“M2M/IoT Development - Sub-1GHz Communications” Technologies, Markets, Applications

“M2M/IoT Development - Sub-1GHz Communications” Technologies, Markets, Applications

The rapid development of Internet-of-Things (IoT) and Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications requires plenty of the frequency spectra.

This report addresses features and properties of Sub-1GHz communication, and its applications for IoT/M2M. The Sub-1GHz unlicensed industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands of 315, 433, 800 and 902 to 928 MHz represent a great solution for some uses. Based on pure physics, these lower frequencies naturally deliver more distance than higher frequencies for a given power level, receiver sensitivity, and antenna gain.

The following Sub-1GHz technologies, related markets, standards and applications have been addressed to show their value in the IoT/M2M development:

  • Short range communications

  • Long range communications

IEEE 802.15.4g
IEEE 802.11af
IEEE 802.11ah
IEEE 802.22
UNB (Ultra-narrow Band)

The major attractions of these Sub-1GHz technologies for IoT/M2M communications include:
  • Extended range – they allow 5-10 times longer reaches over 2.4 GHz band transmissions. This is the result of smaller losses when signal is traveling through various obstacles; besides, Sub-1GHz ISM bands are less crowded
  • Low power consumption
  • Support of multiple applications.
The industry and consumers show great interest in the utilization of Sub-1GHz ISM bands for IoT/M2M communications; there are great opportunities that have not been realized until recently.

The report also surveys related to this report industries and patents.

The report is written for a wide audience of technical and managerial staff involved in the development of the IoT/M2M market.

