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Spectrum - Adaptive Wireless Communications

Spectrum - Adaptive Wireless Communications

Wireless communications is under stress due to a rapid growth of traffic volume and limited available spectrum. This tendency necessitates rational utilization of this frequency spectrum, which became the most expensive entity in wireless networking. Meanwhile, multiple industry studies show that available licensed frequency spectrum is extremely underutilized. The relatively low utilization of the licensed spectrum suggests that spectrum scarcity, as perceived today, is largely due to inefficient fixed frequency allocations rather than any physical shortage of spectrum.

The report analyzes modern communications technologies based on Cognitive Radio/Software Defined Radio (CR/SDR) that allow adaptive use of the spectrum in accordance with instantaneous space/time coordinates. The CR technology is heavily dependent upon the SDR technology as radio needs to be configurable according to the prevailing spectrum environment.

Current technologies for dynamic spectrum access largely rely on database-managed approaches. Standards are also emerging that incorporate cognitive elements, where devices can adapt their operating parameters in conjunction with a centralized database. Autonomous cognitive capabilities through sensing techniques at the device level would, where feasible, offer far greater flexibility for future sharing, These emerging techniques could be used within a number of bands across the radio spectrum to deliver different types of wireless service, and could play a role in making more efficient use of spectrum by improving channel throughput within shared operating environments.

Related to CR/SDR standards and markets are subjects of this report research. As an example, one of the first commercial CR/SDR application – TV White Space (TVWS) communications is being discussed. The survey of multiple vendors’ portfolios was conducted.

1. The CR/SDR technologies, applications, the industry and markets analyses have been performed to show roots of TVWS communications.

2. TVWS communications origin, properties, regulations, standards and the industry have been analyzed.

The report concludes that development of CR/SDR for WS and particular TVWS communications opens a door to utilization previously unused windows of wireless spectrum saving valuable resources and contributing into growth of the economy.

This report, in particular, provides:


  • An overview of the regulatory climate for CR/SDR in major developed countries.
  • The analysis of the CR/SDR standardization process
  • An overview CR/SDR technologies specifics
  • The analysis of CR/SDR applications, including military, Public Safety Communications, and commercial
  • The analysis of market drivers from perspective of various industry and users groups
  • Analyses of CR/SDR global market trends, with projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs): 2015- 2019.
  • Market intelligence on SDR based solutions in the commercial, government, and military industry segments.
  • Market geographical specifics
  • Estimate of major market components
  • Information on key suppliers of CR/SDR products and their profiles.
  • Overview of TVWS developmental cycles
  • Analysis of the regulatory climate: FCC, Ofcom, other
  • Use cases
  • Standardization: IEEE, ETSI, ECMA, IETF
  • Survey of the industry
  • Marketing considerations
Patents Survey-
  • WS communication - related patents identified and information provided (limited to patents approved in 2015).
  • CR - related patents identified and information provided (limited to patents approved in 2015).
The report is written for a wide audience of researches, engineers and managers that are involved in the development and utilization of cognitive radios and related technologies.

