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Graphite: Technologies and Global Markets

Graphite: Technologies and Global Markets

The global market for graphite reached $12.5 billion in 2016 and should reach $18.2 billion in 2021, growing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.7% from 2016 through 2021.

Report Includes
In depth review of the global graphite market.
Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2015 and 2016, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2021.
Complete coverage of the exploding battery market and its impact on the graphite mining industry and the graphite markets.
Details and discussion of the graphite mines under development with data on all ongoing projects.
Discussion of the major challenges and opportunities faced by the market.
Regional analysis of the market with respect to production, prices and export and import data.
Review of the graphite-related patents by chronology and by market players.
Detailed profiles of major companies in the industry with complete financial details.
The most comprehensive graphite market analysis available today.

Report Scope
The report covers the global graphite markets, providing the market information for 2015 and 2016 and forecasts for 2021.
The scope of the report is coverage of the four graphite market segments – refractory and metallurgy, electrical, technical, and the rest – analyzed by application and geography. Estimated values used are based on manufacturers’ total revenues.

Refractory and metallurgy markets cover those applications that make use of the high temperature stability of graphite. Electrical applications are those that tap into the high electrical conductivity of purer grades of graphite. Technical markets make use of the strength properties, lubrication and radiation absorption. For these segments, we report the status and changes happening in the markets.

The graphite market can also be segmented into natural and synthetic graphite markets. One of the focus areas is the development of natural graphite mining and application, driven largely by the lithium–ion battery markets that are fundamentally changing the structure of the graphite industry.

For the synthetic graphite market, BCC Research covers the nature of individual application markets, focusing on graphite electrodes. Another application covered in detail is cathodes for aluminum smelting.

In terms of geographic segmentation of the market, the report provides detailed statistics of mining data as well as trade data. Trade statistics for graphite exports and imports for various countries are analyzed in detail, and the past growth rates are provided. Geographical segmentation for numerous application markets is provided.

The large change in natural graphite mining is going to shift the balances of trade for a large number of countries and these changes are also discussed in this report. China has been the market leader in the segment. Australian and Canadian companies will make strong inroads into the market in the coming years, and could command a quarter of the market in 2021.

One specific chapter covers the graphite material industry characteristics. In this chapter, the material properties of graphite that make it unique are detailed, and the market structure is discussed. Both natural and synthetic graphite markets are detailed.

A chapter specific to U.S. and European markets is provided. This should be of interest to companies active in these markets and also for graphite companies wanting to sell into these regions.

A later chapter reviews the details of the applications for graphite including well established markets such as electrodes, cathodes, carbon brushes, alkaline batteries, pencils, and friction; as well as the upcoming and faster growing applications such as lithium–ion batteries and nuclear. Each application segment is reviewed in detail to show the market statistics, expected growth rates, technological changes, mergers, acquisitions and sales of companies if any, as well as any unique characteristic of each industry.

Patents and intellectual property aspects of the graphite market are detailed in a separate chapter. Here, a review of the number of patents granted by the U.S. Patent Office is analyzed chronologically. In another section of this chapter, all individual players actively developing technologies are discussed. The companies that are in the forefront of such technology and application development, such as Tesla are specifically analyzed in detail.

The last chapter of the report covers individual companies that are active in the graphite market. This chapter covers not only the nature and size of each of the operating companies, but also provides the financial data for each company wherever available, and the economic analysis for the graphite mines that are newly being developed. Address and contact details for the market participants are provided.

