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Global Markets and Technologies for Carbon Nanotubes

Global Markets and Technologies for Carbon Nanotubes

The global market for CNT primary grades was $158.6 million in 2014. This market is projected to reach $167.9 million in 2015 and $670.6 million in 2019, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 33.4% from 2014 to 2019.

This report provides:

An overview of the global markets and technologies for carbon nanotubes (CNTs).

Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2013, estimates for 2014, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2019.

Information on the history, production methodology, and unique properties of various forms of CNTs.

Emphasis on major application challenges CNTs face.

Examination of the market's dynamics, specifically growth drivers, restraints, and opportunities.

Assessments of the latest progress and the technical readiness of major application sectors including composites, electronics, energy storage, membranes, sensors, and other applications.

An extensive search/analysis of U.S. issued and pending patents (along with Canadian, European and WPTO databases where there is no USPTO presence.

Details concerning the competitive landscape and the industry's structure, as well as profiles of major players in the carbon nanotube industry.


SCOPE OF REPORT

Following the Introduction and Executive Summary chapters, this updated report is then divided into nine major chapters as described below.

Chapter Three, Technology Overview, defines CNTs, outlines their history, describes the production methodology, identifies the unique properties of various forms of CNTs and emphasizes the major application challenges.

Chapter Four, Patent Analysis, provides an extensive search/analysis of U.S. issued and pending patents (along with Canadian, European, and World Patent & Trademark Office databases where there is no USPTO presence) and a collation of the main technical/application sectors and identifies the most active organizations—U.S. and foreign—driving CNT technology.

Chapter Five, Industry Structure and Competitive Analysis, identifies current producers, progress in continuous production scale-up, and market segmentation, and provides industry profiles of the major players.

Chapter Six, Markets by Application, represents the body of the report, assessing the latest progress and technical readiness in the major application sectors of composites, electronics, energy storage, membranes, sensors and other applications.

Chapter Seven, Global Market Analysis, estimates five-year potential revenues of all notable CNT producers.

Chapter Eight, North American Market Analysis, estimates five-year potential revenues of U.S. and Canadian CNT producers.

Chapter Nine, European Market Analysis, estimates five-year potential revenues of European CNT producers.

Chapter Ten, Asian Market Analysis, estimates five-year potential revenues of Asian CNT producers.

Chapter Eleven, Market Pull: Prognosis for Global CNT Applications, identifies the most promising applications realizable based on the leading proponents, technical readiness and market interest.

