Small Cells Networking and Mobile Backhaul

Small Cells Networking and Mobile Backhaul

Practel is following the small cells technologies development from the beginning of their commercialization and contributed several reports on this subject.

This particular report updates previous studies and adds some new information. The report presents in details and in easily understandable terms independent, unbiased analysis, which reflects progress in small cells and their backhauls solutions. Through vendors’ interviews and the analysis of other multiple data sources, the report provides latest, accurate marketing and technological assessment.

In particular, the report provides the analysis of small cells technologies, concentrating on their advantages, issues, varieties and specifics. Major applications are analyzed and standards developments are emphasized. Based on the in-depth industry analysis, which included the analysis of multiple studies and interviews with vendors, market prognoses (2017-2021) are presented. The survey of more than thirty-five vendors and their portfolios is also provided. It is shown that the 4G era (and later, 5G era) will concentrates on building HetNets in which small cells play an important role.

The report stresses that the small cells backhaul solution may prove or brake the small cell business case. Specifics of small cells backhauls, their varieties and differences from macro cells backhauls are analyzed in details. The need for standardization is emphasized. The study of industry trends, interviews with vendors and the analysis of publically available statistical data helped to perform the marketing analysis. The survey of vendors (about 30 manufacturers of small cells backhaul equipment) reflects this industry specifics. There is a range of use cases for open access small cells, from targeted demand hotspots in city centers, through generalized capacity uplift, to serving not-spots in remote rural areas. In each case the emphasis on backhaul requirements shifts, and aspects that are critical to one type of deployment can be relaxed in others. Solutions with different characteristics will address the needs of different types of small cells backhaul in different areas.

Attachments contain the in-depth analysis of promising small cells backhaul microwave solutions:
1. 60 GHz technologies (V-band). Both Ethernet radio and 802.11ad solutions are addressed. Marketing and technical specifics are described in details. The survey of vendors is also provided. The scope of 802.11ay standard- to- be published is also outlined.
2. 802.11ac. The technology allows gigabits throughput, range and other characteristics that satisfy small cell backhaul requirements. Authors analyzed specifics of 802.11ac as they relate to small cell backhaul application; they also analyzed the market and vendors’ portfolios.
3. E-band radio. Popularity of this radio for discussed applications is growing; and this trend will be even more pronounced when we are approaching the 5G era.
4. Attachment also reflects the survey of small cell and their backhaul - related patents (2015-2017).

Microwave backhauls for SCs are prevailing now and it is expected that they will keep this leadership position in future.

The report is written for a wide audience of telecommunications specialists that deal with complicated choices in mobile networking to support business cases.

