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Progress in Intelligent Transportation Systems and IoT/M2M Communications

Progress in Intelligent Transportation Systems and IoT/M2M Communications

This report reflects a steady movement of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) towards reaching their goal – minimizing roads accidents and traffic jams. In connection with this goal, the report provides details of the ITS structure and architecture; and emphasizes contributions of wireless technologies designed for IoT/M2M – this type of communications is becoming very important for ITS to enhance their characteristics. In 2015, the IoT has already disrupted the 4G roadmap and become a prime driver of the 5G specification process.

The following recent (or still in the development) wireless communications standards are addressed:

  • LoRa
  • LTE-M
  • 802.11ah
  • EC-GSM
  • SigFox
  • Weightless Protocols
  • Other.
These technologies are being developed with considerations of IoT/M2M communications specifics.

The report also addresses the current status of IoT/M2M and ITS industries, their markets and surveys vendors’ portfolios.

The significant part of this report addresses the introduction of a driverless car – IoT/M2M communication supports all major functionalities of such a car. Details of a young industry development, its major players, the standardization process, hurdles and enablers are analyzed. The report emphasizes the driverless car benefits – they, as it is envisioned currently, will be realized in the 2035-2040 time frame; with these cars on roads already in 2018-2020. The industry identified driverless cars as most viable form of ITS, dominating the roadways by 2040 and sparking dramatic changes in vehicular travel and the auto industry.

The report also surveys 802.11ah-related patents (2017-2018).

The report is written for a wide audience of technical and managerial staff involved in the advanced ITS development; and for specialists in communications technologies that support such a development; particular IoT/M2M communications.