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
MOTIVATION
OBJECTIVES AND PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT
SCOPE OF REPORT
CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY AND TARGET AUDIENCE
METHODOLOGY AND SOURCES OF INFORMATION
AUTHOR'S CREDENTIALS
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE
DISCLAIMER
CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR CNT PRIMARY GRADES BASED ON COMMITTED PRODUCTION ESTIMATES, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR CNT PRIMARY GRADES BASED ON COMMITTED PRODUCTION ESTIMATES, 2014-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
CHAPTER 3 TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW
WHAT ARE CNTs?
FIGURE 1 FORMATION OF A SWNT STRUCTURE
FIGURE 2 CNT STRUCTURES
A BRIEF HISTORY OF NANOTUBES
TABLE 1 CHRONOLOGY OF SOME CNT LANDMARK DEVELOPMENTS, 1953-2015
COMPARISON OF CARBON COMPOUNDS
TABLE 2 SOME COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES OF CARBON ALLOTROPES
DIAMOND
Diamondoids
Nanocrystalline Diamond and CNT Hybrid Films
GRAPHITE
FULLERENES
Spherical Form: Buckminsterfullerene
Cylindrical Form: CNTs
Hybrid Forms: Carbon Nanobuds, Graphene Nanoribbons, and Carbon
Nanocages
Linear Form: Carbynes
Other Forms
CARBON NANOFIBERS
Carbon Nanospheres
CARBIDE-DERIVED MESOPOROUS CARBON
PROPERTIES OF CNTs
TABLE 3 SOME CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES OF CNTs
TABLE 4 COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT CNTs AND CFs
APPLICATIONS OF CNTs
TABLE 5 DIVERSE RANGE OF INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS FOR CNTs
TABLE 6 SOME EXAMPLES OF OPTIMUM FORMS OF CNTs REQUIRED FOR DIFFERENT APPLICATIONS
OTHER TYPES OF NANOTUBE COMPOUNDS
SYNTHETIC INORGANIC NANOTUBES
TABLE 7 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS OF SOME INORGANIC
NANOTUBES
NATURAL INORGANIC NANOTUBES
ORGANIC NANOTUBES
NANOTUBE PRODUCTION
TABLE 8 COMPARISON OF THE MOST COMMON TYPES OF CNT BATCH
PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES
ARC DISCHARGE
LASER ABLATION
CVD
SYNTHETIC PROCESS FACTORS AFFECTING GROWTH
TABLE 9 SYNTHETIC PROCESS FACTORS AFFECTING CNT GROWTH
CONTINUOUS SCALABLE PRODUCTION
TABLE 10 COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CNT
PROCESSES
TABLE 11 COMPARISON OF SWNT CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION
TECHNOLOGIES
Arc or Laser Ablation
CVD
Flame Combustion
Plasma Torch
Other Developments
Catalysts
Catalyst-Free SWNTs
Chiral-Specific Growth
Nonmetallic Catalysts
Natural Lava Catalysts
Pulsed Laser Vaporization (PLV)
Purer and Controlled-Diameter SWNTs
Separation and Sorting
Varying Carbon Feedstock
PURIFICATION AND PRODUCT QUALITY CONTROL
TABLE 12 COMMON CNT CHEMICAL PURIFICATION PROCESSES, OUTCOMES AND DISADVANTAGES
TABLE 13 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN SEPARATION, PURIFICATION, CAPPING, AND UNCAPPING OF CNTs BASED ON U.S. PATENTS
CNT APPLICATION INTEGRATION
TABLE 14 LEADING U.S. RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS SPEARHEADING CNT
SYNTHESIS AND APPLICATIONS DEVELOPMENT
SURFACE CHEMICAL FUNCTIONALIZATION
TABLE 15 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CHEMICAL FUNCTIONALIZATION OF CNTs AND POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS
TABLE 16 EXEMPLARY U.S. PATENTS RELATING TO CNT CHEMICAL
FUNCTIONALIZATION
TABLE 17 ORGANIZATIONS OFFERING SURFACE FUNCTIONALIZED CNT
DISPERSIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
SEPARATING ELECTRONIC STRUCTURES
TABLE 18 NOTABLE DEVELOPMENTS IN SORTING ELECTRONIC-GRADE
CNTs
CNT GROWTH AND DEVICE FABRICATION
TABLE 19 EXEMPLARY U.S. PATENTS RELATING TO SELF-ASSEMBLY AND ORGANIZATION OF CNTs
TABLE 20 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CNT SCALABLE DEVICE INTEGRATION
OTHER FORM FACTORS
TABLE 21 EXEMPLARY U.S. PATENTS RELATING TO THE USE OF CNTs AS
NANOTEMPLATES
DWNTS AND BUCKYPAPER
TRIPLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES (TWNTs)
SWNT-BASED PEAPODS OR NANO TEST TUBES
MWNT-BASED MICROCAPSULES
OTHER FORMS OF CNTS
TABLE 22 RECENT RESEARCH DEVELOPMENTS IN OTHER CNT VARIANTS
DRY SPINNING OF CNT FIBERS AND SHEET-FORMING YARNS
THREE-DIMENSIONAL CNT ARCHITECTURES
WET SPINNING OF SWNTS
CONTINUOUSLY GROWN SWNT FIBERS
CONTINUOUSLY GROWN SWNT NONWOVEN TRANSPARENT FILMS
CNT-REINFORCED POLYMER FIBERS
REFRENCES
CHAPTER 4 PATENT ANALYSIS
RATIONALE AND METHODOLOGY
U.S. PATENTS ISSUED
CHRONOLOGICAL GROWTH TRENDS IN PATENT ACTIVITY
FIGURE 3 CNT PATENTS ISSUED, 1994-2014 (NO. OF PATENTS, CUMULATIVE TOTAL: 14,557)
PATENT ACTIVITY CLASSIFIED BY INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION SECTOR
All Countries
FIGURE 4 APPLICATION SECTORS DERIVED FROM U.S. CNT ISSUED PATENTS, 1994-2004 (%)
TABLE 23 INDUSTRIAL SECTORS AND EXEMPLARY APPLICATIONS EMERGING FROM ISSUED U.S. CNT PATENTS, 1994-2009
FIGURE 5 APPLICATION SECTORS DERIVED FROM U.S. CNT ISSUED PATENTS, 2007 TO JUNE 30, 2009 (%)
FIGURE 6 APPLICATION SECTORS DERIVED FROM U.S. CNT ISSUED PATENTS, 2012-2014 (%)
U.S. Versus Foreign Assignees
FIGURE 7 U.S. AND FOREIGN CNT PATENTS ISSUED BY APPLICATION SECTORS, 1994-2002 (TOTAL PATENTS = 415)
FIGURE 8 U.S. AND FOREIGN CNT PATENTS ISSUED BY APPLICATION SECTOR, 2003-2004 (TOTAL PATENTS = 480)
FIGURE 9 U.S. AND FOREIGN CNT PATENTS ISSUED BY APPLICATION SECTOR, 2007 TO JUNE 30, 2009 (TOTAL PATENTS = 1,987)