Chapter 1: Introduction
Study Goals and Objectives
Reasons for Doing This Study
Intended Audience
Scope of Report
Information Sources
Geographic Breakdown
Analyst's Credentials
Related BCC Research Reports
Chapter 2: Summary and Highlights
Chapter 3: Graphite Markets
Graphite: Introduction
Structure and Properties
Natural Graphite
Natural Amorphous Graphite
Natural Flake Graphite
Natural Crystalline / Vein Graphite
Synthetic Graphite
An Ever-Profitable Business
Isotropic Graphite
Graphite Markets
Natural Graphite Market
China – What Is Really Going On?
Natural Graphite Mining
Costs for Mining Graphite
Vein Graphite
Flake Graphite Mining is Hot
Synthetic Graphite Market
Graphite Market Structure
Graphite Market Trends and Forecasts
Impact on the Natural Graphite Markets
Impact on the Synthetic Graphite Markets
Vertical Integration in Natural Graphite Markets
Chapter 4: United States and European Graphite Markets
United States Graphite Market
Natural Graphite
Synthetic Graphite
European Graphite Markets
Natural Graphite Imports
Natural Graphite Exports
Synthetic Graphite Imports
Synthetic Graphite Exports
Chapter 5: Graphite Applications Market
Graphite Electrodes for Steel Making
Cathode Bricks
Graphite Crucibles
Refractory Applications
Graphite for Lithium Ion Batteries
Global Battery Markets
Global Lithium Ion Batteries Market
Application Markets for Lithium Ion Batteries
Status of Gigafactories
Graphite Consumption in Batteries
Processing Natural Graphite for Lithium Ion Batteries
New Graphite Mines Supporting L–iB Market
Market Forecast
Alkaline Battery
Carbon Brush Market
Fuel Cell Applications
Friction – Brake Pads, Linings and Clutch Facings
Carbon Fibers / Graphite Fibers
Expandable Graphite
Graphene Applications
Nuclear Applications
Recarburizer Market for Steels
Pencils Market
Other Graphite Markets and Applications
Global Graphite Market Projections
Chapter 6: Graphite Technologies and Patents
Graphite Applications in Batteries
Patent Analysis by Year
Core Patents in Battery Applications of Graphite
Graphite Patents in Battery Applications: by Company
Chapter 7: Company Profiles
About BCC Research
About BCC Research
BCC Membership
BCC Custom Research
List of Tables
Summary Table: Global Graphite Markets, by Segment, Through 2021 ($ Millions)
Table 1 Overview of Graphite Applications by Property
Table 2 Flake Graphite Grades: Particle Sizes, Market Terminology and Prices
Table 3 Synthetic Graphite: Material and Energy Inputs Needed
Table 4 List of Graphite Applications, by Type of Graphite Used
Table 5 Applications by Purity and Particle Size of Graphite Used
Table 6 Global Isostatic Graphite Manufacturers and Capacities (MT)
Table 7 Global Export Data of Natural Graphite, Through 2015 ($ Thousands)
Table 8 Global Import Data of Natural Graphite, Through 2015 ($ Thousands)
Table 9 Global Natural Graphite Resources and Production, Through 2015 (Thousands per MT
Table 10 Production, Capex and Revenue Estimates of 45 New Graphite Mines Under Development
Table 11 Global Export Data of Synthetic Graphite, 2011–2015 ($ Thousands
Table 12 Global Import Data of Synthetic Graphite, by Country, through 2015 ($ Thousands)
Table 13 Estimates for Revenues from Graphite Companies, by Country, 2021 ($ Millions)
Table 14 Graphite Grades Used in Various Applications and Markets That Will be Disrupted
Table 15 Natural Graphite Data for United States, 2011-2015 (MT)
Table 16 Natural Graphite Consumption in the United States, 2013 (MT)
Table 17 Natural Graphite Import Data for E.U. Countries,2011-2016 (MT)
Table 18 Natural Graphite Import Data for E.U. Countries, 2011-2016 (Million Euros)
Table 19 Average Natural Graphite Import Price, by Country, 2016 (€ per MT)
Table 20 Natural Graphite Export Data for E.U. Countries, 2011-2016 (MT)
Table 21 Natural Graphite Export Data for E.U. Countries, 2011-2016 (Million Euros)
