Progress in Intelligent Transportation Systems and IoT/M2M Communications

Progress in Intelligent Transportation Systems and IoT/M2M Communications

This report reflects a steady movement of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) towards reaching their goal – minimizing roads accidents and traffic jams. In connection with this goal, the report provides details of the ITS structure and architecture; and emphasizes contributions of wireless technologies designed for IoT/M2M – this type of communications is becoming very important for ITS to enhance their characteristics. In 2015, the IoT has already disrupted the 4G roadmap and become a prime driver of the 5G specification process.

The following recent (or still in the development) wireless communications standards are addressed:

  • LoRa
  • LTE-M
  • 802.11ah
  • EC-GSM
  • SigFox
  • Weightless Protocols
  • Other.
These technologies are being developed with considerations of IoT/M2M communications specifics.

The report also addresses the current status of IoT/M2M and ITS industries, their markets and surveys vendors’ portfolios.

The significant part of this report addresses the introduction of a driverless car – IoT/M2M communication supports all major functionalities of such a car. Details of a young industry development, its major players, the standardization process, hurdles and enablers are analyzed. The report emphasizes the driverless car benefits – they, as it is envisioned currently, will be realized in the 2035-2040 time frame; with these cars on roads already in 2018-2020. The industry identified driverless cars as most viable form of ITS, dominating the roadways by 2040 and sparking dramatic changes in vehicular travel and the auto industry.

The report also surveys 802.11ah-related patents (2017-2018).

The report is written for a wide audience of technical and managerial staff involved in the advanced ITS development; and for specialists in communications technologies that support such a development; particular IoT/M2M communications.