COMPARISON OF U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY WITH ASIAN, EUROPEAN, AND OTHER COUNTRIES
1994 to 2004
FIGURE 10 U.S. VERSUS ASIAN CNT PATENTS ISSUED, 1994-2004
(TOTAL PATENTS = 679)
FIGURE 11 EUROPEAN AND OTHER COUNTRIES WITH U.S. CNT ISSUED PATENTS, 1994-2004 (TOTAL PATENTS = 51)
2007 to June 30, 2009
FIGURE 12 ASIAN COUNTRIES WITH U.S. CNT PATENTS ISSUED, 2007 TO JUNE 30, 2009 (TOTAL PATENTS = 520)
FIGURE 13 EUROPEAN AND OTHER COUNTRIES WITH U.S. CNT PATENTS ISSUED, 2007 TO JUNE 30, 2009 (TOTAL PATENTS = 148) 2010 to 2011
FIGURE 14 ASIAN COUNTRIES WITH U.S. CNT PATENTS ISSUED, 2010-2011 (TOTAL PATENTS = 938)
FIGURE 15 EUROPEAN AND OTHER COUNTRIES WITH U.S. CNT PATENTS ISSUED, 2010-2011 (TOTAL PATENTS = 292)
1994 to 2014
FIGURE 16 U.S. VERSUS FOREIGN ASSIGNED CNT ISSUED PATENTS, 1994-2014 (TOTAL PATENTS: 13,855)
DOMESTIC PATENT ACTIVITY
Most Active States
FIGURE 17 LEADING U.S. ASSIGNEE STATES WITH U.S. CNT ISSUED PATENTS, JAN. 3, 2012 TO DEC. 30, 2014 (TOTAL PATENTS = 3,362)
Small Businesses
TABLE 24 LEADING SMALL U.S. BUSINESSES WITH CNT ISSUED AND PENDING PATENT APPLICATIONS, 2012-2014 (TOTAL PATENTS: 643)
TABLE 25 OTHER SMALL U.S. BUSINESSES WITH MULTIPLE CNT ISSUED AND PENDING PATENT APPLICATIONS, 2012-2014 (TOTAL PATENTS: 166)
Large Businesses
TABLE 26 LEADING LARGE U.S. BUSINESSES WITH CNT ISSUED AND PENDING PATENT APPLICATIONS, 2012-2014 (TOTAL PATENTS: 1,620)
TABLE 27 OTHER LARGE U.S. BUSINESSES WITH MULTIPLE CNT ISSUED AND PENDING PATENT APPLICATIONS, 2012-2014
(TOTAL PATENTS: 411)
Academic Institutions
TABLE 28 LEADING U.S. ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS WITH CNT ISSUED
AND PENDING PATENT APPLICATIONS, JAN. 3, 2012, TO DEC. 30, 2014 (TOTAL PATENTS: 943)
Government and Other Research Institutions
TABLE 29 U.S. GOVERNMENT AND OTHER RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS
WITH CNT ISSUED AND PENDING PATENT APPLICATIONS, 2012 TO DEC. 30, 2014 (TOTAL PATENTS: 379)
U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY ACCORDING TO FOREIGN OWNERSHIP
Leading Japanese Companies
TABLE 30 CNT ISSUED AND PENDING PATENT APPLICATIONS FOR LEADING JAPANESE ORGANIZATIONS, 2012 TO DEC. 30, 2014
(TOTAL PATENTS: 840)
Leading Korean, Taiwanese and Chinese Organizations
TABLE 31 LEADING KOREAN, TAIWANESE AND CHINESE
ORGANIZATIONS WITH U.S. CNT ISSUED AND PENDING
PATENT APPLICATIONS, JAN. 3, 2012, TO DEC. 30, 2014
(TOTAL PATENTS: 1,474)
Leading Organizations in European and Other Countries
TABLE 32 CNT ISSUED AND PENDING PATENTS FOR LEADING
ORGANIZATIONS IN EUROPEAN AND OTHER COUNTRIES, JAN. 3, 2012 TO DEC. 30, 2014 (TOTAL PATENTS: 1,035)
U.S. PATENTS PENDING
FIGURE 18 GROWTH IN U.S. PATENTS FILED, 2001 TO DEC. 30, 2014 (TOTAL PATENTS: 27,061)
CHALLENGES IN PATENTING NANOTECHNOLOGY
PATENT BACKLOG
WHO OWNS WHAT?
QUALITY VERSUS QUANTITY
A NEW BREED OF PATENT BROKERAGE COMPANIES
PATENT TROLL
REFRENCES
CHAPTER 5 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS
OVERVIEW
INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
NANOTUBE PRODUCERS
TABLE 33 INFLUENTIAL PLAYERS INVOLVED IN LARGE-SCALE CNT PRODUCTION AND MARKET EXPLOITATION (TONNES/YEAR)
TABLE 34 INFLUENTIAL PLAYERS INVOLVED IN SMALL-SCALE CNT PRODUCTION AND/OR SPECIALIZED MARKET EXPLOITATION
MARKET SEGMENTATION
TABLE 35 MARKET SEGMENTATION OF CNT INDUSTRY
COMPANY PROFILES: CNT PRODUCERS
Arkema
Axson France S.A.S
Canatu Ltd.
CNano Technology Ltd.
Continental Carbon Nanotechnologies Inc.
Eden Energy Ltd.
Felda Global Ventures Holdings (FGV)
Fullerene International Corp.
FutureCarbon GmbH
TABLE 36 HISTORIC DEVELOPMENTS IN COMMERCIALIZING BAYER
MATERIALSCIENCE MWNTs
Hanwha Chemical Co.
Haydale Ltd.
Hitachi Chemical Co. Ltd.
Hodogaya Chemical Co. Ltd./Mitsui & Co.
Honjo Chemical Corp.
Hyperion Catalysis International Inc.
Klean Commodities
MER Corp.
Nano-C Inc.
Nanocyl S.A.
NanoIntegris Inc.
Nanotailor Inc.
Nanothinx S.A.
OCSiAl USA
Pyrograf Products Inc.
Raymor Industries Inc.
Selah Technologies LLC
Shenzhen Nanotech Port Co. Ltd.
Showa Denko KK
SouthWest NanoTechnologies (SWeNT) Inc.
TABLE 37 SWeNT'S LATEST COMMERCIAL CNT DEVELOPMENTS, 2009-2015
Thomas Swan & Co. Ltd.
Ube Industries
Unidym Inc.
TABLE 38 UNIDYM'S COMMERCIAL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENTS, 2010-2011
Xintek Inc.
ZEON Corp.
COMPANY PROFILES: CNT SPECIALTY AND ANCILLARY PRODUCTS
TABLE 39 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN SPECIALIZED CNT MARKET
EXPLOITATION
Applied Nanotech Holdings Inc.
Bing Energy International LLC
Brewer Science Inc.
Carbon Solutions Inc.
Eikos Inc.
First Nano Inc.
General Nano LLC
HyCarb Inc.
Linde Electronics
Lintec of America
Meijo Nano Carbon Co. Ltd.
Minnesota Wire and Cable Co.
Molecular Rebar Design LLC
NanoComposites Inc.
Nanocomp Technologies Inc.
Nanomix Inc.
Plasan North America
Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corp.
Teijin Aramid BV
Toray Industries Inc.
Toyocolor Co. Ltd.
Zyvex Technologies
TABLE 40 ZYVEX TECHNOLOGIES'[ COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENTS IN CNT-POLYMER COMPOSITES, 2007-2014
COMPANY PROFILES: LARGE U.S. CORPORATIONS
TABLE 41 LARGE U.S. CORPORATIONS LEADING IN U.S. CNT PATENT ACTIVITY (TOTAL NUMBER OF ISSUED PATENTS: 1,616)
3M CO.
BAKER HUGHES INC.
BOEING CO.
DUPONT
GENERAL ELECTRIC CO.
GM CORP.
IBM CORP.
INTEL CORP.
LOCKHEED MARTIN CORP.
MICRON TECHNOLOGY
