The Global Market for Hydrogen Production, Storage, Transport and Applications (Hydrogen Economy) 2023-2033

The Global Market for Hydrogen Production, Storage, Transport and Applications (Hydrogen Economy) 2023-2033

The Global Market for Hydrogen Production, Storage, Transport and Applications (Hydrogen Economy) 2023-2033 is an essential resource for anyone involved in the hydrogen, energy and sustainability industries. Hydrogen technology and production is a key part of decarbonization strategies and a means to achieve direct electrification. The report provides extensive proprietary data on green and blue hydrogen production and capacity, trade, demand, applications, market share, and pricing. Hydrogen demand is potentially a trillion dollar market within a few years.

The publication covers all elements of this fast-growing market. Future market development and low-carbon innovation is driven by new green hydrogen (electrolyzers) and blue hydrogen technologies as there is a significant market need to develop new low-cost and low-carbon technologies for hydrogen production.

Other important elements include:
 storing and transporting hydrogen.
 hydrogen fuel cells.
 hydrogen vehicles including taxis, planes and cars.
 alternative fuels.
 ammonia production.
 methanol production.
 steelmaking.
 power & heat generation.
 marine/maritime.
 fuel cell trains.

Report contents include:
 Analysis of current hydrogen production (grey, brown etc.) and demand forecasts to 2033.
 Market value chain and industry map.
 Market drivers, trends and challenges.
 Hydrogen production processes and costs.
 Recent industry developments and investments and start-up funding.
 Market analysis of hydrogen technology and production including blue hydrogen (from decarbonised natural gas), green hydrogen (from renewable power and electrolysis), carbon capture, hydrogen storage & transport, hydrogen fuel cells, hydrogen vehicles, alternative fuels, ammonia production, methanol production, steelmaking, power & heat generation, marine, and fuel cell trains.
 Profiles of 244 companies including large corporations and start-ups. Companies profiled include Advanced Ionics, Aker Horizons, C-Zero, Dynelectro, Ekona Power, Electric Hydrogen, Enapter, EvoIOH, FuelCell Energy, Heliogen, HiiROC, Hystar, HydrogenPro, Innova Hydrogen, Ionomr Innovations, ITM Power, Jolt Electrodes, McPhy Energy SAS, Monolith Materials, NEL Hydrogen, Ohmium, Plug Power, PowerCell Sweden, Sunfire, Syzgy Plasmonics, Thiozen, Thyssenkrupp Nucera and Verdagy.

