“Transition to 5G Era” Technologies, Applications and Markets Assessment

“Transition to 5G Era” Technologies, Applications and Markets Assessment

This report addresses issues related to WICT transition to the 5G era. Though, currently, 4G networking penetrated only not more than 5%-7% of the market on a global scale, the industry is already actively looking for changes and additions necessary to enter the next WICT generation - 5G.

The report provides details on:

  • Major 5G requirements
  • Major characteristics of 5G systems
  • Industry activity
  • Time frame for 5G
  • Associated issues
  • Use cases.
The report shows that 5G communications will be using advances of 4G networking. The main goal of 5G – ubiquitous connectivity between people, machines, and devices based on smart utilization of limited amount of the spectrum – started to materialize already in our time. In connection with this process, the report details four forward-looking technologies. They are:
  • Cognitive Radio/Software Defined Radio (CR/SDR)
  • Massive MIMO
  • 60 GHz Wi-Fi
  • Visible Light Communications (VLC).
All these technologies have a common denominator:
  • Their commercialization is still limited
  • They will allow either economical use of the spectrum, or shift to spectrum windows that were not previously utilized
  • They all are considered by the industry as 5G technologies.
-It is expected that CR/SDR technologies will prevail in mobile communications, making mobile networking much more efficient and economical. Self-adjusted to surrounding spectrum conditions, CR/SDR-based BSs will support multi-standards communications between users equipped with SDR-based mobile units. Major CR/SDR issues, such as excessive power consumption, bulkiness and high cost are expected to be resolved or softened in the 5G era.

The report analyzes the status of the CR/SDR development, technological and marketing features and vendors’ profiles.

-Massive MIMO is a cornerstone technology in reaching the 5G target: thousand fold capacity increase in Base Stations by 2020. The massive MIMO concept is based on equipping base stations with hundreds or thousands of antenna elements, which, unlike conventional cellular technology, are operated in a coherent fashion. This can provide unprecedented array gains and a spatial resolution that allows for multi-user MIMO communication to tens or hundreds of user equipment per cell, while maintaining robustness to inter-user interference.

The report addresses the current status of the MIMO technology, their types and benefits.

-60 GHz WI-Fi (802.11d) – One of the directions to extend useable spectrum in the 5G era for mobile and other types of communications will be utilization of huge mmWAVE spectrum, which until now was practically closed to commercial communications. 802.11ad is one of the first international standards that utilize 7- 9 GHz of mmWAVE spectrum. Though still immature, the 802.11ad industry shows all signs of success. The report analyzes this technology, its specifics, applications and markets. It shows that this technology development supports 5G requirements that based on densification and shrinkage of cells.

-VLC is being in development for several years, but is still immature. 5G planners are considering this technology belonging to the 5G era – it opens unutilized previously for communications visible light frequencies bringing unlimited capabilities of so-called attocell BSs and multi-gigabit-per-second transmission. VLC is also combined with lighting and that makes it very cost-attractive. The report details this technology standardization, applications, specific features, industry and market.

The report is written for WICT planners, developers and a wide audience of technical and managerial staff of communications equipment vendors and users.

