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“Transition to 5G Communications” Technologies, Applications and Markets Assessment

“Transition to 5G Communications” Technologies, Applications and Markets Assessment

The goal of this report is to address several current technologies (as well as their marketplaces) that, according to the ITU classifications, are transitioning to the 5G communications era.

Though, based on the industry insiders statistics, in 2017 market share of 4G networks was not more than 7%-10% on the global scale, the industry is seriously considering the 5G introduction already in 2020 (and some providers and vendors claim even earlier introduction in 2018-2019).

This new radio access generation will be built on the existing infrastructure, which will be modernized and expanded with new technologies.

The 5G wireless communication system will be a converged system with multiple radio access technologies integrated together. It will be able to support a wide range of applications and services to comprehensively satisfy the requirements of the information society by the year 2020 and beyond. From the technology perspective, 5G will be the continuous enhancement and evolution of the present radio access technologies, and also the development of novel radio access technologies to meet the increasing demand of future. 5G can be characterized as data, connectivity and user experience.

There are two main views on 5G that exist today, which are frequently mixed together to form the basis of the 5G definition:

View 1 – The hyper-connected vision: In this view, 5G is seen as a blend of existing technologies (2G, 3G, 4G, Wi-Fi and others) that can deliver greater coverage and availability, higher network density in terms of cells and devices, and the ability to provide the connectivity that enables machine-to-machine (M2M) services and the Internet of Things (IoT).

View 2 – Next-generation radio access technology: This perspective outlines 5G in ‘generational’ terms, setting specific targets that new radio interfaces must meet in terms of data rates (faster than 1Gbps downlink) and latency (less than 1ms delay).

The first view is connected with a gradual transition of 3G/4G (and other) technologies to the 5G era with appropriate enhancements and extensions. Some of such technologies are the subject of this report analysis. Particular, the following technologies, their markets, industries and applications are addressed in connection with their transition to 5G (they are being bundled under the title of 5G despite of the fact that they are already being brought to market by vendors and deployed by operators):

  • CR/SDR – Cognitive Radio/Software Defined Radio
  • Small Cells
  • mmWave Radio
  • MIMO
  • Visible Light Communications.
The report also addresses general requirements to 5G networking and surveys current 5G standardization activities.

The report intends to a wide audience of technical and managerial staff involved in the development of advanced wireless communications.


