“Role of Sub-1GHz Communications in M2M/IoT Development” Technologies, Markets, Applications

“Role of Sub-1GHz Communications in M2M/IoT Development” Technologies, Markets, Applications

This report addresses properties of communication technologies that support M2M/IoT development.

In particular, it is concentrated on the analysis and benefits of Sub-1GHz ISM bands wireless communications as they relate to the IoT/M2M development. The report shows that the industry is actively investigating opportunities of this portion of the spectrum to enhance IoT/M2M characteristics.

The following Sub-1GHz technologies, related markets, standards and applications have been addressed to show their value in the IoT/M2M development:

Short range communications

ZigBee/802.15.4
Z-Wave
EnOcean.

Long range communications

IEEE 802.15.4g
IEEE 802.11af
IEEE 802.11ah
IEEE 802.22
Weightless
UNB (Ultra-narrow Band).

The major attractions of these Sub-1GHz technologies for IoT/M2M communications include:

Extended range – they allow 5-10 times longer reaches over 2.4 GHz band transmissions. This is the result of smaller losses when signal is traveling through various obstacles; besides, Sub-1GHz ISM bands are less crowded
Low power consumption
Support of multiple applications.

The industry and consumers show great interest in the utilization of Sub-1GHz ISM bands for IoT/M2M communications; there are great opportunities that have not been realized until recently.

The report also surveys related industries and patents.

The report is written for a wide audience of technical and managerial staff involved in the development of the IoT/M2M market.