SHELL OIL CO.
XEROX CORP.
COMPANY PROFILES: LARGE FOREIGN CORPORATIONS
CHALLENGES AND ISSUES FACING THE CNT INDUSTRY
INDUSTRY DRIVING FORCES
TABLE 42 EXEMPLARY COMPANIES LEADING THE CNT INDUSTRY
EVOLUTION
NANOTUBE CONSUMERS AND THE EVOLVING GRADE STRUCTURE
TABLE 43 DIVERSITY IN CNT CONSUMER MARKET PRODUCTS
COST/PERFORMANCE BALANCE
COMPETITION
TABLE 44 COMPETITIVE MATERIAL ALTERNATIVES TO CNTs FOR CERTAIN APPLICATIONS
CELL TOXICITY
TABLE 45 PROGRESS IN IDENTIFYING AND RESOLVING CNT TOXICOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR, 2005-2007
TABLE 46 PROGRESS IN IDENTIFYING AND RESOLVING CNT TOXICOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR, 2007-2011
TABLE 47 PROGRESS IN IDENTIFYING AND RESOLVING CNT TOXICOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR, 2012-2014
ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY
NANOTECHNOLOGY RISKS AND REGULATORY CONTROL
ASIAN INITIATIVES
AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT
CANADIAN GOVERNMENT
EUROPEAN COMMISSION
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION (ISO)
U.S.-LED NANOTECHNOLOGY REGULATORY CONTROL INITIATIVES
CBEN at Rice University
City of Berkeley, Calif., Nanomaterials Ordinance
EPA
Nanoethics and Social Advocacy Groups
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
National Science and Technology Council
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
REFRENCES
CHAPTER 6 MARKETS BY APPLICATION
COMPOSITES
TABLE 48 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CNTs COMPARED WITH OTHER
FIBERS
TABLE 49 POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS OF CNT COMPOSITES
TABLE 50 PROPERTIES ENDOWED OF CNT COMPOSITES
TABLE 51 MECHANICAL PROPERTY ENHANCEMENTS IN VARIOUS CNT
COMPOSITES
CEMENT MATRIX
CERAMIC MATRIX
TABLE 52 ENHANCEMENTS CLAIMED IN VARIOUS CNT CERAMIC
SYSTEMS
DIAMOND MATRIX
GLASS MATRIX
METAL MATRIX
TABLE 53 SOME EXAMPLES OF CNT-METAL COMPOSITES
POLYMER MATRIX
TABLE 54 EXAMPLES OF CNT-POLYMER COMPOSITE MATRIX SYSTEMS
AMENABLE TO COMMERCIAL PROCESSING AND APPLICATION
TABLE 55 SOME EXAMPLES OF CNT-POLYMER COMPOSITES
TABLE 56 VARIOUS PROCESSING STRATEGIES USED TO MANUFACTURE
POLYMER-CNT COMPOSITES
Electrical Conductivity Properties of Polymer-CNT Composites
Mechanical Properties of Polymer-CNT Composites
TABLE 57 ULTIMATE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYMER-CNT
COMPOSITES
TABLE 58 KEY PROPERTIES CONTROLLING ULTIMATE REINFORCING
AND CONDUCTIVITY POTENTIAL OF SWNTs IN A POLYMER MATRIX
Thermal Conductivity Properties of Polymer-CNT Composites
Commercial Product Applications of Polymer-CNT Composites
TABLE 59 POLYMER COMPOSITE CNT PRODUCTS CURRENTLY
MANUFACTURED OR UNDER COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT
TABLE 60 LEADING COMPANIES INVOLVED IN THE COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF CNT-POLYMER COMPOSITES
TABLE 61 MOST ACTIVE COMPANIES ACCORDING TO CNT-POLYMER
COMPOSITE U.S. PATENTS, 2012 TO DEC. 30, 2014 (TOTAL PATENTS:
830)
TABLE 62 OTHER ACTIVE ORGANIZATIONS ACCORDING TO U.S.
CNT-POLYMER COMPOSITE PATENTS, 2007 TO DEC. 30, 2014
Automotive Applications
TABLE 63 EXAMPLES OF READY-TO-MOLD HYPERION AUTOMOTIVE MWNT-RESIN COMPOUNDS
TABLE 64 COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF HYPERION CONDUCTIVE AUTOMOTIVE MWNT-RESIN COMPOUNDS
TABLE 65 PROPERTIES AND IMPROVEMENTS OF MWNTs
TABLE 66 CLASSIFICATION OF CONDUCTIVE MOLDED PLASTICS BASED ON FILLER LOADING AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES
TABLE 67 APPLICATIONS OF MWNTs IN ELECTROSTATICALLY
DISSIPATIVE PLASTIC AUTO COMPONENTS
TABLE 68 ADVANCES IN IMPROVEMENT OF STRENGTH AND CONDUCTIVITY OF POLYMER-CNT COMPOSITES, 2007-2009
Aeronautical Applications
TABLE 69 DEVELOPMENTS IN AEROSPACE CF COMPOSITES INDUSTRY
Electronic Applications
TABLE 70 ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS OF MWNTs IN MOLDED PLASTIC ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS
Flame-Retardant Applications
Military Applications
TABLE 71 CNT COMPOSITE COMPANIES ATTRACTING MILITARY AND CIVILIAN APPLICATIONS DEVELOPMENT
Space Applications
TABLE 72 FUTURE SPACE APPLICATIONS FOR CNTs
Sporting Goods Applications
TABLE 73 SPORTING GOODS PROTOTYPES BASED ON MWNT-PLASTIC COMPOSITES
Other Applications and Important Property Considerations
Biocatalytic Films
Biomedical Composites
Conventional Adhesives
Dry Adhesives
TABLE 74 RECENT PATENT ACTIVITY IN CNT DRY ADHESIVE SYSTEMS*
Polymer Composite Coatings and Inks
TABLE 75 ORGANIZATIONS EXPLORING CNT-BASED OR OTHER CARBON-BASED INKS AND SMART COATINGS
TABLE 76 COMPARATIVE PROPERTY PERFORMANCE OF CONDUCTIVE TRANSPARENT COMPOSITE COATINGS
Sensor Networks for Ongoing Composite Structural Diagnostics
and Repair
Surface Chemical Functionalization and Form Factor
ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS
TABLE 77 TOP 10 U.S. ORGANIZATIONS LEADING THE ELECTRONICS SECTOR WITH CNT PATENTS, 2012 TO DEC. 30, 2014
TABLE 78 LEADING ASIAN AND EUROPEAN ORGANIZATIONS HOLDING
ELECTRONICS CNT PATENTS, 2012 TO DEC. 30, 2014
NANOELECTRONIC COMPONENTS
Emergence of Nanoelectronics
TABLE 79 KEY CNT PROPERTIES ATTRACTING FUTURE ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS
CNT Electronic Components Development
Synthesis and Characterization of Electronic-Grade SWNTs
Electronic Device Integration and Self-Assembly
Competition-Silicon Nanowires