1.0 Introduction
1.1 Statistics
1.2 Goal
1.3 Scope
1.4 Research Methodology
1.5 Target Audience
2.0 ITS: Major Components and Characteristics
2.1 General
2.2 ITS Introduction: U.S.
2.3 Structure
2.4 Layers and Components
2.5 Key Technologies
2.6 Subsystems
2.7 ITS Architecture: U.S.
2.7.1 General
2.7.2 Functionalities
2.7.3 Layers
2.7.3.1 Details: Communications Layer
2.7.3.2 Networks
2.7.4 Versions
2.8 ITS Standardization: In Progress
2.8.1 Overview
2.8.2 ETSI - Europe
2.8.3 U.S.
2.8.3.1 General
2.8.3.2 National Transportation Communications for ITS Protocol (NTCIP)
2.8.3.2.1 Scope
2.8.3.2.2 Family
2.8.4 China
2.8.5 International
2.8.5.1 General
2.8.5.2 ITU
2.8.6 Summary
2.9 ITS Applications
2.10 ITS Market Statistics
2.10.1 General
2.10.2 Assumptions
2.10.3 Estimate
3.0 IoT/M2M and ITS
3.1 Differences: H2H and IoT/M2M Communications
3.2 Definition and Process
3.2.1 Enablers and Braking Points: 2G-5G
3.3 Data
3.4 Properties and Architecture
3.5 Specifics and Current Status
3.5.1 Cellular
3.5.2 Short-range
3.5.3 Open Standard
3.6 Challenges
3.7 Multiple Efforts
3.8 IoT/M2M Standardization: Organizations and Technologies
3.8.1 3GPP and IoT/M2M
3.8.1.1 3GPP Release 10
3.8.1.2 LTE Cat-M
3.8.1.2.1 IoT/M2M: Requirements to LTE
3.8.1.2.2 3GPP LTE Rel. 12 Enhancement for IoT/M2M
3.8.1.2.3 3GPP LTE Rel. 13 Enhancement for IoT/M2M
3.8.1.2.3.1 3GPP LTE Rel. 14 –Further Enhancements
3.8.1.2.4 Current Situation
3.8.1.2.5 Summary of LTE/IoT Features
3.8.1.2.6 Market Considerations
3.8.1.2.7 Vendors
Altair (a Sony Group Company)
Huawei
Intel
Link-Labs
Mistbase (acquired by ARM in 2017)
Nordic Semiconductor
Samsung
Sequans
Qualcomm Technology
U-blox
3.8.1.3 EC-GSM-IoT
3.8.2 OneM2M Alliance
3.8.2.1 Varieties
3.8.2.2 Service Layer Architecture
3.8.2.3 Benefits
3.8.3 M2M World Alliance
3.8.4 M2M Alliance
3.8.5 Open Mobile Alliance (OMA)
3.8.5.1 OMA Lightweight M2M Protocol
3.8.6 ETSI TC
3.8.6.1 Documents
3.8.6.2 Architecture
3.8.7 GSC MSTF
3.8.8 ITU
3.8.8.1 Work Plan
3.8.8.2 ITU Recommendations
3.8.9 OMA SpecWorks
3.8.10 IETF and IP/WSN
3.8.10.1 Major Projects
3.8.11 TIA
3.8.12 Weightless Protocols
3.8.12.1 Weightless SIG
3.8.12.2 Common Features
3.8.12.3 Weightless-W
3.8.12.3.1 General
3.8.12.3.2 Definition
3.8.12.3.3 Rational
3.8.12.3.4 Ecosystem and Use Cases
3.8.12.3.5 Weightless-W Specifics
3.8.12.3.6 Changes
3.8.12.4 Weightless-N
3.8.12.4.1 General
3.8.12.4.2 Open Standard
3.8.12.4.3 Nwave
3.8.12.4.4 First Deployments
3.8.12.5 Weightless-P
3.8.12.5.1 General
3.8.12.5.2 Details
3.8.12.5.3 M2COMM
3.8.12.6 Weightless Technologies Comparison
3.8.13 IEEE
3.8.13.1 802.11ah (Wi-Fi HaLow)
3.8.13.1.1 General
3.8.13.1.2 Goal and Schedule
3.8.13.1.3 Attributes
3.8.13.1.4 Use Cases
3.8.13.1.5 PHY Layer
3.8.13.1.5.1 Bandwidth
3.8.13.1.5.2 Channelization
3.8.13.1.5.3 Transmission Modes and MIMO
3.8.13.1.6 MAC Layer
3.8.13.1.7 Summary
3.8.14 SigFox
3.8.14.1 Company
3.8.14.2 Technology
3.8.14.2.1 Details – Uplink
3.8.14.2.2 Details – Downlink
3.8.14.3 SmartLNB
3.8.14.4 Coverage
3.8.14.5 Use Cases
3.8.14.6 Industry
Adeunis RF
Innocomm
Microchip
On Semiconductor
Telit
TI
3.8.15 LoRa
3.8.15.1 Alliance
3.8.15.2 Technology: General
3.8.15.3 Modulation
3.8.15.4 Long Range
3.8.15.5 Applications
3.8.15.6 Architecture
3.8.15.7 Classes
3.8.15.8 LoRaWAN
3.8.15.9 Major Characteristics - Summary
3.8.15.10 Semtech
3.8.15.11 Deployments
3.8.16 Comparison
4.0 ITS Segment of IoT/M2M
4.1 Importance
4.2 Classification
4.3 IoT/M2M Communications and ITS Major Applications
4.3.1 Benefits and Limitations
4.3.2 H2H and IoT/M2M Communications
4.3.2.1 Sensors
5.0 Market: IoT/M2M - ITS