1.0 Introduction
1.1 General
1.2 Specifics
1.3 Scope
1.4 Research Methodology
1.5 Target Audience
2.0 Efforts: Development of M2M Communications and IoT
2.1 M2M Communications Development
2.1.1 Special Needs
2.1.1.1 Spectrum
2.1.1.2 Summary
2.1.2 Standardization – Industry Activities
2.1.2.1 IEEE
2.1.2.2 ETSI
2.1.2.3 ITU
2.1.2.4 oneM2M Alliance
2.1.2.4.1 Service Layer Architecture
2.1.2.4.2 Benefits
2.1.2.5 M2M World Alliance
2.1.2.6 M2M Alliance
2.1.2.7 Open Mobile Alliance (OMA)
2.1.2.8 Summary
2.1.3 Market
2.1.3.1 Statistics
2.1.3.2 Estimate
2.1.4 Industry: Innovations
Arqiva/Sensus
Iota Networks
Kore Telematics
Link Labs
SigFox/Telit
Telensa/Plextek
2.2 IoT
2.2.1 M2M and IoT
2.2.2 Open Interconnect Consortium
2.2.3 Industrial Internet Consortium
2.2.4 IoT Platforms
2.2.5 IoT and ITU
2.2.6 IoT International Forum
2.2.7 IEEE and IoT – P2413
2.2.7.1 P2413.1
2.2.8 ISO/IEC
2.2.8.1 Layered Structure
2.2.9 IoT – Market
2.2.10 Applications
3.0 Specifics of Sub-1GHz Transmission
3.1 ITU Designation
3.2 Sub-1GHz Transmission Benefits and Limitations
3.3 Generations
3.3.1 Details
4.0 Sub-1GHz Transmission: Support for Long-reach IoT/M2M Communications
4.1 IEEE-802.15.4g-Smart Utility Networks
4.1.1 General
4.1.2 Need
4.1.3 Value
4.1.4 Overview - PHY
4.1.5 Regions
4.1.5.1 Frequencies Allocations
4.1.6 Details
4.1.6.1 Requirements: Major Characteristics
4.1.6.2 Considerations
4.1.6.3 Network Specifics
4.1.6.4 PHY/MAC Modifications
4.1.7 Market
4.1.8 Summary
4.1.9 Wi-SUN
4.1.10 Manufacturers – Examples
Analog Devices
Elster
Microchip
TI
4.2 IEEE 802.22
4.2.1 General
4.2.2 Status – 802.22
4.2.3 Developments
4.2.4 IEEE 802.22-2011 Overview
4.2.4.1 Major Characteristics
4.2.5 IEEE 802.22 Details
4.2.5.1 Physical Layer – Major Characteristics
4.2.5.2 MAC Layer
4.2.6 Cognitive Functions
4.2.7 IEEE 802.22 – Marketing Considerations for SG
4.2.8 Major Applications
4.2.9 Usage Models
4.2.10 Benefits
4.2.11 Summary
4.2.12 Group
4.2.12.1 IEEE 802.22.1
4.2.12.2 IEEE 802.22.2
4.2.12.3 IEEE 802.22a-2014
4.2.12.4 IEEE 802.22b-2015
4.2.12.5 IEEE P802.22.3 - Standard for Spectrum Characterization and Occupancy Sensing
4.2.12.6 8802-22:2015/Amd 1-2017
4.3 IEEE 802.11ah (Wi-Fi HaLow)
4.3.1 General
4.3.2 Goal and Schedule
4.3.3 Attributes
4.3.4 Use Cases
4.3.5 PHY
4.3.5.1 Bandwidth
4.3.5.2 Channelization
4.3.5.3 Transmission Modes and MIMO
4.3.6 MAC Layer
4.3.7 Summary
4.3.8 Vendors
Morse Micro
Newracom-Aviacomm
4.4 IEEE 802.11af – White-Fi
4.4.1 General: Expectations – White-Fi
4.4.2 Differences
4.4.3 Benefits
4.4.4 Specifics
4.4.4.1 Interference
4.4.4.2 Main Principles
4.4.5 PHY
4.4.6 Architecture
4.4.7 Market
4.4.8 Vendors
Aviacomm
Carlson Wireless
4.5 Ultra Narrow Band
4.5.1 Origin
4.5.2 Tasks
4.5.3 Major Features
4.5.4 SigFox
4.5.4.1 Company
4.5.4.2 Technology - Details
4.5.4.3 Uplink
4.5.4.4 Downlink
4.5.4.5 SmartLNB
4.5.4.6 Coverage
4.5.4.7 Use Cases
4.5.4.8 Industry
Adeunis RF
Innocomm
Microchip
On Semiconductor
Telit
TI
4.6 Weightless Communications
4.6.1 SIG
4.6.2 Weightless-N
4.6.2.1 General
4.6.2.2 Open Standard
4.6.2.3 Nwave
4.6.2.4 Initial Deployments
4.6.2.5 Summary
4.6.3 Weightless-P
4.6.3.1 General
4.6.3.2 Details
4.6.3.3 M2COMM
4.6.4 Comparison of Weightless Technologies
4.6.5 Weightless Technologies and Competition
5.0 Sub-1GHz Transmission: Support of Short-reach IoT/M2M Communications
5.1 ZigBee – IEEE 802.15.4
5.1.1 General
5.1.2 Sub-1GHz ZigBee: Specifics
5.1.3 ZigBee Acceptance
5.1.4 Major Features: ZigBee/802.15.4
5.1.5 Device Types
5.1.6 Protocol Stack
5.1.6.1 Physical and MAC Layers – IEEE802.15.4
5.1.6.2 Upper Layers
5.1.7 Security
5.1.8 Power Consumption
5.1.9 ZigBee Technology Benefits and Limitations
5.1.10 Standardization Process
5.1.10.1 Ratifications
5.1.10.2 Alliance
5.1.10.2.1 ZigBee Pro 2017
5.1.11 Applications Specifics – Application Profiles