1.0 Introduction
1.1 Statistics
1.2 Goal
1.3 Scope
1.4 Research Methodology
1.5 Target Audience
2.0 ITS: Major Components and Characteristics
2.1 General
2.2 ITS Introduction: U.S.
2.3 Structure
2.4 Layers and Components
2.5 Key Technologies
2.6 Subsystems
2.7 ITS Architecture: U.S.
2.7.1 General
2.7.2 Functionalities
2.7.3 Layers Details: Communications Layer Networks
2.7.4 Versions
2.8 ITS Standardization: In Progress
2.8.1 Overview
2.8.2 ETSI - Europe
2.8.3 U.S. General National Transportation Communications for ITS Protocol (NTCIP) Scope Family
2.8.4 China
2.8.5 International General ITU
2.8.6 Summary
2.9 ITS Applications
2.10 ITS Market Statistics
2.10.1 General
2.10.2 Assumptions
2.10.3 Estimate
3.0 IoT/M2M and ITS
3.1 Differences: H2H and IoT/M2M Communications
3.2 Definition and Process
3.2.1 Enablers and Braking Points: 2G-5G
3.3 Data
3.4 Properties and Architecture
3.5 Specifics and Current Status
3.5.1 Cellular
3.5.2 Short-range
3.5.3 Open Standard
3.6 Challenges
3.7 Multiple Efforts
3.8 IoT/M2M Standardization: Organizations and Technologies
3.8.1 3GPP and IoT/M2M 3GPP Release 10 LTE Cat-M IoT/M2M: Requirements to LTE 3GPP LTE Rel. 12 Enhancement for IoT/M2M 3GPP LTE Rel. 13 Enhancement for IoT/M2M 3GPP LTE Rel. 14 –Further Enhancements Current Situation Summary of LTE/IoT Features Market Considerations Vendors
Altair (a Sony Group Company)
Mistbase (acquired by ARM in 2017)
Nordic Semiconductor
Qualcomm Technology
U-blox EC-GSM-IoT
3.8.2 OneM2M Alliance Varieties Service Layer Architecture Benefits
3.8.3 M2M World Alliance
3.8.4 M2M Alliance
3.8.5 Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) OMA Lightweight M2M Protocol
3.8.6 ETSI TC Documents Architecture
3.8.7 GSC MSTF
3.8.8 ITU Work Plan ITU Recommendations
3.8.9 OMA SpecWorks
3.8.10 IETF and IP/WSN Major Projects
3.8.11 TIA
3.8.12 Weightless Protocols Weightless SIG Common Features Weightless-W General Definition Rational Ecosystem and Use Cases Weightless-W Specifics Changes Weightless-N General Open Standard Nwave First Deployments Weightless-P General Details M2COMM Weightless Technologies Comparison
3.8.13 IEEE 802.11ah (Wi-Fi HaLow) General Goal and Schedule Attributes Use Cases PHY Layer Bandwidth Channelization Transmission Modes and MIMO MAC Layer Summary
3.8.14 SigFox Company Technology Details – Uplink Details – Downlink SmartLNB Coverage Use Cases Industry
Adeunis RF
On Semiconductor
3.8.15 LoRa Alliance Technology: General Modulation Long Range Applications Architecture Classes LoRaWAN Major Characteristics - Summary Semtech Deployments
3.8.16 Comparison
4.0 ITS Segment of IoT/M2M
4.1 Importance
4.2 Classification
4.3 IoT/M2M Communications and ITS Major Applications
4.3.1 Benefits and Limitations
4.3.2 H2H and IoT/M2M Communications Sensors
5.0 Market: IoT/M2M - ITS
5.1 Data
5.2 Situation
5.3 Structure
5.4 Estimate
6.0 Driverless Car – 5G Era
6.1 General – Definition
6.2 Time
6.2.1 ADAS
6.3 Directions
6.3.1 Current Status - Legislation
6.3.2 Major Benefits
6.3.3 Alternatives
6.4 Market Predictions and Price
6.5 Phases
6.5.1 Characteristics
6.6 Survey: Current Developments
6.6.1 Automakers Audi Audi Plans and SAE Classification BMW Ford Ford Plans and SAE Classification GM Nissan Nissan Plans and SAE Classifications Daimler/Mercedes Mercedes Plans and SAE Classification VW and AdaptIVe Consortium Volvo Cars Tesla Motors Tesla Plans and SAE Classifications Honda Other
6.6.2 R&D and Competitors Alphabet/Google – ProjectX -Waymo Baidu DOTs Telecom Readiness: Driverless Car - 5G Communications Huawei Swisscom QNX Continental Automotive Nvidia
6.6.3 Start-ups Cruise Automotive (was founded in 2013) – acquired by GM in 2016 Induct Technologies Uber Lyft Waymo
6.6.4 Schedules
6.7 Standardization
6.7.1 NHTSA Control and Machine-Vision Systems Levels
6.7.2 SAE International USA Preparedness
6.7.3 IEEE
6.7.4 Summary
6.8 Commercialization
6.9 Issues
7.0 IoT/M2M-ITS Communications Industry
Cohda Wireless
Jasper Wireless
Kore Telematics
Raco Wireless
Wireless Logic
8.0 Technologies Comparison
9.0 Conclusions
Attachment I: 802.11ah – related Patents Survey (2017-2018)
Figure 1: Wireless Communications: ITS Environment
Figure 2: ITS Architecture - Components
Figure 3: ITS Architecture Evolution
Figure 4: ARC-IT – V.8.0
Figure 5: Europe – Standardization Organizations
Figure 6: Standardization Bodies
Figure 7: NTCIP Structure
Figure 8: ITS International –Standardization Bodies
Figure 9: Estimate - ITS Devices Global Market ($B)
Figure 10: Estimate: ITS WICT- Global Market ($B)
Figure 11: IoT/M2M Communications Process
Figure 12: M2M-Simplified Architecture
Figure 13: 3GPP Release 10 – IoT/M2M
Figure 14: LTE-based MTC Devices Properties
Figure 15: Characteristics
Figure 16: Additional Characteristics
Figure 17: Time Schedule
Figure 18: Estimate- LTE NB-IoT Chipsets Market Size ($M)
Figure 19: Structure - oneM2M – Service Layer
Figure 20: ETSI Activity – M2M
Figure 21: Iceni Characteristics
Figure 22: Weightless Technologies Comparison
Figure 23: Frequency Spectrum (sub-1 GHz)
Figure 24: 802.11ah – Channelization Plan in U.S.
Figure 25: 802.11ah Features Summary
Figure 26: Uplink Frame Format
Figure 27: Downlink Frame Format
Figure 28: LoRa Protocol Structure
Figure 29: LoRaWAN Architecture
Figure 30: LoRa Properties
Figure 31: Battery Lifetime
Figure 32: Regional Differences
Figure 33: Technologies Comparison
Figure 34: Classification
Figure 35: Estimate: IoT/M2M Traffic Volume (PB/Month)
Figure 36: Estimate: IoT/M2M Communications-Global Market ($B)
Figure 37: Components
Figure 38: Estimate: Global Automotive M2M Connections (B)
Figure 39: Estimate: M2M/IoT Market Size in ITS ($B)
Figure 40: Legislative Work (2017)
Figure 41: NHTSA Car Automation Levels
Figure 42: SAE Classification
Figure 43: Current View – Schedule
Figure 44: IoT/M2M-ITS Service Offerings –Service Providers
Figure 45: Technologies Comparison
Table 1: Road Crashes Statistics

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