Connectivity, Large-Scale Integration, and Potential Replacement for Copper
Thermal Management (Solid-Based)
TABLE 80 ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN CNT ELECTRONIC THERMAL MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS
California Institute of Technology
CAT Science/University of Copenhagen (Denmark)
Fujitsu Ltd. (Japan)
IBM (Yorktown Heights, N.Y.)
Koila Inc. (Sunnyvale, Calif.)
LG Electronics (Korea)
Molecular Nanosystems Inc. (Palo Alto, Calif.)
Nanoconduction Inc. (Sunnyvale, Calif.)/NASA Ames Research
Center
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (Golden, Colo.)
Nextreme Thermal Solutions (Research Triangle Park, N.C.)
OCZ Technology (Sunnyvale, Calif.)
Purdue University
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
University of California, Berkeley
University of Colorado
Thermal Management (Liquid-Based)
Cooligy Inc. (Mountain View, Calif.)
Seoul National University, Korea
University of Leeds/Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, U.K.
Beyond the Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect
Transistor (CMOSFET) Paradigm
Current Industry FET Development
TABLE 81 LEADING COMPANIES WITH CNTFET PATENT INTEREST
GE Global Research Center
IBM Optoelectronic Applications
Infineon Technologies, Germany
Development of Other CNT Nanoelectronic Components
FE DISPLAYS AND RELATED DEVICES
What is FE?
Why are CNTs Attractive Material Candidates?
TABLE 82 ADVANTAGES OF A CNT AS A COLD FE CATHODE
FE Applications
FE Displays
Fabrication
CNT FEDs Compared with Other Display Technologies
TABLE 83 ADVANTAGES OF FE DISPLAYS OVER LCDS
Major Factors Dictating CNT FED Development
TABLE 84 MAJOR FACTORS DICTATING EMERGENCE OF CNT-BASED TECHNOLOGY IN FPD MARKETPLACE
Leading Organizations/Company Involved FED Development
TABLE 85 LEADING U.S. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN U.S.
CNT FED-DISPLAY PATENT ACTIVITY, 2000 TO DEC. 29, 2011
TABLE 86 LEADING FOREIGN COUNTRIES INVOLVED IN U.S.
CNT FED-DISPLAY PATENT ACTIVITY, 2000 TO DEC. 29, 2011
TABLE 87 MAJOR PLAYERS AND ORGANIZATIONS/COMPANIES
INVOLVED IN CNT-FED HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT
TABLE 88 ORGANIZATIONS ACTIVELY INVOLVED IN CNT-FED
PROTOTYPES, 2000-2010
Canon KK (Japan)
cDream Corp. (San Jose, Calif.)
CEA/LETI (France)
CopyTele Inc. (Melville, N.Y.)
Futaba Corp. (Japan)
Japan
Motorola Laboratories (Tempe, Ariz.)
TABLE 89 ADVANTAGES AND CHALLENGES OF MOTOROLA’S
CNT-BASED FED COMPARED WITH EXISTENT FPD
TECHNOLOGIES
Nano-Proprietary/Applied Nanotech Holdings Inc. (Austin, Texas)
Noritake Itron Corp./Ise Electronics (Japan)
Printable Field Emitters Ltd. (U.K.)
Samsung (Korea)
Taiwan
OTHER FED APPLICATIONS
TABLE 90 EXAMPLES OF OTHER FED APPLICATIONS
Light Bulbs and Light Sources
TABLE 91 ADVANTAGES OF FE-CNT FLUORESCENT WHITE LIGHT
SOURCE OVER CONVENTIONAL LAMPS
TABLE 92 RATIONALIZING CNT SYNTHESIS WITH END-USE FE
PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
Applications of CNT-Based FE Light Sources
TABLE 93 ORGANIZATIONS WITH U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY RELATING TO CNT-BASED FE LIGHT SOURCES, 2007-2009
Advance Nanotech Inc./University of Bristol
Ahwahnee Technology (San Jose, Calif.)
Delta Optoelectronics Inc. (Taiwan)
Dialight Japan Co. Ltd.
EPFL/NanoLight International Ltd. (Switzerland)
Electrovac AG (Austria)
Foxconn/Hon Hai Precision Industry Co. Ltd. (Taiwan)
Hanwha Chemical Co./Iljin Nanotech (Korea)
IBM/Thomas J. Watson Research Center
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)
Nanoexa (Burlingame, Calif.)
Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd. (Korea)
Taitung University, Taiwan
University of Surrey/Advanced Technology Institute (U.K.)
FLEXIBLE DISPLAYS AND ELECTRONICS
TABLE 94 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN THE APPLICATION OF CNTs IN FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS AND DISPLAYS
Advance Nanotech Inc. (New York, N.Y.)/University of Cambridge (U.K.)
Advanced Technology Institute/University of Surrey/Surrey
Nanosystems Ltd.
Aneeve Nanotechnologies LLC (Los Angeles, Calif.)
Arrowhead Research (Pasadena, Calif.)/University of Florida
DuPont Electronic Technologies (Hayward, Calif.)
Eikos Inc. (Franklin, Mass.)
NanoIntegris Inc. (Skokie, Ill.)
NEC Corp. (Tokyo, Japan)
Rennselaer Polytechnic Institute
Unidym Inc. (Menlo Park, Calif.)
University of Illinois/Semprius Inc. (Durham, N.C.)
MEMORY APPLICATIONS
TABLE 95 ATTRACTIVE PROPERTIES OF CNTs FOR MEMORY DEVICE
APPLICATIONS
TABLE 96 LEADING COMMERCIAL PLAYERS IN CNT MEMORY INITIATIVES
BASED ON U.S. PATENTS, 1997 TO DEC. 29, 2011
Nantero Inc. (Woburn, Mass.)
SanDisk 3D LLC (Santa Clara, Calif.)
OTHER ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS
TABLE 97 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN OTHER APPLICATIONS OF CNTS
USED IN ELECTRONIC DEVICES
ENERGY CONVERSION AND STORAGE
BATTERIES
Lead-Acid Batteries
Lithium-Ion Batteries
TABLE 98 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CNT-BASED LITHIUM-ION AND OTHER BATTERY TECHNOLOGY, 2012-2014
Lithium-Polymer Batteries
CNT Commercial Battery Developments
TABLE 99 LEADING PLAYERS IN CNT-BASED BATTERY TECHNOLOGY
ACCORDING TO U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY, 2004 TO DEC. 29, 2011
Micro Bubble Technologies Inc. (South Korea)/Next Alternative Inc.
