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Biomarkers in the Central Nervous System

Biomarkers in the Central Nervous System

Summary

Finding a biomarker for Central Nervous System (CNS) disorders that translates into clinical meaningfulness has been a real challenge for the biomarkers space. Biomarkers will be used more in the future, but limitation and lack of reimbursement for these biomarker tests will affect their use. Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the major indication being targeted for the development of drugs involving biomarkers, with a total of 197 clinical trials conducted in the eight major markets (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK, US, Japan, China). Currently, there are three FDA and EMA approved diagnostic tests for AD, all of which are PET neuroimaging scans capable of detecting beta-amyloid plaques in the brains of living patients.

Many biofluid biomarkers, particularly blood-based biomarkers, still face numerous challenges in terms of standardization and measurements of these markers have shown variability and inconsistencies when applied in different settings. These biomarkers are important because they could be widely implemented as diagnostic screens for several diseases, as they would be more cost-effective and less invasive for patients.

Assay technologies are improving and will offer a more convenient and efficient way to test multiple biomarkers, which will become increasingly important as more targeted therapies are approved and the presence of biomarkers impacts clinical decision-making even more widely. Furthermore, physicians would use liquid biopsies more often if they were more reliable, but this is not expected to improve significantly in the next few years.

Biomarkers have a unique set of regulatory challenges and the reimbursement of biomarkers remains a global market barrier as trends across the eight major markets (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK, US, Japan, China) are inconsistent. Biomarkers in Central Nervous System (CNS) are used when there is clinical utility and to help decisions regarding a particular drug treatment, and if effective are most likely to receive reimbursement from the regulatory advisor. Reimbursement presents challenges for patients accessing Central Nervous System (CNS) biomarkers, and reforms are crucial to accelerating the adoption of personalized medicine.

Availability of multiple biomarker tests will encourage competition and likely bring prices down, increasing access to biomarker testing. However, one of the major barriers to the widespread use of biomarkers that are available for Central Nervous System (CNS) disorders is the limitation or lack of reimbursement for biomarker tests by public and private health insurance providers.

The report Biomarkers in the Central Nervous System, provides an overview of current clinical and product development trends for Biomarkers in Central Nervous System (CNS) within the 8MM (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK, US, Japan, China), including analysis of the most common targets and molecule types that are being evaluated among the current biomarkers, focus on product development in indications such as AD, Schizophrenia MS, and unmet needs within biomarkers in Central Nervous System (CNS).

Scope

  • Quotes from 6 key opinion leaders (3 US, 1 EU, 2 Japan) and 2 payers (1 US and 1 UK)
  • Summary of biomarkers product definitions and classifications
  • Overview of common targets and molecule types among current biomarkers, with focus on product development in AD, Schizophrenia and MS
  • Trends in ongoing clinical trials in biomarkers in CNS based on sponsor type, and phase of development
  • Call-outs of key information and details
  • Insight from GlobalData’s specialist neurology analysts.
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1. Preface
1.1 Abbreviations
1.2 Related Reports
2. Executive Summary
2.1 Key Findings
2.2 KOL and Payer Insights
3. Introduction and Classification of Biomarkers
3.1 Definition of Biomarker
3.2 Type of Biomarkers
3.3 Biomarkers in CNS
3.4 KOL Perspectives
4. Biomarkers Support Technologies in CNS
4.1 Overview
4.2 Neuroimaging, Genomics and Proteomics
4.3 Epigenetic, Metabolomics and Transcriptomics
4.4 Lipidomics and Immune system
4.5 Biomarkers Diagnosis Methods in CNS
4.6 KOL Perspectives
5. Assessment of Clinical Trials Involving Biomarkers in the 8MM
5.1 Pipeline Overview 8MM
5.2 Biomarkers Trials - Top Indications in CNS in the 8MM
5.3 Clinical Trials - Leading Industry Sponsors in the 8MM
6. Indication-Specific Overview: Alzheimer’s Disease
6.1 Overview
6.2 Epidemiology
6.3 Global Statistic Biomarkers in AD
6.4 Biomarkers in AD
6.5 Neuroimaging in AD
6.6 Amyloid Biomarkers
6.7 AD Biomarkers Products
6.8 CSF Amyloid Based Tests
6.9 Blood Tests
6.10 Tau Biomarkers
6.11 Genetic Biomarkers
6.12 Unmet needs and Challenges in AD Biomarkers
6.13 KOL Perspectives
7. Indication-Specific Overview: Schizophrenia
7.1 Overview
7.2 Epidemiology
7.3 Global Statistic Biomarkers in Schizophrenia
7.4 Biomarkers in Schizophrenia
7.5 Neuroimaging in Schizophrenia
7.6 Genetic and Epigenetic Biomarkers in Schizophrenia
7.7 Protein Biomarkers in Schizophrenia
7.8 Metabolic and Other Biomarkers in Schizophrenia
7.9 Unmet needs and Challenges in Schizophrenia Biomarkers
7.10 KOL Perspectives
8. Indication-Specific Overview: Multiple Sclerosis
8.1 Overview
8.2 Epidemiology
8.3 Global Statistic Biomarkers in MS
8.4 Biomarkers in MS
8.5 Diagnostic Biomarkers in MS -Neuroimaging
8.6 Diagnostic Biomarkers in MS -Intrathecal Immunoglobulin G Synthesis
8.7 Genetic Biomarkers in MS
8.8 Biomarkers to Guide Choice of Therapy
8.9 Promising Biomarkers in MS - Neurofilament Light Chain
8.10 Biomarkers in MS - Glial Pathology
8.11 Unmet needs and Challenges in MS Biomarkers
8.12 KOL Perspectives
9. Market Opportunities
9.1 Overview
9.2 Market Drivers
9.3 Market Barriers
9.4 Unmet Needs
9.5 Experts Perspectives
10. Market Access
10.1 Overview
10.2 Regulation and Reimbursement in the US
10.2.1 Payer Perspective
10.3 Regulation and Reimbursement in the EU
10.3.1 Payer Perspective
10.4 Regulation and Reimbursement in Japan
10.4.1 KOL Perspective
10.5 Regulation and Reimbursement in China
11. Market Outlook
11.1 Expert Perspectives
12. Appendix
12.1 Sources
12.2 Methodology
12.3 Primary Research
12.4 About the Authors
12.5 About GlobalData
12.6 Contact Us

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