“Progress in Optical Wireless Communications – Visible Light Communications and Free Space Fiber” Technologies, Applications and Markets

“Progress in Optical Wireless Communications – Visible Light Communications and Free Space Fiber” Technologies, Applications and Markets


This Practel report continues the company’s project on optical wireless communications (OWC).  It revises and updates Practel reports on this subject published previously.

Particular, the report concentrates on: 

  VLC – Visible Light Communication
  FSF – Free Space Fiber.

In connection with VLC development, the report is addressing Light Emitting Diode (LED) technologies and markets. LED, in the near future, will be a dominate source of illumination; and used also as a transmitting device.  The VLC LED-based channels promise to deliver high-speed data in office, home and other environments with high signal-to-noise ratio, and minimum infrastructure expenses.

The report is analyzing the emerging VLC industry, economics, technologies, standardization and applications. It shows that the spectrum of VLC applications is increasing each year to support such developments as Intelligent Transportation Systems, Localization and other. The report also surveys VLC-related patents (2017-2019).

FSF devices are solving access issues in metro and LAN environments. They are relatively inexpensive, support Gb/s rates of transmission; they are also offering low maintenance cost, guarantee a short installation time and security of communications. The report presents the FSF technologies and market analysis as well as discusses their applications together with the survey of vendors and their portfolios.

This report is important to a wide population of researches, technical and sales staff involved in the developing of advanced Optical Wireless Communications methods.  It is recommended for both service providers and vendors that are working with related technologies.


1.0 Introduction
1.1 General
1.2 Structure
1.3 LED as Communications Transmitter
1.4 Free Space Fiber
1.5 Scope
1.6 Research Methodology
1.7 Target Audience
2.0 LED Specifics
2.1 General
2.2 Spectrum
2.3 Types
2.4 LED Modulation
2.4.1 Limitations
2.5 LED Evolution
2.5.1 General
2.5.2 Benefits
2.5.3 Market Characteristics
2.5.4 Factors
3.0 Visible Light Communications
3.1 General
3.1.1 Drivers
3.1.2 Industry Activity
3.1.2.1 UC-Light Center
3.1.2.2 Li-Fi Consortium
3.2 VLC Standards Development
3.2.1 IEEE
3.2.1.1 802.15.7
3.2.1.1.1 Considerations
3.2.1.1.2 Project
3.2.1.1.2.1 Coexistence
3.2.1.1.2.2 Essence
3.2.1.1.2.3 Base
3.2.1.1.2.4 Use Cases
3.2.1.1.2.5 Physical Layer
3.2.1.1.2.5.1 General
3.2.1.1.2.5.2 Responsibilities
3.2.1.1.2.5.3 Types
3.2.1.1.2.5.4 Error Protection
3.2.1.1.2.5.5 Rates
3.2.1.1.2.5.6 Frequency Plan
3.2.1.1.2.5.7 PHY Services
3.2.1.1.2.6 Regulations
3.2.1.1.2.7 MAC Layer
3.2.1.1.2.7.1 Topologies
3.2.1.1.2.7.2 Responsibilities
3.2.1.1.2.7.3 Functionalities
3.2.1.1.2.7.4 Channel Access
3.2.1.1.2.8 Security
3.2.1.2 802.11bb
3.2.1.3 802.15.13
3.2.4 Jeita (Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association) Standards
3.2.4.1 JEITA CP-1221
3.2.4.2 JEITA CP-1222
3.2.4.3 JEITA CP-1223 (2013)
3.2.5 Visible Light Communications Association (VLCA)
3.2.5.1 General
3.2.5.2 Experimental Systems- VLCA Projects
3.2.6 ECMA 397-2010
3.2.7 ITU G.9991
3.3 Details - Examples
3.3.1 Communication Channel
3.3.2 Transmitter
3.3.3 Receiver
3.3.3.1 Image Sensors
3.3.4 Major Characteristics
3.3.4.1 General
3.3.4.2 Modulation
3.3.4.3 VLC Channel: Characteristics Summary
3.3.4.4 Limiting Factors
3.3.5 Applications: Summary
3.3.5.1 ITS
3.3.5.2 Optical Wireless LAN
3.3.5.3 Medical
3.3.5.4 Localization
3.3.5.5 City Wide Wireless Network
3.3.5.6 Summary
3.4 Companies and Organizations
Casio
Firefly
Fraunhofer IPMS
Lightbee
Nakagawa Laboratories
NEC
Oledcomm
Outstanding Technology
PureVLC-PureLi-Fi
Qualcomm
Renesas
Signify (Philips Lighting)
SmartSignals
Supreme Architecture
TCL/Sunpartner
3.5 Market
3.6 5G View
3.6.1 Attocell
3.6.2 Cell Structures
4.0 Free Space Fiber
4.1 General
4.2 Major Characteristics
4.3 Protection
4.4 Applications
4.4.1 Major Use Cases
4.4.2 Requirements
4.4.3 Inter-satellite Links
4.4.4 Intra-building Communications
4.4.5 Inter-building Communications
4.5 FSF Communications Benefits and Limitations: Summary
4.5.1 Weather Factor
4.5.2 Building Swaying
4.6 Design Issues
4.7 Customers
4.8 FSF Market
4.8.1 General
4.8.2 Market Drivers
4.8.2.1 Market Segments
4.8.3 Competition
4.8.3.1 Fiber Optics Systems
4.8.3.2 Microwave
4.8.3.3 PONs
4.8.4 Forecast
4.8.4.1 General
4.8.4.2 Model Assumptions
4.8.4.3 Structure
4.8.4.4 Market Estimate
4.9 Vendors
CableFree
Canon USA
CBL
Dailianxu Engineering Company
fSONA
GeoDesy (Trimble)
Guilin
LightPointe
Plaintree
Space Photonics
4.10 Standards
4.10.1 ITU G.640
4.10.2 ITU-R P.1814-2007
4.10.3 ARIB STD-T50 (OPTICAL WIRELESS LAN SYSTEM) v4-2009
5.0 Comparison: VLC and FSF
6.0 Conclusions
Attachment I: VLC – related Patents Survey (2017-2020)
Figure 1: OWC Illustration
Figure 2: LED Structure
Figure 3: LED Spectrum
Figure 4: White LED Properties Illustration
Figure 5: Estimate: Lighting LED Market –U.S. ($B)
Figure 6: Estimate: Lighting LED Market –U.S. (Bil. Units Shipped)
Figure 7: LED Price Factor
Figure 8: Cost and Brightness- Light Sources
Figure 9: Illustration: VLC Place
Figure 10: Topologies
Figure 11: Illustration-VLC Channel
Figure 12: VLC Applications
Figure 13: Channel Set-up
Figure 14: VLC Market Categories
Figure 15: Estimate: VLC Market – Global ($B)
Figure 16: VLC Market Geography (2019)
Figure 17: Simplified FSF Device Diagram
Figure 18: FSF Market Segments
Figure 19: Estimate: Global FSF Market Value ($B)
Figure 20: FSF Market Geography
Table 1: VLC vs FSF
Table 2: LED Wavelengths (nm)
Table 3: Properties - Laser vs. LED
Table 4: Light Sources Characteristics
Table 5: VLC Use Cases
Table 6: Devices and Characteristics
Table 7: Frequency Plan
Table 8: VLC vs RF Properties
Table 9: VL, IR and RF Communications - ITS Applications Comparison
Table 10: Locations Technologies-VLC Place

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