Table 22 Average Natural Graphite Export Price, by Country, 2016 (€ per MT)
Table 23 Synthetic Graphite Import Data for E.U. Countries, 2011-2016 (MT)
Table 24 Synthetic Graphite Import Data for E.U. Countries, 2011-2016 (Million Euros)
Table 25 Average Synthetic Graphite Import Price, by Country, 2016 (€ per MT)
Table 26 Synthetic Graphite Export Data for E.U. Countries, 2011-2016 (MT)
Table 27 Synthetic Graphite Export Data for E.U. Countries, 2011-2016 (Million Euros)
Table 28 Average Synthetic Graphite Export Price, by Country, 2016 (€ per MT)
Table 29 Typical Electrode Composition
Table 30 Partial List of Customers for Graphite Electrodes in the Steel Industry (EAF)
Table 31 Global Market for Graphite Electrodes, by Region, Through 2021 ($ Millions)
Table 32 Global Graphite Demand for Cathodes, Through 2021 (MT)
Table 33 Global Market for Graphite Cathodes, by Region, Through 2021 ($ Millions)
Table 34 Global Market for Graphite Crucibles, by Region, through 2021 ($ Millions)
Table 35 Global Market for Graphite Refractories, by Region, through 2021 ($ Millions)
Table 36 Lithium Ion Battery Exports by Country, 2012–2016 ($ Millions)
Table 37 Lithium Ion Battery Imports, by Country, 2012–2016 ($ Millions)
Table 38 List of Companies in the Lithium Battery Industry, by Country
Table 39 Top Ten Electric Vehicles in the European Market, 2016 (%)
Table 40 Electric Vehicles and Launch Years
Table 41 Companies Investing in Battery Technology for Electric Vehicles
Table 42 Projected Graphite Demand from Gigafactories
Table 43 Application Markets for Lithium Ion Batteries and Growth Rates, 2014 and 2024
Table 44 Estimates for Graphite Usage in Vehicle Batteries (Kg)
Table 45 Estimates for Graphite Usage in Automotive Batteries, By Market Penetration of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles
Table 46 Comparison of Natural and Synthetic Graphite for Use in Lithium Ion Batteries
Table 47 Cost and Property Comparison of L–iB Anode Materials
Table 48 Canadian Graphite Mining Companies
Table 49 Australian Graphite Mining Companies
Table 50 Graphite Size Distribution of Advanced Mining Projects (%)
Table 51 Graphite Demand for Batteries, by Application, through 2021 (MT)
Table 52 Global Market for Graphite in Lithium Ion Battery Industry, by Region, Through 2021 ($ Millions)
Table 53 Global Market for Graphite in Alkaline Batteries, by Region, Through 2021 ($ Millions)
Table 54 Global Market for Graphite in Carbon Brush Industry, by Region, through 2021 ($ Millions)
Table 55 Global PEMFC Market, by Region, Through 2017 ($ Millions)
Table 56 Global Market for Graphite in Fuel Cells Market, through 2021 ($ Millions)
Table 57 Brake Pad Technologies and Graphite Usage in Each
Table 58. Global Graphite Demand for Friction Industry, Through 2021 (MT)
Table 59 Global Market for Graphite in Friction Industry, by Region, Through 2021 ($ Millions)
Table 60 Companies Active on Expandable Graphite Business
Table 61 Global Market for Carbon Fibers and Expandable Graphites, by Region, Through 2021 ($ Millions)
Table 62 Unique Properties of Graphene
Table 63 Comparison of Graphene Types and Graphite Markets
Table 64 Graphite Properties in Nuclear Applications
Table 65 Graphite Grades Compared per Nuclear Market Targets
Table 66 Global Market for Graphites in Recarburizers, Through 2021 ($ Millions)
Table 67 Global Market for Graphite in Pencils, by Region, Through 2021 ($ Millions)
Table 68 High Purity Graphite Market Demand and Price, by Segment, 2017
Table 69 Global Market for Graphite in All Other Applications Combined, Through 2021 ($ Millions)
Table 70 Global Graphite Markets, by Application, Through 2021 ($ Millions)
Table 71 U.S. Patents Specific to Battery Applications of Graphite, 1976–2016
Table 72 Number of U.S. Graphite Patents on Battery Applications by Company Name
Table 73 U.S. Patents Granted to Tesla on Graphite Usage
Table 74 Financials at AMG–GK, 2015 and 2016