(Canada)
FUEL CELLS
TABLE 100 ATTRACTIVE PROPERTIES OF CNTs USED IN FUEL-CELL
APPLICATIONS
Hydrogen Fuel Cells
TABLE 101 KEY PROPERTIES AFFECTING FUEL-CELL PERFORMANCE
Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC)
Substitution of CNTs in MEA Materials
CNTs Used in Hydrogen and DMFCs
Optimizing Catalyst Loading and Retention
CNT-Based MEAs
Critical Fuel-Cell Components
Gas Diffusion Layers (GDLs)
Surface Wettability
Early Commercial Applications and Development of Fuel Cells
TABLE 102 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS PATENTING U.S. CNT FUEL-CELL ENHANCEMENTS, 2002 TO DEC. 30, 2006
More Recent Patent Activity and Commercial Developments in Fuel
Cells
TABLE 103 PATENT ACTIVITY IN CNT-BASED FUEL-CELL APPLICATIONS AMONG U.S. ORGANIZATIONS, 2007 TO DEC. 29, 2011
TABLE 104 PATENT ACTIVITY IN U.S. CNT-BASED FUEL-CELL APPLICATIONS AMONG FOREIGN ORGANIZATIONS, 2007 TO DEC. 29, 2011
Angstrom Power Inc. (Vancouver, Canada)
Intematix Corp. (Fremont, Calif.)
Japan
Motorola Inc. (Tempe, Ariz.)
MTI MicroFuel Cells Inc. (Albany, N.Y.)
Neah Power Systems Inc. (Bothel, Wash.)
Pacific Fuel Cell Corp. (Riverside, Calif.)
Samsung SDI (Korea)
Showa Denko KK (Japan)
Toyota (Japan)
UltraCell Corp. (Livermore, Calif.)
HYDROGEN STORAGE
Carbon Nanostructures
Underlying System Properties
Commercial Development and Patent Activity
TABLE 105 EARLY PATENT ACTIVITY IN U.S. CNT-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE APPLICATIONS, 1997 TO APRIL 2006
TABLE 106 LEADING U.S. AND FOREIGN PATENT ACTIVITY IN U.S.
CNT-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE APPLICATIONS, 2007 TO DEC. 29, 2011
Sony Corp.
Nanomix Inc.
Motorola Inc.
SUPERCAPACITORS
Basic Characteristics
TABLE 107 PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF ENERGY STORAGE
DEVICES
TABLE 108 ADVANTAGES OF SUPERCAPACITOR ELECTRICAL
STORAGE DEVICES COMPARED WITH BATTERIES
TABLE 109 COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF BATTERIES VERSUS
CAPACITORS
Electric Double-Layer Capacitor (EDLC)
Early Research Activities in CNT-Based EDLCs
Georgia Institute of Technology Textile and Fiber Engineering
Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS) (Quebec, Canada)
MIT Laboratory for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems (LEES)
NASA Johnson Space Center
National Institute of AIST (Japan)
Rice University
Stanford University/UCLA
Tsinghua-Foxconn Nanotechnology Research Center (China)
University of California, Davis
University of California, San Diego
University of Cambridge/Department of Engineering (U.K.)
University of Southern California (USC)
University of Texas at Austin
University of Texas at Dallas/NanoTech Institute
Recent Research Activities in CNT-Based EDLCs
TABLE 110 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CNT-BASED
SUPERCAPACITORS, 2012-2014
Early Patent Activity and Commercial Development in CNT-Based EDLCs
GSI Creos Corp., Asahi Glass, and TDK (Japan)
TABLE 111 U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY IN U.S. CNT-BASED EDL
CAPACITORS AND APPLICATIONS, 1997 TO DEC. 30, 2006
Hyperion Catalysis International
Iljin Nanotech (Korea)
Recent Patent Activity and Commercial Development in CNT-Based
EDLCs
TABLE 112 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN U.S. CNT-BASED
EDL CAPACITOR PATENT ACTIVITY, 2007 TO DEC. 30, 2014
Arrowhead Research Corp./Agonn Systems Inc. (Pasadena, Calif.)
Kemet Corp. (Greenville, S.C.)
Nisshinbo Holdings Inc. (Tokyo, Japan)
Honda Motor Co. Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan)
SOLAR/PV CELLS
Basic Characteristics
Academic Research
TABLE 113 ACADEMIC RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN CNT-BASED SOLAR
CELLS
TABLE 114 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CNT-BASED SOLAR CELLS, 2010-2012
TABLE 115 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CNT-BASED SOLAR CELLS, 2012-2014
Commercial Development
TABLE 116 CNT PATENT ACTIVITY IN SOLAR CELL APPLICATIONS, 1997-DEC. 30, 2006
TABLE 117 PATENT ACTIVITY LEADERS IN CNT-BASED SOLAR CELL
APPLICATIONS, 2007 TO DEC. 29, 2011
AMBIT Corp. (Ashland, Mass.)
Arrowhead Research Corp./NanoPolaris (Pasadena, Calif.)
BP Solar North America (Frederick, Mass.)
Dow Corning Corp. (Midland, Mich.)
DuPont (Wilmington, Del.)
Eikos Inc. (Franklin, Mass.)
First Solar LLC (Phoenix, Ariz.)
HelioVolt Corp. (Austin, Texas)
Innovalight Inc. (Sunnyvale, Calif.)
Konarka Technologies (Lowell, Mass.)
Miasolé (San Jose, Calif.)
Nanosolar Inc. (Palo Alto, Calif.)
Natcore Technology (Red Bank, N.J.)
Plextronics Inc. (Pittsburgh, Pa.)
Wakonda Technologies Inc./RIT
OTHER ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS
TABLE 118 PATENT ACTIVITY IN U.S. CNT-BASED APPLICATIONS USED IN OTHER ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS, 2007 TO DEC. 29, 2011
Mechanical Energy Storage
Thermionic Power
Thermal Rectifiers
Thermocells
Thermoelectric Power
Thermopower Wave
MEMBRANES: FILTRATION AND SEPARATION MEDIA
TABLE 119 ATTRACTIVE PROPERTIES OF CNTs AS SEPARATION
MEMBRANES
DEVELOPMENTS AND APPLICATIONS
TABLE 120 ORGANIZATIONS WITH U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY IN CNT
MEMBRANES, FILTRATION, AND SEPARATION MEDIA, 2007 TO DEC. 29, 2011
TABLE 121 RESEARCH AND COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENTS OF VARIOUS CNT-BASED MEMBRANE SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES
