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“Wireless ICT in Healthcare and Wellness” Standardization, Trends and Markets

“Wireless ICT in Healthcare and Wellness” Standardization, Trends and Markets

In the U.S. as well as in many other developed countries healthcare can be typically characterized by

  • Continuous increase in the government spending
  • Unstoppable increase in the service cost
  • Deterioration of services.
One technology, which is becoming a powerful tool to improve healthcare is wireless communications. This technology is enhancing patients’ monitoring, relieves medical staff from routine procedures, and reduces probability of medical mistakes. Bidirectional wireless communications channels also allow, if it is necessary, to respond based on the received information to correct the patient treatment.

The report emphasizes the importance of wireless communications standardization for medical applications. To show this, authors conducted a detailed analysis of technical and economical characteristics for WBAN (Wireless Body Area Networks) and MWBAN – Medical BANs. Standards and regulatory documents issued by the IEEE, ETSI, ITU, ISO, FCC, FDA and Continua related to the report issues are addressed.

The report also updates the information on transport technologies that are used to support the 11073 and other connectivity standards – Bluetooth and ZigBee - to show their place in improving patients’ conditions monitoring and in patients’ general care. Technical and economical characteristics of these technologies are analyzed.

The report also provides a detailed analysis of a relatively new wireless technology – Visible Light Communications (VLC), emphasizing its wide open opportunities for medical applications. Particular, it may provide reliable and secure communications in the hospital environment where use of RF signals for communications is not allowed (OR, MRI and similar). VLC technical and economical characteristics are addressed; and VLC medical applications are discussed. The survey of patents (2015-2016) related to VLC is conducted.

Surveys of related industries are also presented.

The report is written for service providers, IT departments of hospitals and other medical organizations, retail operators, vendors, network operators and managers, investors and end users seeking to gain a deeper understanding wireless communications medical/wellness applications.

For systems integrators, the report provides an analysis and assessment of competing products currently available as well as an estimation of the overall opportunities in the coming years.