5.1.11.1 “Green” ZigBee
5.1.11.2 ZigBee Telecom Services
5.1.11.3 Building Automation
5.1.11.4 Smart Energy Profile
5.1.11.4.1 Features
5.1.11.4.2 Smart Energy Profile V.2.0
5.1.11.4.3 ZigBee IP
5.1.11.5 ZigBee Network Devices - IP Gateway
5.1.12 Market
5.1.12.1 Expectations-Technology Stack
5.1.12.2 Segments
5.1.12.3 Forecast
5.1.13 Sub-1GHz ZigBee: Certification
5.1.14 Industry
Adaptive Networks Solutions (RF Sub-1GHz)
Microchip Technologies (Modules, Sub-1GHz)
NXP
Renesas (Platforms, AMR, Sub-1GHz)
Silicon Laboratories (Chipsets, Modules, Sub-1GHz)
TI (Chipsets, Sub-1GHz)
5.2 EnOcean: General
5.2.1 The Company
5.2.2 EnOcean Alliance
5.2.3 Standard
5.2.3.1 Features
5.2.3.2 Drivers
5.2.4 Technology Details
5.2.4.1 Framework
5.2.4.2 Generations
5.2.5 Profiles
5.2.6 Benefits
5.2.7 Market Estimate
5.2.8 Industry
BSC Magnum
Beckhoff
Echoflex
Illumra
Leviton
Thermokon
5.3 Z-Wave
5.3.1 General
5.3.2 Z-Wave Alliance
5.3.3 Benefits
5.3.4 Details
5.3.4.1 General
5.3.4.2 Characteristics
5.3.4.3 G.9959
5.3.5 Advanced Energy Control Framework
5.3.6 Z-Wave and Smart Metering
5.3.7 Selected Vendors
Aeon Labs-Aeotec
NorthQ
There
Vera Control
5.3.8 Market Estimate
5.3.8.1 Model
5.3.8.2 Results
6.0 Conclusions
Appendix I: IEEE 802.15.4g Characteristics
Appendix II: 802.11ah – related Patents Survey (2018-2019)
Appendix III: Z-Wave – related Patents Survey (2017-2018)
Appendix IV: 802.22 – related Patents Survey (2017-2018)
Appendix V: EnOcean – related Patents Survey (2017-2018)
Appendix VI: 802.11af – related Patents Survey (2017-2018)
Figure 1: Regions: ISM Band
Figure 2: IoT Environment
Figure 3: Key M2M Elements
Figure 4: ETSI Activity
Figure 5: Use Cases
Figure 6: ETSI-High-level Architecture
Figure 7: M2M Layers
Figure 8: Summary – Standardization
Figure 9: M2M Major Applications
Figure 10: Estimate: M2M Traffic Growth (PB/Month)
Figure 11: Estimate: Global Wireless M2M Market Communications Revenue ($B)
Figure 12: Estimate: Mobile Operators Revenue - M2M Services ($B)
Figure 13: Estimate: M2M Communications – Satellite Segment ($B)
Figure 14: IoT – Layered Structure
Figure 15: Estimate: IoT Technologies and Applications Market - Global ($T)
Figure 16: Estimate – Number of Smart Devices in Households – Global (Bil. Units)
Figure 17: M2M/IoT Spectrum of Applications
Figure 18: Range
Figure 19: Power Consumption
Figure 20: Rates
Figure 21: Global Sub-1GHz Frequencies
Figure 22: Sub-1GHz Transmission Characteristics
Figure 23: ZigBee-2.4 GHz vs. 900 MHz
Figure 24: Properties Comparison
Figure 25: SUN Connectivity
Figure 26: Estimate: Global Market – SUN ($B)
Figure 27: Estimate: 802.22 – U.S. Market Size ($B)
Figure 28: IEEE 802.22 Usage Scenarios
Figure 29: Major Characteristics: IEEE 802.22
Figure 30: Standardized Frequency Spectrum (sub-1 GHz)
Figure 31: 802.11ah – Channelization Plan in U.S.
Figure 32: 802.11ah Features Summary
Figure 33: 802.11af Network
Figure 34: Comparison
Figure 35: Uplink Frame Format
Figure 36: Downlink Frame Format
Figure 37: Nwave Characteristics Comparison
Figure 38: Weightless Technologies Comparison
Figure 39: Characteristics
Figure 40: ZigBee/802.15.4 Protocol Stack
Figure 41: ZigBee/802.15.4 Characteristics
Figure 42: Profiles
Figure 43: ZigBee IP Gateway Protocol Stack
Figure 44: Technology Stack
Figure 45: Estimate – Global Market - ZigBee ($B)
Figure 46: ZigBee Market Segmentation (2014)
Figure 47: ZigBee Market Segmentation (2018)
Figure 48: Functionalities
Figure 49: Major Features
Figure 50: Energy Consumption Requirements
Figure 51: Estimate: EnOcean Industry Equipment Sales ($B)
Figure 52: Estimate: EnOcean Industry Equipment Sales (Mil. Units)
Figure 53: Estimate: U.S. Small SH Z-Wave IC Market ($B)
Figure 54: Estimate: U.S. Large SH Z-Wave IC Market ($B)

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