1.0 Introduction
1.1 General - Basis
1.2 Planning Wireless Technologies: Generations
1.3 Goal
1.4 Structure
1.5 Research Methodology
1.6 Target Audience
2.0 Efforts
2.1 Organizations
2.2 5G Timetable (3GPP-ITU)
2.2.1 5G RAN Development
2.2.2.1 Acceleration
2.2.2.2 Leaders: 5G Activity
2.3 Activity Survey
2.3.1 EU
2.3.1.1 METIS 2020
2.3.1.2 5G PPP
2.3.2 Next Generation Mobile Networks (NGMN) Ltd
2.3.2.1 NGMN and 5GAA
2.3.2.2 5G White Paper
2.3.3 5G Americas
2.3.4 GSMA
2.3.5 ITU
3.0 Current Developments: 5G Technologies
3.1 Characteristics
3.2 Promising Directions
3.2.1 Requirements
3.2.2 Common Views
3.2.2.1 Spectrum
3.2.3 Future – Starts Today
3.3 Issues
3.4 Use Cases
3.4.1 General –Characteristics
3.4.2 Mobile Broadband
3.4.3 Automotive
3.4.4 Smart Society
4.0 Software Defined and Cognitive Radios -5G
4.1 Spectrum Utilization
4.2 Common Goal
4.3 Needs
4.4 Role
4.5 Purpose
4.6 Definition (WIF, FCC, ITU)
4.6.1 CR Types
4.7 Versatility
4.8 Organizations and Regulations
4.8.1 Wireless Innovation Forum Position
4.8.1.1 SDR Classifications
4.8.1.2 CR Features
4.8.2 FCC
4.8.2.1 Equipment Type
4.8.2.2 Process
4.8.2.3 Clarifications
4.8.2.4 Application Guide
4.8.3 Object Management Group - OMG
4.8.4 ETSI
4.9 Decisions
4.10 CR/SDR Features
4.11 Elements
4.12 Commercial Use Cases
4.13 SDR in Military
4.13.1 SCA
4.14 CR/SDR: Applications Benefits
4.15 Impact
4.16 Differences
4.17 Market
4.17.1 Landscape
4.17.2 Components
4.17.3 Trends
4.17.4 Cost
4.17.5 Different Perspective
4.17.6 Drivers
4.17.7 Market Forecast
4.17.7.1 Model Assumptions
4.17.7.2 Estimate
4.18 Industry
Aeronix (SDR Components)
AirNet Communications (SDR Base Stations)
Analog Devices (Chipsets)
Carlson Wireless (Platform)
Cisco (Radio)
CRT (CR SW)
DataSoft (SDR Design, SW)
Etherstack (Software)
Green Hills (Software)
Harris (SDR)
Huawei (Platform)
Mercury Systems (Toolsets)
NI (mmWave CR/SDR)
Nokia (Base Station)
Nutaq
PrismTech (SDR Development Environment)
Rockwell Collins (Radios)
SELEX ES (A Leonardo Company)
Spectrum Signal Processing (Platforms)
Thales (Radio)
TI (Chips)
Wind River (Software)
xG Technology (Radio)
ZTE (Platforms)
4.19 5G Needs CR/SDR
5.0 MIMO and 5G Communications
5.1 History
5.2 Concept: MIMO in Wireless Communications
5.2.1 Major Techniques
5.3 Types of MIMO
5.4 5G – MIMO Specifics
5.4.1 MMIMO Definition
5.4.2 MMIMO Properties
5.5 MIMO Benefits
5.6 Industry
Blue Danube
Beecube
Nutaq
ZTE
6.0 mmWAVE Wi-Fi
6.1 Goal
6.2 General
6.3 60 GHz Band Spectrum Specifics
6.3.1 Frequencies Allocation
6.3.1.1 FCC 60 GHz Band Extension
6.3.2 Oxygen Absorption
6.4 Antenna
6.5 Radiation Limiting at 60 GHz
6.6 Combined Effect
6.7 Progress in the Chip Technology
6.7.1 Challenges and Efforts
6.7.2 Modulation
6.7.3 Specifics
6.7.3.1 Indoor Behavior
6.8 Summary
6.9 Prospectus: 60 GHz Wi-Fi
6.9.1 Benefits and Issues
6.9.2 WiGig Alliance
6.9.2.1 Use Cases
6.9.2.2 Union
6.9.3 IEEE 802.11ad – 60 GHz Wi-Fi
6.9.3.1 5G and 802.11ad
6.9.3.1.1 5G Spectrum Extension
6.9.3.2 Status
6.9.3.3 Coexistence
6.9.3.4 Scope
6.9.3.5 Channelization
6.9.3.6 PHY
6.9.3.7 MAC
6.9.3.8 Specification Features
6.9.3.9 Summary
6.10 Industry
Blu Wireless
Intel
Lattice
Nitero (acquired by AMD in 2017)
Qualcomm
Samsung
Tensorcom
TP-Link
6.11 Market Considerations
6.11.1 Market Drivers
6.11.2 Usage Models
6.11.3 Market Estimate
6.12 IEEE P802.11ay
6.12.1 Purpose and Schedule
6.12.2 Scope
7.0 Visible Light Communications – 5G Technology
7.1 General
7.1.1 Drivers
7.1.2 Industry Activity
7.1.2.1 UC-Light Center
7.1.2.2 Europe
7.2 VLC Standards Development
7.2.1 The IEEE 802.15.7 Standard
7.2.1.1 Considerations
7.2.1.2 Project
7.2.1.2.1 Coexistence
7.2.1.2.2 Essence
7.2.1.2.3 Base
7.2.1.2.4 Use Cases
7.2.1.2.5 Physical Layer
7.2.1.2.5.1 General
7.2.1.2.5.2 Responsibilities
7.2.1.2.5.3 Types
7.2.1.2.5.4 Error Protection
7.2.1.2.5.5 Rates
7.2.1.2.5.6 Frequency Plan
7.2.1.2.5.7 PHY Services
7.2.1.2.5.8. Regulations
7.2.1.2.6 MAC Layer
7.2.1.2.6.1 Responsibilities
7.2.1.2.6.2 Functionalities
7.2.1.2.6.3 Channel Access
7.2.1.2.7 Security
7.2.2 IEEE802.15.7r
7.2.3 IEEE 802.15.13 Standard
7.2.4 VLCA
7.2.4.1 General
7.2.5 Jeita
7.2.6 Li-Fi Consortium
7.2.6.1 Optical Mobility Technology
7.2.6.2 Li-Fi Network
7.3 VLC Channel Specifics
7.3.1 General