1.0 Introduction
1.1 General
1.2 Current Situation and Role of Small Cells
1.3 SC Backhaul
1.4 Scope
1.5 Report Structure
1.6 Research Methodology
1.7 Target Audience
2.0 Stages
2.1 4G Specifics
2.1.1 Traffic Volumes and SC
2.1.2 From 3G to 4G
2.1.3 4G Distinguished Features HetNet
2.2 5G Specifics
2.2.1 5G Timetable (3GPP-ITU) and SCs
2.2.2 5G Advances
2.3 Process
3.0 Small Cells Development
3.1 Rational
3.2 Nomenclature
3.2.1 Group
3.3 Background
3.4 Applications
3.4.1 Indoor Use Cases
3.4.2 Outdoor Use Cases
3.4.3 Public Safety Communications
3.4.4 Summary
3.5 Benefits and Issues
3.6 Small Cell Market
3.6.1 Market Geography
3.6.2 Estimate
3.7 Standardization
3.7.1 Organizations
3.7.2 Interfaces – 3GPP
3.7.3 First Standard
3.7.4 3GPP Rel.12 and SCs
3.8 Small Cell Industry
AirHop Communications
Alpha Networks
Broadcom (acquired by Avago in 2015)
BTI Wireless
Spider Cloud
4.0 Small Cell Backhaul
4.1 General
4.1.1 Classifications
4.2 Specifics
4.2.1 Change
4.2.2 Differences
4.3 Parameters
4.3.1 Factors
4.3.2 Planning
4.4 Need for Standardization
4.5 Market Characteristics
4.5.1 Components
4.5.2 TCO Factor
4.6 Small Cell Backhaul Industry
Actelis (wireline)
Airspan (integrated wireless backhaul – 802.11ac - NLOS)
Bluwan (42 GHz)
BLiNQ (sub – 6 GHz)
Cambium (sub-6 GHz)
Cambridge Broadband (Microwave Backhaul)
CCS (28 GHz and up)
Ceragon (sub-6 GHz and other)
DragonWave (microwave)
Exalt (Microwave)
Intracom (Microwave)
Genesis (wireline)
MAX4G (Microwave)
Polewall (FSO)
Radwin (sub-6 GHz)
Tarana (LoS, NLoS 3 GHz)
Trango System
4.7 Summary
5.0 Conclusions
Attachment A: 60 GHz Radio – SC Backhaul
A.1 General
A.2 60 GHz Radio – Point-to-Point
A.2.1 Spectrum Specifics
A.2.2 Oxygen Absorption
A.2.3 Antenna Focus
A.2.4 Combined Effects
A.2.5 Availability
A.2.6 Progress in Chip Technology for mmWave Spectrum
A.2.6.1 Modulation and Duplexing
A.1.6.2 Antenna
A. Indoor Behavior
A. Outdoor Behavior – FCC Modifications
A.2.7 Summary
A.2.8 60 GHz Radio Developments and Market
A.2.8.1 Synopsis
A.2.8.2 Market Estimate
A. General
A. Drivers
A. Forecast
A.2.9 60 GHz Radio – SC Backhaul Choice
A.2.10 Industry
Plasma Antennas
A.3 60 GHz Wi-Fi – 802.11ad
A.3.1 Advanced Wi-Fi: Benefits and Issues
A.3.2 WiGig Alliance
A.3.2.1 Union
A.3.3 IEEE 802.11ad – 60 GHz Wi-Fi
A.3.3.1 Status
A.3.3.2 Coexistence
A.3.3.3 Scope
A. Channelization
A. Specifics
A. Summary
A. 802.11ad and SC Backhaul
A.3.3.4 Industry
Analog Devices
Qualcomm Atheros
Additional Information
A.3.3.5 Certification
A.3.3.6 Market
A. Market Drivers
A. Usage Models
A. Estimate
A.4 802.11ay
Attachment B: 802.11ac
B.1 Approval
B.2 General – Improving 802.11n Characteristics
B.3 Major Features
B.4 Major Benefits
B4.1 Waves
B.5 Usage Models
B.6 Projections
B.7 Industry
Airspan Networks
Attachment C: E-band Radio - SC Backhaul Solution
C.1 Benefits
C1.1 Typical Characteristics
C.2 Market
C.3 Vendors
E-band Communications
Figure 1: Mobile Data Traffic Growth – Global (Petabytes/Month)
Figure 2: ITU-R Schedule for IMT-2020 Development
Figure 3: 3GPP – Tentative Timeline – 5G Standardization
Figure 4: Major Network Characteristics – 5G
Figure 5: mmWave Advantages
Figure 6: Macro vs Small BS – Shipped (Ratio)
Figure 7: BS: Characteristics and Classification
Figure 8: SC Parameters
Figure 9: Use Cases
Figure 10: Summary: Small Cells Backhauling Choices: Benefits and Issues
Figure 11: Estimate: SC Global Shipments (Mil. Units)
Figure 12: Estimate: Global SC Shipments ($B)
Figure 13: 3GPP Rel. 12 SC Enhancements
Figure 14: Scenario 1
Figure 15: Scenario 2
Figure 16: SC Backhaul Illustration
Figure 17: SC Backhaul Types
Figure 18: (a) Non-ideal; and (b) Ideal SC Backhaul Characteristics
Figure 19: Technological Changes
Figure 20: Summary: Specifics of SC Backhauls vs Macrocells
Figure 21: Estimate: SC Backhaul - Global Market ($B)
Figure 22: Estimate: Global Market – SC Microwave Backhaul ($B)
Figure 23: PMP and PTP Architectures
Figure 24: 60 GHz Radio Use Cases
Figure 25: Attenuation in 60 GHz Band
Figure 26: Signal Absorption
Figure 27: Directivity
Figure 28: Bands Features Comparison - Illustration
Figure 29: 60 GHz Links Characteristics
Figure 30: 60 GHz Link Characteristics
Figure 31: Global Market - SC Backhaul - 60 GHz Radio ($B)
Figure 32: 60 GHz SC Backhaul Characteristics
Figure 33: Licensed and Unlicensed Bands Transmission
Figure 34: 802.11ad Major Features
Figure 35: 802.11ad PHY - Modulation
Figure 36: 802.11ad MAC
Figure 37: Summary
Figure 38: 60 GHz Wi-Fi Usage Models
Figure 39: Estimate: Tri-band Wi-Fi Chipsets Sales – Global (Bil. Units)
Figure 40: Estimate: Global Sales Tri-band Wi-Fi Chipsets ($B)
Figure 41: Estimate: Global Sales-802.11ad Chipsets (Bil. Units)
Figure 42: Estimate: Global Sales-802.11ad Chipsets ($B)
Figure 43: Functionalities
Figure 44: Channel Assignment: 802.11ac
Figure 45: Rates: 802.11ac
Figure 46: Channel Size/Rate
Figure 47: Wave I and Wave II
Figure 48: Usage Models
Figure 49: 802.11ac Consumers AP Shipping (Mil. Units)
Figure 50: Illustration – E-band Radio – Backhauling Mobile Network
Figure 51: Regulations
Figure 52: E-Band Radio Generations
Figure 53: Estimate: Global Market-SC Backhaul-E-band Radio ($B)

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