2.1 Hydrogen classification
2.2 Global energy demand and consumption
2.3 The hydrogen economy and production
2.4 Removing CO₂ emissions from hydrogen production
2.5 Hydrogen value chain
2.5.1 Production
2.5.2 Transport and storage
2.5.3 Utilization
2.6 National hydrogen initiatives
2.7 Market challenges
3.1 Industry developments 2020-2023
3.2 Market map
3.3 Global hydrogen production
3.3.1 Industrial applications
3.3.2 Hydrogen energy Stationary use Hydrogen for mobility
3.3.3 Current Annual H2 Production
3.3.4 Hydrogen production processes Hydrogen as by-product Reforming Reforming or coal gasification with CO2 capture and storage Steam reforming of biomethane Water electrolysis The "Power-to-Gas" concept Fuel cell stack Electrolysers Other
3.3.5 Production costs
3.3.6 Global hydrogen demand forecasts
3.4 Green hydrogen
3.4.1 Role in energy transition
3.4.2 SWOT analysis
3.4.3 Electrolyzer technologies Alkaline water electrolysis (AWE) Anion exchange membrane (AEM) water electrolysis PEM water electrolysis Solid oxide water electrolysis
3.4.4 Market players
3.5 Blue hydrogen (low-carbon hydrogen)
3.5.1 Advantages over green hydrogen
3.5.2 SWOT analysis
3.5.3 Production technologies Steam-methane reforming (SMR) Autothermal reforming (ATR) Partial oxidation (POX) Sorption Enhanced Steam Methane Reforming (SE-SMR) Methane pyrolysis (Turquoise hydrogen) Coal gasification Advanced autothermal gasification (AATG) Biomass processes Microwave technologies Dry reforming Plasma Reforming Solar SMR Tri-Reforming of Methane Membrane-assisted reforming Catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) Chemical looping combustion (CLC)
3.5.4 Carbon capture Pre-Combustion vs. Post-Combustion carbon capture What is CCUS? Carbon Utilization Carbon storage Transporting CO2 Costs Market map Point-source carbon capture for blue hydrogen Carbon utilization
3.5.5 Market players
3.6 Hydrogen Storage and Transport
3.6.1 Market overview
3.6.2 Hydrogen transport methods Pipeline transportation Road or rail transport Maritime transportation On-board-vehicle transport
3.6.3 Hydrogen compression, liquefaction, storage Solid storage Liquid storage on support Underground storage
3.6.4 Market players
3.7 Hydrogen utilization
3.7.1 Hydrogen Fuel Cells Market overview
3.7.2 Alternative fuel production Solid Biofuels Liquid Biofuels Gaseous Biofuels Conventional Biofuels Advanced Biofuels Feedstocks Production of biodiesel and other biofuels Renewable diesel Biojet and sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) Electrofuels (E-fuels, power-to-gas/liquids/fuels)
3.7.3 Hydrogen Vehicles Market overview
3.7.4 Aviation Market overview
3.7.5 Ammonia production Market overview Decarbonisation of ammonia production Green ammonia synthesis methods Blue ammonia Chemical energy storage
3.7.6 Methanol production Market overview Methanol-to gasoline technology
3.7.7 Steelmaking Market overview
3.7.8 Power & heat generation Market overview
3.7.9 Maritime Market overview
3.7.10 Fuel cell trains Market overview
4 COMPANY PROFILES 200 (244 company profiles)
List of Tables
Table 1. Hydrogen colour shades, Technology, cost, and CO2 emissions.
Table 2. Overview of hydrogen production methods.
Table 3. National hydrogen initiatives.
Table 4. Market challenges in the hydrogen economy and production technologies.
Table 5. Hydrogen industry developments 2020-2023.
Table 6. Market map for hydrogen technology and production.
Table 7. Industrial applications of hydrogen.
Table 8. Hydrogen energy markets and applications.
Table 9. Hydrogen production processes and stage of development.
Table 10. Estimated costs of clean hydrogen production.
Table 11. Characteristics of typical water electrolysis technologies
Table 12. Advantages and disadvantages of water electrolysis technologies.
Table 13. Market players in green hydrogen (electrolyzers).
Table 14. Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) of main production technologies for blue hydrogen.
Table 15. Key players in methane pyrolysis.
Table 16. Commercial coal gasifier technologies.
Table 17. Blue hydrogen projects using CG.
Table 18. Biomass processes summary, process description and TRL.
Table 19. Pathways for hydrogen production from biomass.
