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Analyzing the Hydrogen Economy 2018

Analyzing the Hydrogen Economy 2018

A hydrogen economy is a hypothetical economy in which energy is stored and transported as hydrogen (H2). Various hydrogen economy scenarios can be envisaged using hydrogen in a number of ways. Proponents of a hydrogen economy suggest that hydrogen is an environmentally cleaner source of energy to end-users, particularly in transportation applications, without release of pollutants (such as greenhouse gasses) at the point of end use; and that these advantages may hold similarly with use of hydrogen produced with energy from fossil fuels, if carbon capture or carbon sequestration methods are utilized at the site of energy or hydrogen production.

Meanwhile, critics of a hydrogen economy argue that for many planned applications of hydrogen, direct use of energy in the form of electricity, chemical batteries and fuel cells, and production of liquid synthetic fuels from carbon dioxide, might accomplish many of the same net goals of a hydrogen economy, while requiring only a small fraction of the investment in new infrastructure.

The latest offering from Aruvian Research brings you a complete analysis of the Hydrogen Economy. Analyzing the Hydrogen Economy 2018 report contains a focused socio-economic, political, and environmental analysis of the factors affecting the hydrogen economy. The report contains an analysis of the technologies involved in hydrogen production, hydrogen storage, hydrogen conversion, and much more.

The report also carries in-depth case studies on the various countries which are actively involved in the hydrogen economy. An analysis of the technical barriers, other issues, cost effectiveness affecting the hydrogen economy, and the procedure involved in the actually implementation of the hydrogen economy are all discussed in great details inside this report. Determining the future of the hydrogen economy and the energy industry becomes a lot easier with this report.

