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First Responders: In-building Communications and Localization

First Responders: In-building Communications and Localization

This report addresses specifics of wireless communications and localization technologies that support first responders operations inside of enclosures such as buildings, tunnels and similar constructions. It also addresses related industries, applicable standards and markets.

Increasingly, public safety entities, commercial wireless service providers, and wireless users require reliable communications inside buildings. For public safety, reliable coverage is often essential throughout a broad jurisdiction, including coverage on-street, in-building, and in-tunnel. In such cases, there is no substitute for a properly designed dedicated mission-critical communications system with sufficient transmit sites to provide the level of signal required for reliable coverage anywhere within the jurisdiction, whether on-street or indoors.

Indoor wireless communications environments usually do not allow using traditional PSC (Public Safety Communications) networking based on TETRA, P25 or LTE. Building materials attenuate signals and this makes communications unreadable. Localization based on GPS techniques is becoming also questionable due to weak satellite signals inside of a construction.

All these factors make it necessary to develop special methods to extend outdoor communications channels inside of enclosures. Two such methods are analyzed in this report; and they are based on utilization:

-Small Cells
-DAS – Distributed Antenna Systems.

Small Cells base stations are small in size, lightweight and designed to serve up to several tens of users. They may be conveniently spread throughout a building, covering each corridor, hall, corners and so on. The technology relatively recently became commercialized and brought multiple benefits to users.

DAS is used for in-building signals distributions for at least twenty years. The report concentrates on advances in this technology, its specifics and issues.

Standard organizations activities, the in-depth market analysis and survey of the industry are also studied in this report.

There are multiple methods suggested for in-building localization of first responders as well as other people or objects in the operational area. They are based on utilization of sensors, RF signatures in a building, amplification of GPS signals and other. The report concentrates on commercialized methods, and provides details of their advantages and issues. The report also addresses marketing aspects of in-building localization.

The report is written for a wide audience of technical and managerial staff involved in the development of reliable PSC and localization inside buildings or similar enclosures.


1.0 Introduction
1.1 Need
1.1.1 Outdoor Environment
1.1.2 Indoor Environment
1.1.2.1 Legislation
1.1.2.2 Examples
1.1.3 Transparency
1.2 Unified In-Building Wireless
1.3 Public Safety Communications Specifics
1.4 Scope and Goals
1.5 Research Methodology
1.6 Target Audience
2.0 PSC Spectrum
2.1 U.S.
2.1.1 FCC - General
2.1.2 800 MHz Band
2.1.3 700 MHz Band
2.1.3.1 700 MHz Nationwide Network – FirstNet
2.2 EU
2.3 Global
3.0 Special Considerations
3.1 Requirements: First Responders In-building Communications
3.1.1 General
3.2 Choices
3.2.1 Classes
3.2.2 Properties
3.2.2.1 Regulations
3.2.2.2 Who Benefits?
3.2.2.3 Factors
3.3 Specifics of In-building Communications
3.3.1 Extended Coverage
4.0 Developmental Trends
4.1 Small Cells
4.1.1 General
4.1.2 Nomenclature
4.1.3 Groups
4.1.3.1 C-RAN SC
4.1.4 Applications
4.1.4.1 Indoor Use Cases
4.1.4.2 Outdoor Use Cases
4.1.4.3 Public Safety Communications
4.1.5 Benefits and Issues
4.1.6 Small Cell Market
4.1.6.1 Drivers
4.1.6.2 Market Geography
4.1.6.3 Estimate
4.1.7 Standardization
4.1.7.1 3GPP Rel.12 and SCs
4.1.8 Small Cell Industry (29 companies)
5.0 Distributed Antenna System (DAS)
5.1 General
5.1.1 Definition
5.2 Classification
5.2.1 Utilization
5.3 DAS Benefits
5.4 Forum
5.5 Specifics of DAS in Public Safety Communications
5.6 Market
5.6.1 General
5.6.2 Cost Efficiency
5.6.3 Market Drivers
5.6.4 Forecast
5.7 Industry (17 companies)
6.0 In-Building Wireless Communications: Market Estimate
7.0 In-building Localization
7.1 Standardization Activity
7.1.1 In-Location Alliance
7.2 Industry (18 companies)
7.3 Market Estimate
8.0 FirstNet and Indoor Communications
9.0 Comparison
9.1 DAS
9.2 C-RAN Small Cells
9.3 Small Cells Issues
10.0 Conclusions
Figure 1: FCC PSC Spectrum Allocation
Figure 2: 800 MHz Reconfiguration Plan
Figure 3: 700 MHz Band
Figure 4: In-building Communications Systems - Classification
Figure 5: Macro vs. Small BS
Figure 6: Base Stations Characteristics - Illustration
Figure 7: Estimate: Global SC Shipments (Mil. Units)
Figure 8: Estimate: Global SC Shipments ($B)
Figure 9: Projections: Indoor Femtocells Shipments (Mil. Units)
Figure 10: Rel. 12 Enhancements
Figure 11: Scenario 1
Figure 12: Scenario 2
Figure 13: Differences
Figure 14: Active DAS
Figure 15: Passive DAS
Figure 16: Hybrid DAS
Figure 17: General Layout
Figure 18: TAM: DAS Equipment Sales - Global ($B)
Figure 19: Market Segments - DAS Types
Figure 20: Estimate: Global Market – In-Building Wireless Communications ($B)
Figure 21: Indoor Ranging – Standardization Activity (2012)
Figure 22: Estimate: Global Indoor Location Market ($B)
Figure 23: Estimate: Global Indoor Location Market – First Responders ($B)
Figure 24: Technical Characteristics
Table 1: RF Signals Attenuation (dB)
Table 2: Classification

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