
8.6 Industry
Arada
Arinc (Rockwell Collins)
AutoTalks
Commsignia
Cohda Wireless
Kapsch
NXP
Qorvo
Redpine Signals
Unex
9.0 Wi-Fi Direct
9.1 Overview
9.2 Major Properties
10.0 Wi-Fi Aware
11.0 802.11az
12.0 Conclusions
Attachment I: 802.11ah – related Patents Survey (2016-2018)
Attachment II: 802.11ad – related Patents Survey (2016-2018)
Attachment III: 802.11ax – related Patents Survey (2016-2018)
Attachment IV: 802.11ay – related Patents Survey (2016-2018)
Figure 1: OSI and 802.11
Figure 2: 802.11n MAC
Figure 3: 802.11 Protocol Family MAC Frame Structure
Figure 4: Estimate: Global Sales – 802.11n Chipsets ($B)
Figure 5: Estimate: Global Sales – 802.11n Chipsets (Bill. Units)
Figure 6: 802.11n Market Geography
Figure 7: Channel Assignment (U.S)
Figure 8: MU-MIMO (DL)
Figure 9: 802.11ac Consumers AP Global Shipping
Figure 10: Global Shipping – 802.11ac Consumers MU-MIMO APs ($B)
Figure 11: 60 GHz Channels
Figure 12: 60 GHz Frequencies Plan
Figure 13: Signal Attenuation in 60 GHz Band
Figure 14: Absorption Details
Figure 15: Bands Features Comparison
Figure 16: 802.11ad MAC
Figure 17: Estimate: Global Sales of 802.1ad Chipsets (Bil. Units)
Figure 18: Estimate: Global Sales of 802.11ad Chipsets ($B)
Figure 19: 802.11ay – Proposed Timeline
Figure 20: TVWS Channels
Figure 21: 802.11af Network
Figure 22: Standardized Frequency Spectrum (sub-1 GHz)
Figure 23: 802.11ah – Channelization Plan in U.S.
Figure 24: Wave Protocol Suite
Figure 25: Applications and Channel Assignment
Table 1: 802.11b Major Characteristics
Table 2: Frequencies: 802.11b Channels (GHz)
Table 3: 802.11a Modulation
Table 4: 802.11g Characteristics
Table 5: 802.11 Standards Characteristics – Draft 1.0
Table 6: 802.11n PHY
Table 7: Comparison: 802.11 Family Members Transfer Rates
Table 8: 802.11n Enhancements
Table 9: 802.11n Benefits
Table 10: Comparative Characteristics – 802.11n and 802.11ac
Table 11: Characteristics
Table 12: Rates
Table 13: Usage Models
Table 14: Clients Scenarios
Table 15: PHY Features
Table 16: 60 GHz Short-reach Radio Standardization
Table 17: Directivity: Beam Width for 1-foot antennas
Table 18: 60 GHz Links Characteristics
Table 19: 802.11ad Major Features
Table 20: PHY
Table 21: Use Cases – 802.11ad
Table 22: TV Channels
Table 23: IEEE WS-related Standards
Table 24: 802.11ah Features Summary
Table 25: Modulation
Table 26: ETSI G5 Channels

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