Biosource Inc./Voltea Ltd. (London, U.K.)
Clemson University
Cnanoz Inc. (Research Triangle Park, N.C.)
Covalent Industrial Technologies LLC (Hayward, Calif.)
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) (Livermore, Calif.)
NanOasis Technologies (Richmond, Calif.)
Philip Morris USA Research Center
Procter & Gamble Co.
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Seldon Laboratories LLC
University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research
Velocys Inc. (Plain City, Ohio)/Oxford Catalysts Group plc (Oxford, U.K.)
SENSORS
TYPES OF SENSORS
TABLE 122 TYPES OF CNT SENSORS
Bio/Nanoparticle Sensors
TABLE 123 RECENT TYPES OF CNT BIOSENSOR SYSTEMS
Chemical Sensors
TABLE 124 KEY PROPERTIES OF CNTS EXPLOITED IN SENSOR
APPLICATIONS
Physical/Mechanical Sensors and Actuators
RECENT PATENT ACTIVITY IN SENSORS
TABLE 120 ORGANIZATIONS WITH U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY IN CNT
MEMBRANES, FILTRATION, AND SEPARATION MEDIA, 2007 TO DEC. 29, 2011
Commercial Prototype Developments
Applied Nanotech Holdings Inc. (Austin, Texas)
Enzyme-Coated CNT Sensor
Gated Metal Oxide Sensor
Palladium Nanoparticle Hydrogen Sensor
Photoacoustic Sensor (PAS)
OTHER RECENT SENSOR AND DETECTOR-RELATED DEVELOPMENTS
Honeywell International Inc. (Morristown, N.J.)
Motorola Laboratories (Tempe, Ariz.)
Nano Engineered Applications Inc. (Riverside, Calif.)
Nanomix Inc. (Emeryville, Calif.)
Nanosensors Inc. (Santa Clara, Calif.)
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (Richland, Wash.)
YTC America Inc. (Camarillo, Calif.)
OTHER APPLICATIONS
Biosensors
Alpha Szenszor Inc. (Worcester, Mass.)
Applied Nanotech Holdings Inc. (Austin, Texas)
Nanomix Inc. (Emeryville, Calif.)/Mystic MD Inc. (Groton, Conn.)
BIOMEDICAL DEVELOPMENTS
TABLE 126 POTENTIAL USES OF CNTs IN THE BIOMEDICAL AREA
TABLE 127 RESEARCH DEVELOPMENTS IN CNT BIOMEDICAL
APPLICATIONS, PRIOR TO 2007
TABLE 128 RESEARCH DEVELOPMENTS IN CNT BIOMEDICAL
APPLICATIONS, 2007-2009
TABLE 129 RESEARCH DEVELOPMENTS IN CNT BIOMEDICAL
APPLICATIONS, 2010-2011
Potential Commercial CNT Biomedical Developments
Cromoz Inc. (Research Triangle Park, N.C.)
Ensysce Biosciences Inc. (Houston, Texas)
Intel Corp. (Santa Clara, Calif.)
XinRay Systems LLC (Research Triangle Park, N.C.)
INDUSTRIAL CATALYST SUPPORTS
Industrial Chemical Process Synthesis
TABLE 130 U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY LEADERS IN CNT CATALYST SUPPORTS, 2007 TO DEC. 29, 2011
BTU International Inc. (North Billerica, Mass.)
Headwaters Technology Innovation Inc. (Lawrenceville, N.J.)
Hyperion Catalysis International Inc. (Cambridge, Mass.)
Electrocatalysis
Photocatalytic Support Systems
TABLE 131 APPLICATIONS OF CNTs IN PHOTOCATALYTIC SYSTEMS
ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHY
Xerox Corp. (Stamford, Conn.)
INSTRUMENTS: ACTUATORS, MANIPULATORS AND PROBES
TABLE 132 U.S. CNT PATENT ACTIVITY INVOLVING ACTUATORS, INSTRUMENTS AND MANIPULATORS, 2009 TO DEC. 29, 2011
Commercial Developments in SPM/AFM CNT Probes
Carbon Design Innovations (Burlingame, Calif.)
Carbon Nanoprobes Inc. (White Plains, N.Y.)
Xidex Corp. (Austin, Texas)
OIL RECOVERY
TABLE 133 U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY IN CNT ENHANCEMENTS IN OIL RECOVERY, 2010 TO DEC. 29, 2011
SECURITY
TABLE 134 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN VARIOUS
CNT-BASED SECURITY APPLICATIONS
Bioterrorism and Explosives Detection
Stanford University
MIT
Body Armor and Smart Textiles
National Research Council (NRC) Canada (Ottawa, Ont., Canada)
Nanocomp Technologies Inc. (Concord, N.H.)
Q-Flo Ltd. (Cambridge, U.K.)
Nico Technologies (Ann Arbor, Mich.)
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Tags
Alien Technology Corp. (Morgan Hills, Calif.)
Ambient Systems BV (Enschede, Netherlands)
AMBIT Corp. (Ashland, Mass.)
Nantero Inc. (Woburn, Mass.)/HP Specialty Printing Systems (San
Diego, Calif.)
X-Ray Detection
American Science and Engineering Inc. (Billerica, Mass.)
XinRay Systems LLC (Research Triangle Park, N.C.)
POLISHING
Applied Materials Inc. (Santa Clara, Calif.)
REFRENCES
CHAPTER 7 GLOBAL MARKET ANALYSIS
TECHNOLOGY PUSH
CNT COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION AND ESTIMATED SALES REVENUES
MWNTs
TABLE 135 GLOBAL MWNTs TIER 1 COMPANIES MARKET BY CAPACITY AND REVENUE, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONNES/$ MILLIONS)
SWNTs
TABLE 136 GLOBAL SWNTs TIER 1 COMPANIES MARKET BY CAPACITY AND REVENUE, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONNES/$ MILLIONS)
Few-Walled Grades (FWNTs)
TABLE 137 GLOBAL FWNTs TIER 1 COMPANIES MARKET BY CAPACITY AND REVENUE, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONNES/$ MILLIONS)
MARKET PULL
COMPOSITES
Polymer
TABLE 138 COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENTS IN CNT-POLYMER COMPOSITES
Other Matrix Materials
TABLE 139 COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENTS IN OTHER MATRIX COMPOSITES
ELECTRONICS
TABLE 140 COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENTS IN ELECTRONICS
ENERGY
TABLE 141 COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENTS IN ENERGY OTHER APPLICATIONS
TABLE 142 COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENTS IN OTHER APPLICATIONS
CHAPTER 8 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET ANALYSIS