Table 75 Financials at Alabama Graphite, 2014-2016 (Canadian Dollars)
Table 76 Financial Estimates for Coosa Project, Alabama Graphite
Table 77 Financials at American Graphite Technologies, 2011-2015 (U.S. Dollars)
Table 78 Resource Estimates of the Eyre Peninsula Graphite Projects, Archer Exploration Ltd.
Table 79 Feasibility Study Estimates of the Eyre Peninsula Graphite Project, Archer Exploration Ltd.
Table 80 Consolidated Findings of the Montepuez DFS and PSG PFS, Battery Minerals Ltd.
Table 81 Financials at Battery Minerals Ltd., 2012-2016 (Canadian Dollars)
Table 82 Scoping Study Estimates of the Mahenge Graphite Project, Black Rock Mining Ltd.
Table 83 Financials at Black Rock Mining Ltd., 2012-2016 (U.S. Dollars)
Table 84 Financials at Bora Bora Resources,2012 2016 (Australian Dollars)
Table 85 Project Feasibility Estimates of the Matale Project, Bora Bora Resources
Table 86 Financials at Canada Carbon, 2015 and 2016 (Canadian Dollars)
Table 87 Financials at Capricorn Metals Limited, 2012-2016 (Australian Dollars)
Table 88 Financials at China Carbon Graphite Group, 2011-2013 ($ Thousands)
Table 89 Financials at China Carbon Graphite Group, 2014-2016 ($)
Table 90 Estimates of the Aukam Graphite Deposit, CKR Carbon
Table 91 Financials at CKR Carbon Corporation, 2012-2016 (Canadian Dollars)
Table 92 Graphite Products and Properties, Cocan Graphite
Table 93 Financials at Discovery Africa Limited, 2012-2016 (Australian Dollars)
Table 94. Financials at DNI Metals Inc., 2014-2016 (Canadian Dollars)
Table 95 Financials at Eagle Graphite, 2015 and 2016 (Canadian Dollars)
Table 96 Production Plans at Eagle Graphite, 2015-2019
Table 97 Financials at Elcora, 2015 and 2016
Table 98 Financials at Fangda Carbon,2011-2015 (¥ Millions)
Table 99 Financial Estimates for First Graphite, 2017-2020
Table 100 Financials at Focus Graphite, 2014-2016 (Canadian Dollars)
Table 101 Financial Estimates for Focus Graphite
Table 102 Graftech Company Financials, 2015 and 2016 ($ Millions)
Table 103 Financials at Graniz Mondal Inc., 2012-2016 (Canadian Dollars)
Table 104 Financials at Graphene 3D Labs, 2014-2016 ($)
Table 105 Estimates from Financial Feasibility Analysis of Chilalo Project, Graphex Mining
Table 106 Financials at Graphite India, 2015 and 2016 ($ Millions)
Table 107 Financials at Graphite One, 2014-2016 (Canadian Dollars)
Table 108 Estimates from Preliminary Economical Analysis of Graphite Creek Project, Graphite One .. 220
Table 109 Financials at Great Lakes Graphite, 2015 and 2016 (Canadian Dollars)
Table 110 Financials at Haydale, by Region, 2013-2016 (GBP)
Table 111 Estimates from Financial Feasibility Analysis of McIntosh Project, Hexagon Resources
Table 112 Hitachi Chemicals Anode Materials Revenue, 2013-2016 ($ Millions)
Table 113 Imerys Graphite and Carbons Segment Revenue, 2014-2016 ($ Millions)
Table 114 Financials for Electronic Division at Kaneka Corporation, 2012-2016 (¥ Millions)
Table 115 Graphite Properties, Karabacak Mining Industry
Table 116 Estimates from Financial Feasibility Analysis of Epanko Project, Kibaran Resources
Table 117 Estimates from Financial Feasibility Analysis of Battery Grade Graphite Processing Project, Kibaran Resources
Table 118 Financials at Kibaran Resources, 2013-2016 ($)
Table 119 Financials at Lanka Graphite Limited, 2012-2016 (Australian Dollars)
Table 120 Financials at Leading Edge Materials, 2015 and 2016 (Canadian Dollars)
Table 121 Resource Estimates of Kookaburra Gully Project, Lincoln Resources
Table 122 Financials at Lincoln Resources Limited,2013-2016 (Australian Dollars)
Table 123 Financials at Lomiko Metals Inc., 2012-2016 (Canadian Dollars)
Table 124 Estimates from Feasibility Analysis of the Nachu Project, Magnis Resources
Table 125 Financials at Magnis Resources, 2014-2016 (Australian Dollars)
Table 126 Estimates from Feasibility Analysis of the Lac Gueret Project, Mason Graphite (Canadian Dollars