7.3.2 Communications Channel Structure
7.3.3 Transmitter
7.3.4 Receiver
7.3.4.1 Image Sensors
7.3.4.2 LED as Receiver
7.3.5 Major Characteristics
7.3.5.1 General
7.3.5.2 Modulation
7.3.5.3 VLC Channel: Characteristics Summary
7.3.5.4 Emerging Areas
7.3.5.5 Limiting Factors
7.3.6 Major Challenges
7.4 Companies and Organizations
Casio
Firefly
Fraunhofer IPMS
LVX
LightBee
Nakagawa Laboratories
NEC
Oledcomm
Outstanding Technology
PureVLC-PureLi-Fi
Qualcomm
SmartSignals
Supreme Architecture
TCL/Sunpartner
7.5 Market
7.6 5G View
7.6.1 Attocell
7.6.2 Cell Structures
7.7 Major Applications
7.7.1 Intelligent Transportation Systems
7.7.1.1 Abilities
7.7.1.2 Major Areas
7.7.2 Optical Wireless LAN
7.7.3 Healthcare
7.7.4 Localization
7.7.5 City Wide Wireless Network
7.7.6 Summary
8.0 5G and Small Cells Development
8.1 Rational
8.2 Nomenclature
8.2.1 Group
8.3 Background
8.4 Applications
8.4.1 Indoor Use Cases
8.4.2 Outdoor Use Cases
8.4.3 Public Safety Communications
8.4.4 Summary
8.5 Benefits and Issues
8.6 Small Cell Market
8.6.1 Market Geography
8.6.2 Estimate
8.7 Standardization
8.7.1 Organizations
8.7.1.1 Small Cell Forum
8.7.1.2 3GPP
8.7.1.2.1 First Standard
8.7.1.2.2 Interfaces – 3GPP
8.7.1.2.3 3GPP Rel.12 and SCs
8.7.1.3 Other
8.8 Small Cell Industry
Airspan
AirHop Communications
Alpha Networks
Argela
Broadcom (acquired by Avago in 2015)
BTI Wireless
Cavium
Cisco
CommScope
Contela
Ericsson
Fujitsu
Huawei
ip.access
Intel
Gilat
Juni
NEC
Nokia
Qualcomm
Radisys
Samsung
Spider Cloud (Corning)
Tektelic
TI
Xilinx
ZTE
9.0 Conclusions
Figure 1: Mobile Technologies Generations
Figure 2: Time – Mobile Generations/Rates
Figure 3: OSI Layers – 4G and 5G
Figure 4: Global Mobile Data Traffic
Figure 5: ITU-R Schedule for IMT-2020
Figure 6: 3GPP – Tentative Timeline – 5G Standardization
Figure 7: Current View: Transition
Figure 8: 5G Spectrum
Figure 9: 5G Technologies Directions
Figure 10: 5G Use Cases-General Illustration
Figure 11: Use Cases – Rate of Transmission and Latency
Figure 12: SDR and OSI Reference Model
Figure 13: SDR - Structure
Figure 14: Estimate: Global Sales - SDR-based Equipment ($B)
Figure 15: SDR Market Geography (2018)
Figure 16: Major Antennas Configurations
Figure 17: MIMO Concept (2x2)
Figure 18: Illustration - Beamforming
Figure 19: MU-MIMO – Downlink
Figure 20: SU-MIMO and MU-MIMO
Figure 21: MMIMO
Figure 22: Exploring IMT Spectrum
Figure 23: 60 GHz Network Scenarios
Figure 24: 60 GHz Frequencies Plan
Figure 25: 60 GHz Spectrum Details
Figure 26: Signal Attenuation in 60 GHz Band
Figure 27: Absorption Details – 60 GHz Signal
Figure 28: Bands Features Comparison
Figure 29: Wi/Gig Protocols/Planes
Figure 30: Use Cases – WiGig Alliance
Figure 31: 802.11ad MAC Structure
Figure 32: Summary: 802.11ad Properties
Figure 33: Estimate: 802.11ad Chipsets Sales – Global (Bil. Units)
Figure 34: Estimate: 802.11ad Chipsets Global Sales ($B)
Figure 35: 802.11ay – Proposed Timeline
Figure 36: VLC – Comparison
Figure 37: Illustration-VLC Channel
Figure 38: VLC Market Categories
Figure 39: Estimate: VLC Market – Global ($B)
Figure 40: VLC Market Geography (2018)
Figure 41: mmWave Advantages
Figure 42: Macro vs Small BS – Shipped (Ratio)
Figure 43: BS: Characteristics and Classification
Figure 44: BS Types and Parameters
Figure 45: SC Use Cases
Figure 46: Estimate: SC Global Shipments (Mil. Units)
Figure 47: Estimate: Global SC Shipments ($B)
Figure 48: 3GPP Rel. 12 SC Enhancements
Figure 49: Scenario 1
Figure 50: Scenario 2
Table 1: Major Characteristics – 5G Networks
Table 2: 5G Use Case Families
Table 3: SDR Tiers
Table 4: CR Features
Table 5: ETSI Documents
Table 6: SDR Market Drivers
Table 7: SDR Market Segments (Military vs. Commercial)
Table 8: MIMO – 3GPP Releases
Table 9: MIMO Benefits
Table 10: 60 GHz Radio Standardization
Table 11: Antenna Directivity
Table 12: 60 GHz Links Characteristics
Table 13: 802.11ad Major Features
Table 14: 60 GHz Wi-Fi Usage Cases
Table 15: Use Cases – 802.15.7
Table 16: Devices and Characteristics – 802.15.7
Table 17: Frequency Plan – 802.15.7
Table 18: VLC Properties
Table 19: VLC, IR and RF Communications ITS Applications Comparison
Table 20: Locations Technologies-VLC Place

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