CNT COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION AND ESTIMATED SALES REVENUES
MWNTs
Commodity Grade
TABLE 143 U.S. COMMODITY-GRADE MWNTs TIER 1 COMPANIES MARKET, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONNES, $ MILLIONS)
Specialty Grade
TABLE 144 ANNUAL PRODUCTION COMMITMENT AND REVENUES FOR U.S. SPECIALTY-GRADE MWNTs TIER 1 COMPANY SWeNT, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONNES, $ MILLIONS)
SWNTs
TABLE 145 ANNUAL PRODUCTION COMMITMENT AND REVENUES OF NORTH AMERICAN COMMERCIAL SWNT PRODUCERS TIER 1 COMPANIES, THROUGH 2019 (KG/YEAR, $ MILLIONS)
FEW-WALLED GRADES (FWNTs)
TABLE 146 ANNUAL PRODUCTION COMMITMENT AND REVENUES FOR U.S. SPECIALTY-GRADE FWNTs TIER 1 COMPANY SWeNT, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONNES, $ MILLIONS)
CHAPTER 9 EUROPEAN MARKET ANALYSIS
CNT COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION AND ESTIMATED SALES REVENUES
MWNTs
TABLE 147 EUROPEAN PRODUCTION COMMITMENT AND REVENUES OF COMMERCIAL MWNTs TIER 1 COMPANIES, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONNES, $ MILLIONS)
SWNTs
TABLE 148 EUROPEAN ANNUAL PRODUCTION COMMITMENT AND REVENUES FOR COMMERCIAL SWNTs AND NANOBUDS TIER 1
COMPANIES, THROUGH 2019 (TONNES/YEAR, $ MILLIONS)
CHAPTER 10 ASIAN MARKET ANALYSIS
CNT COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION AND ESTIMATED SALES REVENUES
MWNTs
TABLE 149 JAPANESE ANNUAL COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION
COMMITMENT AND REVENUES FOR MWNTs TIER 1
COMPANIES, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONNES, $ MILLIONS)
TABLE 150 UNCONFIRMED ANNUAL PRODUCTION COMMITMENT OF COMMERCIAL MWNTs TIER 2 ASIAN COMPANIES, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONNES)
SWNTs
TABLE 151 UNCONFIRMED ASIAN COMMERCIAL SWNT PRODUCTION COMMITMENT TIER 2 COMPANIES, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONNES/$ MILLIONS)
FEW-WALLED GRADES (FWNTs)
TABLE 152 POTENTIAL ASIAN COMMERCIAL FWNT PRODUCTION COMMITMENT TIER 2 COMPANIES, THROUGH 2019
CHAPTER 11 MARKET PULL: PROGNOSIS FOR GLOBAL CNT
APPLICATIONS
POLYMER COMPOSITES
AERONAUTICAL APPLICATIONS
AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS
ELECTRONIC PACKAGING APPLICATIONS
FLAME-RETARDANT APPLICATIONS
INDUSTRIAL SEALS
MILITARY APPLICATIONS
PROSPECTIVE APPLICATIONS OF OTHER COMPOSITE FORMS OF CNTs
SPORTS EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS
OTHER COMPETITIVE FACTORS AND DEVELOPMENTS
MARKET PROSPECTS FOR CNTs IN OTHER MATRIX COMPOSITES
MARKET PROSPECTS FOR CNTS IN ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS
ELECTRONIC/NANOELECTRONIC COMPONENTS
FE DISPLAYS
TABLE 153 PROS AND CONS FOR CNT FE DISPLAY MARKET
Market Challenges: Competition and Manufacturing Cost
Commercial Champions—Who’s Leading the Chase and When?
LIGHT BULBS AND LIGHT SOURCES
FLEXIBLE DISPLAYS AND ELECTRONICS
MEMORY APPLICATIONS
SENSORS
Alpha Szenszor Inc. (Worcester, Mass.)
Applied Nanotech Holdings Inc. (Austin, Texas)
Nanomix Inc. (Emeryville, Calif.)/Mystic MD Inc. (Groton, Conn.)
Nanosense Inc. (Redwood City, Calif.)/Evolved Machines Inc. (Palo Alto, Calif.)
WIRE AND CABLE CONNECTIVITY
Minnesota Wire and Cable Co.
TE Connectivity
Teijin Aramid
MARKET PROSPECTS FOR CNTS IN ENERGY APPLICATIONS
BATTERIES
Market Prognosis
CNT Commercial Battery Developments
Contour Energy Systems Inc. (Irwindale, Calif.)
Micro Bubble Technologies Inc. (South Korea)/Next Alternative Inc. (Canada)
Molecular Rebar Design LLC (Austin, Texas)
SmartEnergi Corp. (Atlanta, Ga.)
Vendum Batteries Inc. (El Segundo, Calif.)
Potential Flexible Battery Developments
CAPACITORS
Market Prognosis for Commercial Development of CNT-Based
Supercapacitors
Recent Patent Activity and Commercial Development in CNT-Based
EDLCs
Arrowhead Research Corp./Agonn Systems Inc. (Pasadena, Calif.)
Kemet Corp. (Greenville, S.C.)
Nisshinbo Holdings Inc. (Tokyo, Japan)
Honda Motor Co. Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan)/Power Battery Co. (Paterson, N.J.)
FUEL CELLS
Recent Patent Activity and Commercial Development in CNT-Based Fuel
Cells
Bing Energy Inc. (Tallahassee, Fla.)
Intematix Corp. (Fremont, Calif.)
Japan
Neah Power Systems Inc. (Bothel, Wash.)
Pacific Fuel Cell Corp. (Riverside, Calif.)
Showa Denko KK (Japan)
UltraCell Corp. (Livermore, Calif.)
HYDROGEN STORAGE AND HYDROGEN FUEL-CELL VEHICLES
SOLAR/PV CELLS
AMBIT Corp. (Ashland, Mass.)
DuPont (Wilmington, Del.)
Eikos Inc. (Franklin, Mass.)
Konarka Technologies (Lowell, Mass.)
Natcore Technology (Red Bank, N.J.)
OTHER ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS
MARKET PROSPECTS FOR CNTs IN OTHER APPLICATIONS
BIOMEDICAL DEVELOPMENTS
CATALYST SUPPORTS
INDUSTRIAL COATINGS
INSTRUMENTS: ACTUATORS, MANIPULATORS AND PROBES
MEMBRANES AND SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY
OIL RECOVERY
SECURITY
Body Armor and Smart Textiles
RFID Tags
Alien Technology Corp. (Morgan Hills, Calif.)
Ambient Systems BV (Enschede, Netherlands)
AMBIT Corp. (Ashland, Mass.)
Nantero Inc. (Woburn, Mass.)/HP Specialty Printing Systems (San Diego, Calif.)
Paru Co. Ltd. (Sunchon, Korea)/Sunchon National University/Rice
University
X-ray Detection
XinRay Systems LLC (Research Triangle Park, N.C.)
REFRENCES
CHAPTER 12 APPENDIX
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
UNITS

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