Table 127 Financials at Mason Graphite, 2015 and 2016 (Canadian Dollars)
Table 128 Products Offered by Nacional De Grafite
Table 129 Graphite Production Plants of Nacional De Grafite
Table 130 Financials at Next Graphite Inc., 2013-2016 (Canadian Dollars)
Table 131 Financials at NextSource Materials, 2015 and 2016
Table 132 Financial Estimates for NextSource Materials Under Full Production at Molo
Table 133 Estimates of the Bisset Creek Project, Northern Graphite (U.S. Dollars)
Table 134 Financials at Northern Graphite, 2014-2016 (Canadian Dollars)
Table 135 Estimates of the Matawinie Project, Nouveau Monde Graphite ($)
Table 136 Financials at Nouveau Monde Graphite, 2014-2016 (Canadian Dollars)
Table 137 Graphite Properties, Oysu Graphite Mining
Table 138 Financials at Saint Jean Carbon, 2015 and 2016 (Canadian Dollars)
Table 139 Financials at SEC Carbon, by Product Line, 2013-2016 ($ Millions)
Table 140 Financials at SGL Carbon for Graphitic Products, 2015 and 2016 (€ Millions)
Table 141 Financials at Showa Denko for Segments Related to Graphite Markets, 2015 ($ Millions)
Table 142 Financials at Sinosteel Jilin Carbon, 2011-2015 (Million Chinese Yuan)
Table 143 Financials at Sovereign Metals Limited, 2012-2016 (Australian Dollars)
Table 144 Financials at Stratmin, 2014-2016 (Thousands GBP)
Table 145 Estimates of the Balama Project, Syrah Resources (U.S. Dollars)
Table 146 Financials at Syrah Resources, 2015 and 2016 ($ Thousands)
Table 147 Resource Estimates of the Swedish Graphite Projects, Talga Resources
Table 148 Project Feasibility Estimates of the Swedish Graphite Projects, Talga Resources
Table 149 Financials at Talga Resources, 2013-2016 (Australian Dollars)
Table 150 Financials at Tokai Carbon for Graphite Related Segments, 2011-2016 (¥ Millions)
Table 151 Financials at Tokai Carbon for Selected Segments, 2015-2016 (¥ Millions)
Table 152 Financials at Toyo Tanso for Graphite Related Segments, 2015-2016 (¥ Millions)
Table 153 Project Feasibility Estimates of the Nicanda Hill – Balama Graphite Project, Triton Minerals, 2014 Data
Table 154 Feasibility Study Estimates of the Uley Phase Ii Graphite Project, Valence Industries
Table 155 Resource Estimates of the Uley Graphite Projects, Valence Industries
Table 156 Financials at Valence Industries Limited, 2012-2016 (Australian Dollars)
Table 157 Pre–Feasibility Study Estimates of the Namangale Graphite Project, Volt Resources Ltd.
Table 158 Financials at Volt Resources Limited, 2012-2016 (Australian Dollars)
Table 159 Feasibility Study Estimates of the Lindi Jumbo Graphite Project, Walkabout Resources Ltd. 293
Table 160 Project Feasibility Estimates of the Albany Graphite Project, Zenyatta Ventures
Table 161 Financials at Zenyatta, 2014-2016 (Canadian Dollars)
List of Figures
Summary Figure: Global Graphite Markets, by Segment, 2015–2021 ($ Millions)
Figure 1 Structure of Graphite
Figure 2 Flow Chart for Synthetic Graphite Production
Figure 3 Ever-Profitable Market Dynamics for Synthetic Graphite, 2005-2016e (Million Yen)
Figure 4 Comparison of Particle Size and Purity for Natural and Synthetic Graphites
Figure 5 Flow Chart for Isotropic Graphite Production
Figure 6 Amorphous and Flake Graphite Import Prices into the U.S., 2010-2015 ($ per MT, USD)
Figure 7 Global Graphite Resources and Production, 2015 (%)
Figure 8 Costs Associated with Graphite Mining and Production (%)
Figure 9 Operating Costs for a Graphite Mine, Example (%)
Figure 10 Comparison of Prices of Sri Lankan Graphite to Rest of The World, 2010–2015 ($ Per MT, USD)
Figure 11 Value Additions in Graphite Processing for L–iB Market
Figure 12 Schematic of Process Steps for Graphite Processing for Lithium Ion Battery Applications
Figure 13 Graphite Content in the Mineral Resources Identified at Various Mines Globally (%TGC)
Figure 14 Flake Graphite Particle Sizes Compared for Various Mines Under Development (%)