A. Executive Summary
B. Introduction to Hydrogen and the Hydrogen Economy
B.1 What is Hydrogen?
B.2 Properties of Hydrogen
B.3 Energy Needs of a Hydrogen Economy
B.4 Production Processes of Hydrogen
B.4.1 Electrolysis
B.4.2 Reforming
B.4.3 Hydrogen from Coal
B.4.4 Hydrogen from Natural Gas
B.4.5 Hydrogen from Nuclear Energy
B.4.6 Hydrogen from Renewable Energy Sources
B.5 Hydrogen Production Costs from Various Methods
B.6 Hydrogen Packaging
B.7 Compression Process
B.7.1 Hydrogen Liquefaction
B.7.2 Physical Hydrides
B.7.3 Chemical Hydrides
B.8 Delivering Hydrogen
B.8.1 On Road Delivery
B.8.2 Delivery through Pipelines
B.8.3 On-site Generation
B.9 Delivered Hydrogen Cost Estimates
B.10 Transferring Hydrogen
C. A Global Hydrogen Energy System
D. Current Hydrogen Industry
E. Broad Issues with the Hydrogen Economy
F. Technical Issues and Cost Barriers to the Hydrogen Economy
F.1 Issues with Production, Distribution, Storage
F.2 Carbon Capture and Storage
F.3 Fuel Cells
G. Environmental Implications of Hydrogen
H. Environmental Impacts of Hydrogen Production Methods
I. Environmental Impact of the Hydrogen Economy
I.1 Introduction
I.2 Hydrogen in the Atmosphere
I.3 Hydrogen in the Troposphere – A Modeled Scenario
I.4 Is Hydrogen a GHG?
I.5 GHG Consequences and the Hydrogen Economy
I.6 Water Vapor Emissions of a Hydrogen Economy
I.7 Conclusion
J. Role of Fuel Cells in the Hydrogen Economy
K. Developing the Hydrogen Economy
K.1 Developing the Hydrogen Infrastructure and Associated Costs
K.2 Required Government Support
K.3 Projections of Hydrogen Use
L. Key Policy Questions in the Future of Hydrogen
M. Socio-Economic Features of the Hydrogen Economy
M.1 Why Develop Hydrogen?
M.2 Hydrogen Technologies
M.2.1 Production
M.2.2 Transportation and Distribution of Hydrogen
M.2.3 Hydrogen Storage
M.3 Conversion of Hydrogen and Uses
M.3.1 Electricity Generation
M.3.2 Applications in Transportation
N. Hydrogen for Developing Countries
N.1 Suggestions for National Energy Policy Makers
N.2 Role of International Governments and NGOs
O. Hydrogen from Hydrocarbons and Carbon Sequestration
P. The Potential of Renewable Hydrogen and Required Production Strategies
Q. Role of Ammonia in Hydrogen Economy
Q.1 Introduction
Q.2 Properties of Ammonia
Q.3 Production of Ammonia
Q.3.1 Technical Description
Q.3.2 Energy Usage
Q.4 Decomposition of Ammonia
Q.5 Storing Anhydrous Ammonia
Q.6 Using Ammonia as a Hydrogen Carrier
Q.6.1 Two-way Carriers
Q.6.2 One-way Carriers
Q.6.3 Existing Ammonia Distribution
Q.6.4 Ammonia Pipelines in Operation
Q.6.5 Ammonia Tanker Ships
Q.6.6 Ammonia Trucking
Q.6.7 Ammonia Distribution Costs
Q.6.8 Safety Issues Associated with Ammonia
Q.7 Conclusion
R. An Alternative to Hydrogen Fuel - Synthetic Methanol
S. Outlook for the Hydrogen Economy
T. Case Studies
T.1 Australia
T.2 Brazil
T.3 Canada
T.4 European Union
T.5 France
T.6 Germany
T.7 Iceland
T.8 India
T.9 Italy
T.10 Japan
T.11 Korea
T.12 Russia
T.13 United Kingdom
T.14 United States
U. Appendix
V. Glossary of Terms
List of Figures
Figure 1: Schematic Representation of an Elemental “Hydrogen Economy”
Figure 2: Higher Heating Value per Volume for Different Fuel Options
Figure 3: Voltage-Current Characteristics of Hydrogen Electrolyzer & Fuel Cell
Figure 4: Energy Input to Electrolyze Water Compared to HHV Energy of Liberated Hydrogen
Figure 5: Hydrogen from Wind Power Availability Map of the US
Figure 6: Hydrogen from Concentrating Solar Power Availability Map of the US
Figure 7: Hydrogen from Biomass Residues Availability Map of the US
Figure 8: Ranges in Onsite Hydrogen Production Cost Estimates
Figure 9: Adiabatic Compression Work versus Final Pressure for Hydrogen & Methane
Figure 10: Energy Required for the Compression of Hydrogen Compared to its Higher Heating Value
Figure 11: Typical Energy Requirements for the Liquefaction of Hydrogen versus Plant Capacity
Figure 12: Liquefaction Energy Relative to the HHV of Hydrogen versus Plant Capacity
Figure 13: Energy Needed to Produce Alkali Metal Hydrides Relative to the HHV Content of the Liberated Hydrogen
Figure 14: Energy Needed for the Road Delivery of Fuels Relative to their HHV Energy Content
Figure 15: Mass Flow Remaining in Pipeline Relative to the Mass Flow at the Pipeline Inlet, versus Pipeline Length
Figure 16: HHV Hydrogen Energy Fed into the Pipeline Inlet Compared to HHV Hydrogen Energy Delivered at the Pipeline Outlet
Figure 17: Energy Needed for On-Site Generation of Hydrogen by Electrolysis Stored at 10 MPa and Subsequent Compression to 40 MPa for Rapid Transfer to 35 MPa Vehicle Tanks Relative to the HHV Energy Content of Hydrogen
Figure 18: Ranges in Delivered Hydrogen Cost Estimates
Figure 19: Schematic Representation of the Transfer of Liquids and Gases
Figure 20: Fuel Cell Configuration
Figure 21: Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Refueling Pathways
Figure 22: Air Pollutant Emissions from Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Refueling Pathways
Figure 23: Linkages between Hydrogen and the Rest of the Energy System
Figure 24: Hypothetical Year 2040 Regional U.S. Hydrogen Demand of 10 Quads Per Year and Renewable Production Potential
Figure 25: Ammonia Production Costs
Figure 26: Conceptual NH3 Fuel Processing System
Figure 27: Anhydrous Ammonia Specific Gravity
Figure 28: Ammonia Vapor Pressure
Figure 29: Volumetric Targets
Figure 30: Mass Targets
Figure 31: NH3 Pipelines
Figure 32: Transition to the Hydrogen Economy Envisaged by the US Hydrogen Program
Figure 33: Increase in Global CO2 Concentration
Figure 34: Hydrogen Economy & Water Circulation
Figure 35: Hydrogen Energy System
Figure 36: Hydrogen Economy
List of Tables
Table 1: Density and Heating Values of Hydrogen and Methane
Table 2: National Research Council Estimates for Hydrogen Produced via SMR of Natural Gas
Table 3: Typical Reformer Effluent for SMR of Natural Gas and POx Reformation of Coal
Table 4: Energy Input of Alkali Metal Hydride Production
Table 5: Energy Consumed for Road Transport of Various Fuels and Hydrogen
Table 6: Assumptions & Results for On-Site Hydrogen Production
Table 7: Elements of Today's Hydrogen Energy System
Table 8: Land and Water Requirements for Renewable Hydrogen Production Methods
Table 9: Globally-Integrated Sources and Sinks for Hydrogen
Table 10: Hydrogen Production Cost from Fossil Fuel
Table 11: Selected Ammonia Properties
Table 12: NH3 Production from Alternate Sources
Table 13: Equilibrium Ammonia Conversion
Table 14: Acute Health Effects
Table 15: Hydrogen Commercialization Targets in Japan
Table 16: FreedomCAR Hydrogen Storage System Targets

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