1.0 Introduction
1.1 Traffic Growth
1.2 Price of Spectrum
1.3 Methods
1.4 Working Together
1.5 Scope
1.6 Research Methodology
1.7 Target Audience
2.0 Synergy: Software Defined and Cognitive Radios
2.1 General
2.2 Purpose
2.3 Definitions (WIF, FCC, ITU)
2.3.1 SDR Multi-tiers: SDR
2.3.2 Cognitive Radio Details
2.4 Regulations
2.4.1 FCC Equipment Type Process Application Guide First Approval
2.4.2 ITU
2.4.3 Ofcom
2.5 Standardization Organizations Efforts
2.5.1 ITU-R
2.5.2 ETSI Major Points
2.5.3 3GPP
2.5.4 IEEE
2.5.5 NASA
2.6 Design Issues
2.7 Properties
2.7.1 Layers
2.7.2 Features: Details Versatility
2.7.3 Issues
2.8 SDR Implementations
2.9 Applications
2.9.1 Commercial
2.9.2 SDR/CR in Military SCA ESSOR: European Secure SOftware Defined Radio
2.9.3 Public Safety Communications (PSC)
2.10 SDR/CR: Benefits
2.11 Impact - CR
2.11.1 Geographical Differences
2.12 Market
2.12.1 Landscape Factors
2.12.2 Cost
2.12.3 Different Perspective
2.12.4 Market Drivers-Summary
2.12.5 Market Forecast Model Assumptions Estimate Segments Geography Components
2.13 Industry
Aeronix (SDR Components)
Adapt4 (CR)
AirNet Communications (SDR Base Stations)
AirSpan (BS)
Airbus DS
Alcatel-Lucent (Base Stations)
Analog Devises (Chipsets)
Cambridge Consultants (PHY, Base Station)
Carlson Wireless (Platform)
Coherent Logix (SDR)
General Dynamics (SDR)
DataSoft (SDR Design, SW)
Datron World Communications (SDR)
Digital Receiver Technology (Radio Modules)
Ettus Research (Platform)
Etherstack (Software)
Ericsson (BS)
Green Hills (Software)
Harris (SDR)
Huawei (Platform)
Intel (Platform)
Lockheed Martin (SDR)
Lyrtech (DSP and FPGA development solutions)
Motorola Solutions (BS)
Nokia Siemens Networks (Base Station)
Northrup Grumman
Objective Interface Systems (Software)
Octasic (SDR)
PrismTech (SDR Development Environment)
Redline Communications (Platform)
Rockwell Collins (Radios)
Saankhya Labs (Chipset)
Spectrum Signal Processing (Platforms)
Thales (Radio)
TI (Chips)
Vanu (Base Stations)
Xilinx (Chips, SDR Development Kit)
xG Technology (CR)
ZTE (Platforms)
2.14 CR/SDR Commercial Application: White Spaces Communications
2.14.1 General
2.14.2 Definition: TVWS
2.14.3 Roots
2.14.4 FCC Activity Decision Devices Clarifications Sensing Specifics Protection Frequencies TVWS Database (U.S.) Related FCC Decisions
2.14.5 Japan
2.14.6 Europe and Other Countries
2.14.7 Ecosystem and Use Cases
2.14.8 WS Communications Standardization WS Alliance Wi-FAR First TVWS Chipset WSAConnect Wireless Innovation Forum (WIF) Cognitive Radio: WS-related IEEE Standards IEEE 802.11af – 2013 General: Expectations – Wi-Fi on Steroids Differences Benefits Specifics Building Blocks PHY Prototyping and Trials - 2015 Summary IEEE 802.22 – 2011 General WG 802.22 and FCC Overview Physical Layer – Major Characteristics Cognitive Functions and MAC IEEE 802.22.1 IEEE 802.22.2 IEEE 802.22a-2014 P802.22b P802.22.3 Summary-IEEE802.22 IEEE 802.19 WG IEEE 802.19.1-2014 IEEE 802.15.4m-2014 IEEE SCC 41 – DySpan SCC – WS Related IEEE 1900.4 P1900.7 CogNeA and ECMA Activity CogNeA ECMA-392-2011 Development IETF-PAWS ETSI
2.15 Industry
Carlson Wireless
KTS Wireless
Metric Systems
Neul (acquired by Huawei in 2014)
Redline Communications
Shared Spectrum Company
Saankhya Labs
Spectrum Bridge
2.16 Market
2.17 Trials and Projects
3.0 Conclusions
ATTACHMENT I: Detection and Incumbent Protection - TVWS
ATTACHMENT II: WS-related Patents
ATTACHMENT III: CR-related Patents
Figure 1: Global: Mobile Data Traffic Growth (Petabytes/Month)
Figure 2: Estimate: Average Mobile Subscriber Use of Data (GB/Month)
Figure 3: Estimate: Number of M2M Connections – Global (B)
Figure 4: Layers
Figure 5: Conceptual View
Figure 6: Reconfigurable BS
Figure 7: ETSI SDR: Functional Architecture
Figure 8: SDR and OSI Reference Model
Figure 9: CR – Cell Network
Figure 10: PSC Specifics
Figure 11: TAM: Global Sales: SDR-based Equipment ($B)
Figure 12: SDR/CR Market Segments
Figure 13: SDR/CR Market Geography (2015)
Figure 14: Spectrum Usage Measurements (from NSF Spectrum Occupancy Measurements
Figure 15: TVWS Channels: U.S.
Figure 16: UK TVWS- Spectrum
Figure 17: Device Interoperability Specification Items
Figure 18: Comparison - WRANs
Figure 19: Architecture: 802.19.1
Figure 20: TVWS Market
Table 1: SDR Tiers
Table 2: CR Features
Table 3: U.S. – PSC Users
Table 4: SDR Market Drivers
Table 5: TV Channels: WS Frequencies Allowed by FCC
Table 6: TV Channels and Fixed TVBDs: U.S.
Table 7: Database Status (2015)
Table 8: IEEE WS-related Standards: Samples
Table 9: Use Cases – P802.22b
Table 10: Major Characteristics: IEEE 802.22

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