5.1 Data
5.2 Situation
5.3 Structure
5.4 Estimate
6.0 Driverless Car – 5G Era
6.1 General – Definition
6.2 Time
6.2.1 ADAS
6.3 Directions
6.3.1 Current Status - Legislation
6.3.2 Major Benefits
6.3.3 Alternatives
6.4 Market Predictions and Price
6.5 Phases
6.5.1 Characteristics
6.6 Survey: Current Developments
6.6.1 Automakers
6.6.1.1 Audi
6.6.1.1.1 Audi Plans and SAE Classification
6.6.1.2 BMW
6.6.1.3 Ford
6.6.1.3.1 Ford Plans and SAE Classification
6.6.1.4 GM
6.6.1.5 Nissan
6.6.1.5.1 Nissan Plans and SAE Classifications
6.6.1.6 Daimler/Mercedes
6.6.1.6.1 Mercedes Plans and SAE Classification
6.6.1.7 VW and AdaptIVe Consortium
6.6.1.8 Volvo Cars
6.6.1.9 Tesla Motors
6.6.1.9.1 Tesla Plans and SAE Classifications
6.6.1.10 Honda
6.6.1.11 Other
6.6.2 R&D and Competitors
6.6.2.1 Alphabet/Google – ProjectX -Waymo
6.6.2.2 Baidu
6.6.2.3 DOTs
6.6.2.4 Telecom Readiness: Driverless Car - 5G Communications
6.6.2.4.1 Huawei
6.6.2.4.2 Swisscom
6.6.2.5 QNX
6.6.2.6 Continental Automotive
6.6.2.7 Nvidia
6.6.3 Start-ups
6.6.3.1 Cruise Automotive (was founded in 2013) – acquired by GM in 2016
6.6.3.2. Induct Technologies
6.6.3.3 Uber
6.6.3.4 Lyft
6.6.3.5 Waymo
6.6.4 Schedules
6.7 Standardization
6.7.1 NHTSA
6.7.1.1 Control and Machine-Vision Systems
6.7.1.2 Levels
6.7.2 SAE International
6.7.2.1 USA Preparedness
6.7.3 IEEE
6.7.4 Summary
6.8 Commercialization
6.9 Issues
7.0 IoT/M2M-ITS Communications Industry
AT&T
Aeris
Airbiquity
Autotalks
Axeda
B3IT
Danlaw
Cohda Wireless
Continental/HERE
Gemalto
IMS
Jasper Wireless
Kore Telematics
Libelium
Numerex
QNX
Qualcomm
Raco Wireless
Telit
Wireless Logic
Xirgo
8.0 Technologies Comparison
9.0 Conclusions
Attachment I: 802.11ah – related Patents Survey (2017-2018)
Figure 1: Wireless Communications: ITS Environment
Figure 2: ITS Architecture - Components
Figure 3: ITS Architecture Evolution
Figure 4: ARC-IT – V.8.0
Figure 5: Europe – Standardization Organizations
Figure 6: Standardization Bodies
Figure 7: NTCIP Structure
Figure 8: ITS International –Standardization Bodies
Figure 9: Estimate - ITS Devices Global Market ($B)
Figure 10: Estimate: ITS WICT- Global Market ($B)
Figure 11: IoT/M2M Communications Process
Figure 12: M2M-Simplified Architecture
Figure 13: 3GPP Release 10 – IoT/M2M
Figure 14: LTE-based MTC Devices Properties
Figure 15: Characteristics
Figure 16: Additional Characteristics
Figure 17: Time Schedule
Figure 18: Estimate- LTE NB-IoT Chipsets Market Size ($M)
Figure 19: Structure - oneM2M – Service Layer
Figure 20: ETSI Activity – M2M
Figure 21: Iceni Characteristics
Figure 22: Weightless Technologies Comparison
Figure 23: Frequency Spectrum (sub-1 GHz)
Figure 24: 802.11ah – Channelization Plan in U.S.
Figure 25: 802.11ah Features Summary
Figure 26: Uplink Frame Format
Figure 27: Downlink Frame Format
Figure 28: LoRa Protocol Structure
Figure 29: LoRaWAN Architecture
Figure 30: LoRa Properties
Figure 31: Battery Lifetime
Figure 32: Regional Differences
Figure 33: Technologies Comparison
Figure 34: Classification
Figure 35: Estimate: IoT/M2M Traffic Volume (PB/Month)
Figure 36: Estimate: IoT/M2M Communications-Global Market ($B)
Figure 37: Components
Figure 38: Estimate: Global Automotive M2M Connections (B)
Figure 39: Estimate: M2M/IoT Market Size in ITS ($B)
Figure 40: Legislative Work (2017)
Figure 41: NHTSA Car Automation Levels
Figure 42: SAE Classification
Figure 43: Current View – Schedule
Figure 44: IoT/M2M-ITS Service Offerings –Service Providers
Figure 45: Technologies Comparison
Table 1: Road Crashes Statistics

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