1.0 Introduction
1.1 General
1.2 Planning Wireless Technologies: Generations
1.3 Goal
1.4 Structure
1.5 Research Methodology
1.6 Target Audience
2.0 Contributors
2.1 General
2.2 5G Timetable (3GPP-ITU)
2.2.1 Leaders: 5G Activity
2.3 Activity Survey
2.3.1 METIS 2020
2.3.2 EU Other 5G Projects
2.3.3 Next Generation Mobile Networks (NGMN) Ltd
2.3.4 5G-PPP (5G Public Private Partnership)
2.3.5 4G Americas
2.3.6 GSMA
3.0 Current View: 5G Technologies
3.1 Look into the Future
3.2 Promising Directions
3.2.1 Requirements
3.2.2 Common Views
3.2.3 Future – Starts Today
3.3 Issues
3.4 Use Cases
3.4.1 General –Characteristics
3.4.2 Mobile Broadband
3.4.3 Automotive
3.4.4 Smart Society
4.0 Software Defined and Cognitive Radios
4.1 5G and CR/SDR
4.2 General
4.3 Purpose
4.4 Definition (WIF, FCC, ITU)
4.5 Versatility
4.6 Issues
4.7 Organizations and Regulations
4.7.1 Wireless Innovation Forum Position
4.7.2 FCC
4.7.3 Object Management Group - OMG
4.7.4 ETSI
4.8 Decisions
4.9 Features
4.10 Elements
4.11 Applications
4.11.1 Commercial
4.11.2 SDR and Military
4.12 STRS
4.13 SDR/CR: Applications Benefits
4.14 Impact
4.15 Differences
4.16 Market
4.16.1 Landscape
4.16.2 Components
4.16.3 Trends
4.16.4 Cost
4.16.5 Different Perspective
4.16.6 Drivers
4.16.7 Market Forecast
4.17 Industry
Aeronix (SDR Components)
AirNet Communications (SDR Base Stations)
Alcatel-Lucent (Base Station)
Analog Devices (Chipsets)
Array Systems Computing (DSP)
Cambridge Consultants (Phy, Base Station)
Carlson Wireless (Platform)
Cisco (802.11a)
DataSoft (SDR Design, SW)
Etherstack (Software)
Green Hills (Software)
Harris (SDR)
Huawei (Platform)
Intel-Infineon (Platform)
Mercury Systems (Toolsets)
Nokia Siemens Networks (Base Station)
PrismTech (SDR Development Environment)
Rockwell Collins (Radios)
Spectrum Signal Processing (Platforms)
Thales (Radio)
TI (Chips)
Wind River (Software)
xG Technology (Radio)
ZTE (Platforms)
5.0 MIMO and 5G
5.1 History
5.2 Concept: MIMO in Wireless Communications
5.2.1 Major Techniques
5.3 Types of MIMO
5.4 5G – MIMO Specifics
5.4.1 MMIMO – Massive MIMO
5.5 MIMO Benefits
6.0 Exploring mmWAVE – 802.11ad
6.1 5G and 802.11ad
6.1.1 5G Spectrum Extension
6.1.2 5G - Densification
6.2 Goal
6.3 General
6.4 60 GHz Band Spectrum Specifics
6.4.1 Frequencies Allocation
6.4.2 Oxygen Absorption
6.5 Antenna
6.6 Radiation Limiting at 60 GHz
6.7 Combined Effect
6.8 Progress in the Chip Technology
6.8.1 Challenges and Efforts
6.8.2 Modulation
6.8.3 Specifics
6.9 Summary
6.10 Prospectus: 60 GHz Wi-Fi
6.10.1 Benefits and Issues
6.10.2 WiGig Alliance
6.10.3 IEEE 802.11ad – 60 GHz Wi-Fi
6.11 Industry
Beam Networks
Blu Wireless
Wilocity (acquired by Qualcomm in 2014)
6.12 Market Considerations
6.12.1 Market Drivers
6.12.2 Usage Models
6.12.3 Preliminary Market Estimate
7.0 Visible Light Communications – 5G Technology
7.1 General
7.1.1 Drivers
7.1.2 Industry Activity
7.2 VLC Standards Development
7.2.1 The IEEE 802.15.7
7.2.2 Jeita (Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association)
7.2.3 Visible Light Communications Consortium (VLCC)
7.2.4 Li-Fi Consortium
7.3 Details
7.3.1 Communications Channel
7.3.2 Transmitter
7.3.3 Receiver
7.3.4 Major Characteristics
7.3.5 Major Challenges
7.4 Companies and Organizations
Nakagawa Laboratories
Omega Project
Outstanding Technology
Supreme Architecture
7.5 Major Applications
7.5.1 ITS
7.5.2 Optical Wireless LAN
7.5.3 Healthcare
7.5.4 Localization
7.5.5 City Wide Wireless Network
7.5.6 Summary
7.6 5G View
7.6.1 Cell Structures
7.7 Market
8.0 Conclusions
Figure 1: Mobile Generations
Figure 2: Time – Mobile Generations
Figure 3: ITU-R Schedule for IMT-2020
Figure 4: 3GPP – Tentative Timeline – 5G Standardization
Figure 5: Current View
Figure 6: Spectrum
Figure 7: Technologies Directions
Figure 8: Use Cases-General
Figure 9: Use Cases – Rate of Transmission and Latency
Figure 10: SDR and OSI Reference Model
Figure 11: SDR - Structure
Figure 12: TAM: Global SDR Sales ($B)
Figure 13: SDR Market Geography (2015)
Figure 14: Major Antenna Configurations
Figure 15: MIMO Concept (2x2)
Figure 16: Illustration - Beamforming
Figure 17: MU-MIMO – Downlink
Figure 18: SU-MIMO and MU-MIMO
Figure 19: MMIMO
Figure 20: Exploring IMT Spectrum
Figure 21: 60 GHz Channels
Figure 22: 60 GHz Frequencies Plan
Figure 23: Spectrum Details
Figure 24: Signal Attenuation in 60 GHz Band
Figure 25: Absorption Details
Figure 26: Bands Features Comparison
Figure 27: Planes
Figure 28: Usage Cases
Figure 29: 802.11ad MAC
Figure 30: Summary
Figure 31: TAM: 802.11ad Chipsets Sales – Global (Bil. Units)
Figure 32: TAM: 802.11ad Chipsets Global Sales ($B)
Figure 33: VLC – Comparison
Figure 34: Illustration-VLC Channel
Figure 35: VLC Market Categories
Figure 36: TAM: Global - VLC Technology ($B)
Table 1: Major Characteristics
Table 2: 5G Use Case Families
Table 3: Tiers
Table 4: CR Features
Table 5: ETSI Documents
Table 6: SDR Market Drivers
Table 7: SDR Market Segments (Military vs. Commercial)
Table 8: MIMO – 3GPP Releases
Table 9: MIMO Benefits
Table 10: 60 GHz Radio Standardization
Table 11: Directivity
Table 12: 60 GHz Links Characteristics
Table 13: 802.11ad Major Features
Table 14: 60 GHz Wi-Fi Usage Cases
Table 15: Use Cases
Table 16: Devices and Characteristics
Table 17: Frequency Plan
Table 18: VLC Properties
Table 19: VLC, IR and RF Communications ITS Applications Comparison
Table 20: Locations Technologies-VLC Place

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