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“WSN: Maintenance-Free Environment” Technologies and Markets Developments

“WSN: Maintenance-Free Environment” Technologies and Markets Developments

This report addresses technological, marketing and applications aspects of wireless smart sensors in the WSN environment. In particular, it emphasizes the importance of the design “green” WSNs with environmentally “smart” technologies.

Rapid development of large WSNs made necessary utilization of:

  • Low-power consumption radio technologies
  • Power harvesting technologies.
The report concentrates on:
  • Smart Sensors and WSNs technologies, structures and markets
  • Self-powered Smart Sensors technologies, standards and markets
  • Low-powered radio technologies to connect Smart Sensors nodes, their specifics and markets.
The goal is to identify current trends in design and implementation of large Wireless Sensors Networks in the M2M/IoT environment.

The report is written for a wide audience of technical and managerial staff working on the design and implementation of “maintenance free” WSNs.


1.0 Introduction
1.1 Scope
1.2 Structure
1.3 Research Methodology
1.4 Target Audience
2.0 Wireless Smart Sensor
2.1 Wireless Smart Sensor Structure and Functionality
2.1.1 General
2.1.2 Components
2.2 Classification
2.3 Details
2.3.1 WSN-SS
2.3.2 Requirements
2.4 Networking
2.4.1 Features of Mesh Structures
2.4.2 Benefits and Limitations
2.5 Parameters: WSN-SS
2.6 Standardization
2.6.1 IEEE 1451: General
2.6.2 Family
2.6.3 Highlights
2.7 Applications: WSN-SS
2.8 Market Characteristics
2.8.1 General
2.8.2 Market Estimate
2.8.3 Trends
2.9 Vendors
BAE Systems
BBN (RAYTHEON-BBN)
Elta (SS)
Exensor (SS)
Intel (Chipsets)
Harris (SS)
L3 (SS)
McQ (SS)
Memsic
Millennial Net (Mesh-SS)
NorthropGrumman (SS)
National Instruments
Qual-Tron (SS)
Rheinmetall (SS)
Telonics
Thales (SS)
3.0 WSN: Power Harvesting
3.1 Green Technologies Requirements
3.2 Self-powered Nodes
3.3 Methods – Pollution Reduction
3.4 Batteries
3.5 Power Harvesting Technologies
3.6 WSN Nodes
3.7 Energy Sources - Harvesters
3.7.1 General
3.7.1.1 Solar Energy
3.7.1.2 Thermoelectric
3.7.1.3 Mechanical
3.7.1.4 RF Power
3.7.2 Summary
3.7.3 Industry
ABB
AmbioSystems
Analog Devices
Ambient Micro
Crownlite
Cymbet
EnOcean
The Company
EnOcean Alliance
Standard
Features
Drivers
Details
Framework
Generations
Profiles
Benefits
Unions
Industry
BSC Magnum
Beckhoff
Echoflex
Fulham
Illumra
Leviton
Thermokon
Intel
G24 Power
GreyStone
Micropelt
Mide
MicroStrain
Perpetuum
Perpetua
Powercast
STmicroelectronics
Silicon Labs
TI
4.0 Supporting RF Technologies
4.1 ZigBee
4.1.1 ZigBee Specifications
4.1.2 Smart Energy Profile (SEP1 and SEP2)
4.1.2.1 SEP1
4.1.2.1.1 Structure
4.1.2.1.2 Layers
4.1.2.1.3 Devices
4.1.2.1.4 Framework
4.1.2.2 SEP2
4.1.2.2.1 Goal
4.1.2.2.2 Implementation Specifics
4.1.2.2.3 Further Details
4.1.2.2.4 Response
4.1.2.2.5 Consortium
4.1.3 Winning Position
4.1.3.1 Market Perspective
4.1.4 “Green Power” ZigBee
4.1.4.1 Development
4.1.4.2 Further Details
4.1.4.3 Major Uses
4.2 Bluetooth
4.2.1 Bluetooth – Low Power Consumption
4.2.1.1 Status
4.2.1.2 Modes
4.2.1.3 Details
4.2.1.4 Mechanism
4.2.1.5 Stack
4.2.1.6 Industry (Examples)
4.2.1.7 Medical Profile
4.2.1.7.1 Project
4.2.1.7.2 Structure and Features
4.2.1.7.3 Directions
4.2.1.7.4 Advantages
4.2.1.8 Market
4.3 IEEE 802.11
4.3.1 General
4.3.2 IoT Communications and Wi-Fi
4.3.3 802.11ah (Wi-Fi HaLow)
4.3.3.1 Requirements
4.3.3.2 Goal and Schedule
4.3.3.3 Attributes
4.3.3.4 Use Cases
4.3.3.5 PHY
4.3.3.5.1 Bandwidth
4.3.3.5.2 Channelization
4.3.3.5.3 Transmission Modes and MIMO
4.3.3.5.4 Relay Mode
4.3.3.6 MAC Layer
4.3.3.7 Summary
4.3.3.8 Industry
Aegis-IP
Aviacomm/Newracom
Morse Micro
Orca
Redpine Signals
5.0 Conclusions
Figure 1: Two Groups
Figure 2: SS-Functions
Figure 3: SS Technologies
Figure 4: WSN-SS Node
Figure 5: Examples of WSN Applications
Figure 6: Estimate: WSN Node Sales –Global-Commercial ($B)
Figure 7: Estimate: WSN Node Sales – Global-Commercial (Bil. Units)
Figure 8: SS Market Geographical Segmentation
Figure 9: SS Network Sizing
Figure 10: Estimate: WSN – Sales of Thermoelectric Energy Harvesters - Global ($M)
Figure 11: Functionalities
Figure 12: Positioning
Figure 13: Illustration – ZigBee SEP
Figure 14: Illustration: ZigBee SEP (Stack)
Figure 15: Smart Energy Network Illustration
Figure 16: Global Revenue – HEME – ZigBee ($B)
Figure 17: BT LE Stack
Figure 18: BT LE-based Health & Fitness Devices Shipping (Mil. Units)
Figure 19: 802.11ah Use Cases
Figure 20: Frequency Spectrum (sub-1 GHz)
Figure 21: 802.11ah – Channelization Plan in U.S.
Figure 22: Transmission Characteristics – 802.11ah
Figure 23: 802.11ah Features Summary
Table 1: SS Node-Price Components (%)
Table 2: Sources
Table 3: Data: Illustration
Table 4: Major Features
Table 5: Devices – Green Power
Table 6: Classic BT vs LE BT

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