Table 20. CO2 utilization and removal pathways
Table 21. Approaches for capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from point sources.
Table 22. CO2 capture technologies.
Table 23. Advantages and challenges of carbon capture technologies.
Table 24. Overview of commercial materials and processes utilized in carbon capture.
Table 25. Methods of CO2 transport.
Table 26. Carbon capture, transport, and storage cost per unit of CO2
Table 27. Estimated capital costs for commercial-scale carbon capture.
Table 28. Point source examples.
Table 29. Assessment of carbon capture materials
Table 30. Chemical solvents used in post-combustion.
Table 31. Commercially available physical solvents for pre-combustion carbon capture.
Table 32. Carbon utilization revenue forecast by product (US$).
Table 33. CO2 utilization and removal pathways.
Table 34. Market challenges for CO2 utilization.
Table 35. Example CO2 utilization pathways.
Table 36. CO2 derived products via Thermochemical conversion-applications, advantages and disadvantages.
Table 37. Electrochemical CO₂ reduction products.
Table 38. CO2 derived products via electrochemical conversion-applications, advantages and disadvantages.
Table 39. CO2 derived products via biological conversion-applications, advantages and disadvantages.
Table 40. Companies developing and producing CO2-based polymers.
Table 41. Companies developing mineral carbonation technologies.
Table 42. Market players in blue hydrogen.
Table 43. Market overview-hydrogen storage and transport.
Table 44. Summary of different methods of hydrogen transport.
Table 45. Market players in hydrogen storage and transport.
Table 46. Market overview hydrogen fuel cells-applications, market players and market challenges.
Table 47. Categories and examples of solid biofuel.
Table 48. Comparison of biofuels and e-fuels to fossil and electricity.
Table 49. Classification of biomass feedstock.
Table 50. Biorefinery feedstocks.
Table 51. Feedstock conversion pathways.
Table 52. Biodiesel production techniques.
Table 53. Advantages and disadvantages of biojet fuel
Table 54. Production pathways for bio-jet fuel.
Table 55. Applications of e-fuels, by type.
Table 56. Overview of e-fuels.
Table 57. Benefits of e-fuels.
Table 58. eFuel production facilities, current and planned.
Table 59. Market overview for hydrogen vehicles-applications, market players and market challenges.
Table 60. Blue ammonia projects.
Table 61. Ammonia fuel cell technologies.
Table 62. Market overview of green ammonia in marine fuel.
Table 63. Summary of marine alternative fuels.
Table 64. Estimated costs for different types of ammonia.
Table 65. Comparison of biogas, biomethane and natural gas.
List of Figures
Figure 1. Hydrogen value chain.
Figure 2. Current Annual H2 Production.
Figure 3. Principle of a PEM electrolyser.
Figure 4. Power-to-gas concept.
Figure 5. Schematic of a fuel cell stack.
Figure 6. High pressure electrolyser - 1 MW.
Figure 7. Global hydrogen demand forecast.
Figure 8. SWOT analysis for green hydrogen.
Figure 9. Types of electrolysis technologies.
Figure 10. Schematic of alkaline water electrolysis working principle.
Figure 11. Schematic of PEM water electrolysis working principle.
Figure 12. Schematic of solid oxide water electrolysis working principle.
Figure 13. SWOT analysis for blue hydrogen.
Figure 14. SMR process flow diagram of steam methane reforming with carbon capture and storage (SMR-CCS).
Figure 15. Process flow diagram of autothermal reforming with a carbon capture and storage (ATR-CCS) plant.
Figure 16. POX process flow diagram.
Figure 17. Process flow diagram for a typical SE-SMR.
Figure 18. HiiROC’s methane pyrolysis reactor.
Figure 19. Coal gasification (CG) process.
Figure 20. Flow diagram of Advanced autothermal gasification (AATG).
Figure 21. Schematic of CCUS process.
Figure 22. Pathways for CO2 utilization and removal.
Figure 23. A pre-combustion capture system.
Figure 24. Carbon dioxide utilization and removal cycle.
Figure 25. Various pathways for CO2 utilization.
Figure 26. Example of underground carbon dioxide storage.
Figure 27. Transport of CCS technologies.
Figure 28. Railroad car for liquid CO₂ transport