1.0 Introduction
1.1 General
1.2 Specifics
1.3 Scope
1.4 Research Methodology
1.5 Target Audience
2.0 Efforts: Development of M2M Communications and IoT
2.1 M2M Communications Development
2.1.1 Special Needs Spectrum Summary
2.1.2 Standardization – Industry Activities IEEE ETSI ITU oneM2M Alliance Service Layer Architecture Benefits M2M Alliance Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) Summary
2.1.3 Market Statistics Estimate
2.1.4 Industry: Innovations
Iota Networks
Kore Telematics
2.2 IoT
2.2.1 M2M and IoT M2M IoT IoT – M2M
2.2.2 Open Interconnect Consortium
2.2.3 Industrial Internet Consortium
2.2.4 IoT Platforms
2.2.5 IoT and ITU
2.2.6 IoT International Forum
2.2.7 IEEE 2413 and IoT 2413.1 P2413.2
2.2.8 ISO/IEC Layered Structure
2.2.9 IoT – Market
2.2.10 Applications
3.0 Specifics of Sub-1GHz Transmission
3.1 ITU Designation
3.2 Sub-1GHz Transmission Benefits and Limitations
3.3 Generations
3.3.1 Details
4.0 Sub-1GHz Transmission: Support for Long-reach IoT/M2M Communications
4.1 IEEE-802.15.4g-Smart Utility Network
4.1.1 General
4.1.2 Need
4.1.3 Value
4.1.4 Overview - PHY
4.1.5 Regions Frequencies Allocations
4.1.6 Details Requirements: Major Characteristics Considerations Network Specifics PHY/MAC Modifications
4.1.7 Market
4.1.8 Summary
4.1.9 Wi-SUN
4.1.10 Manufacturers – Examples
Analog Devices
Elster (a part of Honeywell)
4.2 IEEE 802.22-19
4.2.1 General
4.2.2 Status – IEEE 802.22-19
4.2.3 Developments
4.2.4 IEEE 802.22-2019 Overview Major Characteristics
4.2.5 IEEE 802.22 Details Physical Layer – Major Characteristics MAC Layer
4.2.6 Cognitive Functions
4.2.7 IEEE 802.22 – Marketing Considerations for SG
4.2.8 Major Applications
4.2.9 Usage Models
4.2.10 Benefits
4.2.11 Summary
4.2.12 Group IEEE 802.22.1 IEEE 802.22.2 IEEE 802.22a-2014 IEEE 802.22b-2015 IEEE P802.22.3 - Standard for Spectrum Characterization and Occupancy Sensing 8802-22:2015/Amd 1-2017
4.3 IEEE 802.11ah (Wi-Fi HaLow)
4.3.1 General
4.3.2 Goal and Schedule
4.3.3 Attributes
4.3.4 Use Cases
4.3.5 PHY Bandwidth Channelization Transmission Modes and MIMO
4.3.6 MAC Layer
4.3.7 Summary
4.3.8 Vendors
Morse Micro
Palma Ceia SemiDesign
4.4 IEEE 802.11af – White-Fi
4.4.1 General: Expectations – White-Fi
4.4.2 Differences
4.4.3 Benefits
4.4.4 Specifics Interference Main Principles
4.4.5 PHY
4.4.6 Architecture
4.4.7 Market
4.4.8 Vendors
Carlson Wireless
4.5 Ultra Narrow Band (UNB)
4.5.1 Origin
4.5.2 Support
4.5.3 Major Features
4.5.4 SigFox Company Technology - Details Uplink Downlink SmartLNB Coverage Use Cases Industry
Adeunis RF
On Semiconductor
4.6 Weightless Communications
4.6.1 SIG
4.6.2 Weightless-N General Open Standard Nwave Summary
4.6.3 Weightless-P General Details Vendors
4.6.4 Weightless Technologies and Competition
5.0 Sub-1GHz Transmission: Support of Short-reach IoT/M2M Communications
5.1 ZigBee – IEEE 802.15.4
5.1.1 General
5.1.2 Sub-1GHz ZigBee: Specifics
5.1.3 ZigBee Acceptance
5.1.4 Major Features: ZigBee/802.15.4
5.1.5 Device Types
5.1.6 Protocol Stack Physical and MAC Layers – IEEE802.15.4 Upper Layers
5.1.7 Security
5.1.8 Power Consumption
5.1.9 ZigBee Technology Benefits and Limitations
5.1.10 Standardization Process Ratifications Alliance ZigBee Pro 2017
5.1.11 Applications Specifics – Application Profiles “Green” ZigBee ZigBee Telecom Services Building Automation Smart Energy Profile Features Smart Energy Profile V.2.0 ZigBee IP ZigBee Network Devices - IP Gateway
5.1.12 Market Expectations-Technology Stack Segments Forecast
5.1.13 Sub-1GHz ZigBee: Certification
5.1.14 Industry
Adaptive Networks Solutions (RF Sub-1GHz)
Microchip Technologies (Modules, Sub-1GHz)
Renesas (Platforms, AMR, Sub-1GHz)
Silicon Laboratories (Chipsets, Modules, Sub-1GHz)
TI (Chipsets, Sub-1GHz)
5.2 EnOcean: General
5.2.1 The Company
5.2.2 EnOcean Alliance
5.2.3 Standard Features Drivers
5.2.4 Technology Details Framework Generations
5.2.5 Profiles
5.2.6 Benefits
5.2.7 Market Estimate
5.2.8 Industry
BSC Magnum
5.3 Z-Wave
5.3.1 General
5.3.2 Z-Wave Alliance
5.3.3 Benefits
5.3.4 Details General Characteristics ITU G.9959
5.3.5 Advanced Energy Control Framework
5.3.6 Z-Wave and Smart Metering
5.3.7 Selected Vendors
Aeon Labs-Aeotec
Vera Control
5.3.8 Market Estimate Model Results
6.0 Conclusions
Appendix I: IEEE 802.15.4g Characteristics
Appendix II: 802.11ah – related Patents Survey (2018-2022)
Appendix III: Z-Wave – related Patents Survey (2018-2022)
Appendix IV: 802.22 – related Patents Survey (2018-2022)
Appendix V: EnOcean – related Patents Survey (2018-2022)
Appendix VI: 802.11af – related Patents Survey (2018-2022)
Figure 1: Regions: Sub-1GHz Band
Figure 2: IoT Environment
Figure 3: Key M2M Elements
Figure 4: ETSI Activity
Figure 5: Use Cases
Figure 6: ETSI-High-level M2M Architecture
Figure 7: oneM2M Layered Model
Figure 8: Service Layer Positioning
Figure 9: Summary – M2M Standardization
Figure 10: M2M Major Applications
Figure 11: Estimate: M2M Traffic Growth (PB/Month)
Figure 12: Estimate-M2M Service Market – Global ($B)
Figure 13: Estimate: Cellular Operators Revenue - M2M Services - Global ($B)
Figure 15: IoT – Layered Structure
Figure 16: Estimate: IoT Technologies and Applications Market - Global ($T)
Figure 17: Estimate – Total Number of Smart Devices in Smart Homes – Global (Bil. Units)
Figure 18: M2M/IoT Spectrum of Applications
Figure 19: Bands – ITU Designation
Figure 20: Range
Figure 21: Power Consumption
Figure 22: Rates
Figure 23: Global Sub-1GHz Frequencies
Figure 24: Sub-1GHz Transmission Characteristics
Figure 25: ZigBee-2.4 GHz vs. 900 MHz
Figure 26: Properties Comparison
Figure 27: SUN Connectivity
Figure 28: 802.15.4g Radio Operating Bands
Figure 29: Estimate: Global Market – Smart Grid SUN ($B)
Figure 30: Estimate: 802.22 Technology– U.S. Market Size ($B)
Figure 31: IEEE 802.22 Usage Scenarios
Figure 32: Major Characteristics: IEEE 802.22
Figure 33: Standardized Frequency Spectrum (sub-1 GHz)
Figure 34: 802.11ah – Channelization Plan in U.S.
Figure 35: 802.11ah Features Summary
Figure 36: 802.11af Network Setup
Figure 37: Comparison
Figure 38: Uplink Frame Format
Figure 39: Downlink Frame Format
Figure 40: ZigBee Characteristics
Figure 41: ZigBee/802.15.4 Protocol Stack
Figure 42: ZigBee/802.15.4 Characteristics
Figure 43: Profiles
Figure 44: ZigBee IP Gateway Protocol Stack
Figure 45: Technology Stack
Figure 46: Estimate – U.S. Market Size – ZigBee Chips Shipped ($B)
Figure 47: Estimate – U.S. Market Size – ZigBee Chips – Sub-1GHz Shipped ($B)
Figure 48: ZigBee Market Segmentation (2022)
Figure 49: ZigBee Market Segmentation (2026)
Figure 50: Functionalities
Figure 51: Major Features
Figure 52: Energy Consumption Requirements
Figure 53: Estimate: EnOcean Equipment Sales – Global ($B)
Figure 54: Estimate: EnOcean Industry Modules Sales - Global (Mil. Units)
Figure 55: Estimate: U.S. Small SH Z-Wave IC Market Size ($B)
Figure 56: Estimate: U.S. Large SH Z-Wave IC Market ($B)

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