Figure 15 Market Price for Graphite Grades, 2011–2020 ($ per MT, USD)
Figure 16 Graphene Oxide Markets and Acceptance Based on Price Points
Figure 17 Number of Companies Operating in the Graphite Market, by Country
Figure 18 Global Graphite Market Revenues, Share by Country, 2016 and 2021 (%)
Figure 19 Graphite Electrode Manufacturing Cost Breakdown (%)
Figure 20 Global Steel Production and Production Using Electric Arc Furnace, 2011–2015 (Million Metric Tons)
Figure 21 Global Steel Production, by Region, 2016 (%)
Figure 22 Global Graphite Electrode Consumption in Electric Arc Furnaces, 2011-2015 (MT)
Figure 23 Graphite Electrode Manufacturing Capacity for Largest Six Manufacturers, 2015 (Thousand Metric Tons per Year)
Figure 24 Market Share for Graphite Electrodes for Steel Industry, by Region, 2015 (%)
Figure 25 Aluminum Global Production, 2008-2021 (Million Metric Tons)
Figure 26 Global Market Shares for Aluminum Smelting Cathodes, by Company (%)
Figure 27 Trends in Graphite Usage in Aluminum Smelting Cathodes, 2005–2020 (Tons per Year)
Figure 28 Comparison of Lead Acid and Lithilum Ion Battery Markets, 2012 and 2020 ($ Millions)
Figure 29 Global Rechargeable Battery Market, by Technology, 1995–2015 (Million Watt Hours)
Figure 30 Global Rechargeable Battery Market, by Technology, 2000–2015 (Number of Cells, Millions) 97
Figure 31 Timeline of Electric Vehicle Launches by Selected Manufacturers
Figure 32 Global Plug-In Electric Vehicle Sales, 2012–2016 (Number of Vehicles)
Figure 33 Number of Electric Vehicles, 2015–2025 (Millions)
Figure 34 Projected Changes in Cost, Weight, Capacity and Range of Batteries Used in Electric Vehicles, 2015–2020
Figure 35 Battery Costs for Three Application Segments, 2015–2020 ($ per kWh, USD)
Figure 36 Gigafactory Capacities, 2013–2020 (GWh)
Figure 37 Global Lithium Ion Battery Cell Production Capacities, by Country (GW)
Figure 38 Market Share for Lithium Ion Batteries, by Application, 2013 (%)
Figure 39 Costs of an Electric Battery
Figure 40 Natural Graphite Market Share Growth in Lithium Ion Battery Anodes, 2006–2014 (Tons) .. 118
Figure 41 Growth in Material Usage for Flake Graphite, Lithium and Cobalt in Lithium Ion Batteries, 2010–2014 (%)
Figure 42 Spherical Graphite Exports from China, 2009–2015 (Tons)
Figure 43 Cross-Section of a Spiral Wound Lithium Ion Battery
Figure 44 North American Graphite Mines Comparison (Million Metric Tons Ore)
Figure 45 Australian Graphite Mines Comparison (Million Tons Graphite, Grade (Cg)(%))
Figure 46 73 Publicly Listed Graphite Companies, by Stage of Development
Figure 47 North American Lithium Ion Battery Companies, by Location
Figure 48 Market Prices for Graphite by Flake Size, 2015 and 2020 (Price per MT, USD)
Figure 49 PEM Fuel Cell Shipments, by Count, 2009–2015 (Thousands)
Figure 50 PEM Fuel Cell Shipments, 2009–2015 (MW)
Figure 51 Schematic of Expandable Graphite Production
Figure 52 Expansion Ratios of Treated Graphite Grades from Selected Sources (mL/g)
Figure 53 Relation Between Expansion Ratios and Graphite Particle Size (mL/g)
Figure 54 Flake Graphite Pricing for Expandable Graphite, By Size ($ per MT)
Figure 55 Property Comparison of Graphene with Other Materials
Figure 56 Graphene Production Technologies and Scalability
Figure 57 Global Graphene Market Share by Application, 2015 (%)
Figure 58 Graphene Market Size Estimates, 2014–2020 ($ Millions)
Figure 59 Schematic of a Pebble Bed Nuclear Reactor
Figure 60 Number of U.S. Patents on Graphite Technologies, 1976–2016 (Number of Patents)
Figure 61 Number of U.S. Patents on Graphite Technologies for Battery Applications, 1976–2016 (Number of Patents)
Figure 62 Chronological Review of Graphite Patents for Battery Applications (Number of Patents)
Figure 63 Revenues at HEG Limited India, 2014–2016 ($ Millions)
Figure 64 Financials at Nippon Carbon, 2013–2018 ($ Millions)

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