Figure 29. Estimated costs of capture of one metric ton of carbon dioxide (Co2) by sector.
Figure 30. CCUS market map.
Figure 31. Global capacity of point-source carbon capture and storage facilities.
Figure 32. Global carbon capture capacity by CO2 source, 2021.
Figure 33. Global carbon capture capacity by CO2 source, 2030.
Figure 34. Global carbon capture capacity by CO2 endpoint, 2021 and 2030.
Figure 35. Post-combustion carbon capture process.
Figure 36. Postcombustion CO2 Capture in a Coal-Fired Power Plant.
Figure 37. Oxy-combustion carbon capture process.
Figure 38. Liquid or supercritical CO2 carbon capture process.
Figure 39. Pre-combustion carbon capture process.
Figure 40. CO2 non-conversion and conversion technology, advantages and disadvantages.
Figure 41. Applications for CO2.
Figure 42. Cost to capture one metric ton of carbon, by sector.
Figure 43. Life cycle of CO2-derived products and services.
Figure 44. Co2 utilization pathways and products.
Figure 45. Plasma technology configurations and their advantages and disadvantages for CO2 conversion.
Figure 46. LanzaTech gas-fermentation process.
Figure 47. Schematic of biological CO2 conversion into e-fuels.
Figure 48. Econic catalyst systems.
Figure 49. Mineral carbonation processes.
Figure 50. Process steps in the production of electrofuels.
Figure 51. Mapping storage technologies according to performance characteristics.
Figure 52. Production process for green hydrogen.
Figure 53. E-liquids production routes.
Figure 54. Fischer-Tropsch liquid e-fuel products.
Figure 55. Resources required for liquid e-fuel production.
Figure 56. Levelized cost and fuel-switching CO2 prices of e-fuels.
Figure 57. Cost breakdown for e-fuels.
Figure 58. Hydrogen fuel cell powered EV.
Figure 59. Green ammonia production and use.
Figure 60. Classification and process technology according to carbon emission in ammonia production.
Figure 61. Schematic of the Haber Bosch ammonia synthesis reaction.
Figure 62. Schematic of hydrogen production via steam methane reformation.
Figure 63. Estimated production cost of green ammonia.
Figure 64. Renewable Methanol Production Processes from Different Feedstocks.
Figure 65. Production of biomethane through anaerobic digestion and upgrading.
Figure 66. Production of biomethane through biomass gasification and methanation.
Figure 67. Production of biomethane through the Power to methane process.
Figure 68. Three Gorges Hydrogen Boat No. 1.
Figure 69. PESA hydrogen-powered shunting locomotive.
Figure 70. Symbiotic™ technology process.
Figure 71. Alchemr AEM electrolyzer cell.
Figure 72. HyCS® technology system.
Figure 73. Fuel cell module FCwave™.
Figure 74. Direct Air Capture Process.
Figure 75. CRI process.
Figure 76. Croft system.
Figure 77. ECFORM electrolysis reactor schematic.
Figure 78. Domsjö process.
Figure 79. EH Fuel Cell Stack.
Figure 80. Direct MCH® process.
Figure 81. Electriq's dehydrogenation system.
Figure 82. Endua Power Bank.
Figure 83. EL 2.1 AEM Electrolyser.
Figure 84. Enapter – Anion Exchange Membrane (AEM) Water Electrolysis.
Figure 85. Hyundai Class 8 truck fuels at a First Element high capacity mobile refueler.
Figure 86. FuelPositive system.
Figure 87. Using electricity from solar power to produce green hydrogen.
Figure 88. Hydrogen Storage Module.
Figure 89. Plug And Play Stationery Storage Units.
Figure 90. Left: a typical single-stage electrolyzer design, with a membrane separating the hydrogen and oxygen gasses. Right: the two-stage E-TAC process.
Figure 91. Hystar PEM electrolyser.
Figure 92. KEYOU-H2-Technology.
Figure 93. Audi/Krajete unit.
Figure 94. OCOchem’s Carbon Flux Electrolyzer.
Figure 95. The Plagazi ® process.
Figure 96. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell.
Figure 97. Sunfire process for Blue Crude production.
Figure 98. CALF-20 has been integrated into a rotating CO2 capture machine (left), which operates inside a CO2 plant module (right).
Figure 99. Tevva hydrogen truck.
Figure 100. Topsoe's SynCORTM autothermal reforming technology.
Figure 101. O12 Reactor.
Figure 102. Sunglasses with lenses made from CO2-derived materials.
Figure 103. CO2 made car part.
Figure 104. The Velocys process.

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