1.0 Introduction
1.1 General
1.2 Scope
1.2.1 Choices
1.3 Status
1.4 Requirements
1.5 WBAN - WMBAN
1.6 Bluetooth
1.7 ZigBee
1.8 Visible Light Communications (VLC)
1.9 Demand
1.10 Crisis
1.11 Focus
1.12 Research Methodology
1.13 Target Audience
2.0 WBAN/MWBAN Properties
2.1 General
2.2 Reasons
2.3 Definition
2.4 Structure
2.5 Overview
2.6 WBAN Specifics
2.7 Groups
2.7.1 By Application
2.7.2 By Transmission Medium
2.7.3 By Number of Nodes
2.7.4 By Environment
2.7.5 By Radio Type
2.7.6 By Source
2.7.7 By Response
2.7.8 By Condition
2.7.9 By Spectrum
2.8 FCC - Frequencies Regulations: MBAN and Other
3.0 Standardization: Medical Environment – Wireless Communications
3.1 General
3.2 IEEE 802.15.6: Details
3.2.1 Scope
3.2.2 Status
3.2.3 Structure
3.2.4 Major Characteristics
3.2.4.1 Specifics
3.2.4.2 Overview
3.2.4.3 Use Cases
3.2.4.4 Modifications
3.2.4.4.1 PHYs
3.2.4.4.1.1 Narrow Band PHY
3.2.4.4.1.2 UWB PHY
3.2.4.4.1.3 HBC PHY
3.2.4.4.2 MAC
3.2.4.5 Security
3.2.4.6 Power Savings
3.2.5 Summary
3.3 IEEE 802.15.4j – Medical BAN (MBAN): Details
3.3.1 Scope
3.3.2 Differences
3.3.3 Timeline
3.3.4 Characteristics
3.3.4.1 Spectrum and Channels Plan
3.3.4.2 Major Parameters
3.3.5 Benefits
3.4 ISO/IEEE 11073 – Personal Health Data
3.4.1 Beginning
3.4.2 Family
3.4.3 IEEE 11073 Requirements
3.5 ETSI Healthcare-related Projects
3.5.1 eHEALTH
3.5.2 ETSI TR 101 557 V1.1.1 (2012-02) - MBANS
3.5.2.1 General
3.5.2.2 ETSI – MBANS
3.5.2.3 Market Characteristics
3.5.2.4 Technical Details
3.5.3 ETSI EN 303-203 V2.1.1 (2015-11)
3.6 ISO Work
3.7 FDA Guidance
3.8 ITU
3.9 Continua
4.0 WBAN Applications, Industry and Market
4.1 Applications
4.1.1 Healthcare
4.1.2 Wellness
4.1.3 First Responders and Military
4.2 Market Considerations
4.3 Industry
AirStrip Technologies
ANT
FitLinxx
GE
Intelesens
Intel
Medtronic
Motorola
Microcemi
Nokia
Siemens
Sotera Wireless
Toumaz
Vivago
VitaMove
4.4 Current and Future Trends - WBAN
5.0 Transport WICT: Healthcare
5.1 IEEE 802.15.1 (Bluetooth-BT)
5.1.1 BT Protocol Stack
5.1.2 Profiles
5.1.3 Power Consumption – ULP/BLE
5.1.4 Health Device Profile
5.1.4.1 IEEE 11073 and BT
5.1.5 Highlights
5.1.5.1 The Standard:
5.1.5.2 The Technology:
5.1.5.3 Evolution
5.1.6 Market Estimate
5.1.7 BT Industry-HDP
Bluegiga (Silicon Labs Company)
Cambridge Consultants
Laird Technologies
Nonin
Omron
Nordic Semiconductor
Stollmann
5.2 ZigBee
5.2.1 General
5.2.2 Technology
5.2.2.1 Major Features
5.2.3 Device Types
5.2.4 Protocol Stack
5.2.4.1 Security
5.2.5 Battery Life
5.2.6 ZigBee Technology Benefits and Limitations
5.2.7 Applications Specifics
5.2.7.1 Personal, Home and Hospital Care (PHHC) Profile –ZigBee Healthcare
5.2.7.1.1 Objectives
5.2.7.1.2 Details
5.2.7.1.3 Use Cases
5.2.8 Market
5.2.8.1 Segments
5.2.8.2 Forecast
5.2.9 Industry
Amber (RF Systems)
Atmel (Chipsets) –acquired by Microchip in 2016
CEL (modules)
Digi (Radio)
GreenPeak (WSN)-acquired by Qorvo in 2016
Freescale (Chips, Health Care) – acquired by NXP in 2016
Philips Applied Technologies (Healthcare)
Proventix
Silicon Laboratories (Chipsets, Modules)
Synapse (Module, Protocols)
TI (Chipsets)
5.3 Visible Light Communications
5.3.1 General
5.3.2 Medical Applications
5.3.3 VLC – Innovation
5.3.4 LED Specifics
5.3.4.1 Properties
5.3.4.2 Spectrum
5.3.5 Types
5.3.6 LED Modulation
5.3.6.1 Limitations
5.3.7 LED – Dual Functionality
5.3.8 Developments - History
5.3.9 Technical/Economic Characteristics
5.3.10 Communications Aspects: VLC
5.3.10.1 Place
5.3.10.2 Drivers
5.3.10.3 Industry Activity
5.3.10.4 VLC Standards Development
5.3.10.4.1 IEEE 802.15.7 Standard
5.3.10.4.1.1 Considerations
5.3.10.4.1.2 Project
5.3.10.4.1.2.1 Coexistence
5.3.10.4.1.2.2 Scope
5.3.10.4.1.2.3 Base
5.3.10.4.1.2.4 Use Cases
5.3.10.4.1.2.5 Physical Layer
5.3.10.4.1.2.5.1 Tasks
5.3.10.4.1.2.5.2 Responsibilities
5.3.10.4.1.2.5.3 Types
5.3.10.4.1.2.5.4 Error Protection
5.3.10.4.1.2.5.5 Rates
5.3.10.4.1.2.5.6 Frequency Plan
5.3.10.4.1.2.5.7 PHY Services
5.3.10.4.1.2.5.8 Regulations
5.3.10.4.1.2.6 MAC Layer
5.3.10.4.1.2.6.1 Functionalities
5.3.10.4.1.2.6.2 Channel Access
5.3.10.4.1.2.7 Security
5.3.10.4.2 JEITA (Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association) Standards
5.3.10.4.2.1 JEITA CP-1221
5.3.10.4.2.2 JEITA CP-1222
5.3.10.4.2.3 JEITA CP-1223 (2013)
5.3.10.4.3 Visible Light Communications Association (VLCA)
5.3.10.4.4 ARIB T50
5.3.10.4.5 ECMA 397-2010
5.3.11 VLC Channel-Details
5.3.11.1 General
5.3.11.2 Functionality
5.3.11.3 Transmitter
5.3.11.4 Receiver
5.3.11.4.1 Image Sensors
5.3.11.4.2 LED as Receiver
5.3.11.5 Major Characteristics
5.3.11.5.1 General
5.3.11.5.2 Modulation
5.3.11.5.3 Characteristics Summary
5.3.11.6 Emerging Areas
5.3.11.7 Limitations
5.3.12 Applications: Summary
5.3.12.1 Indoor VLC Channel: Medical Environment
5.3.13 Industry
Axrtek
ByteLight (acquired by Acuity Brands in 2015)
Casio
Firefly Wireless Networks
LVX
Luciom
Nakagawa Laboratories
NEC
Oledcomm
Outstanding Technology
PureLi-Fi
Siemens
Supreme Architecture
Tamura
5.3.14 Market
6.0 Conclusions
Attachment I: IEEE 802.15.4a-2007
Attachment II: VLC – related Patents Survey (2015-2016)
Figure 1: WBAN Illustration
Figure 2: Intelligent Sensor
Figure 3: Characteristics Comparison
Figure 4: IEEE 802.15.6: Process
Figure 5: IEEE 802.15.6 Areas of Applicability
Figure 6: 802.15.6 – PHY and MAC
Figure 7: Network Topology - BANs
Figure 8: ISO/IEEE 11073 Protocol Family
Figure 9: Estimate: Patient Wireless Monitoring Devices - Europe ($M)
Figure 10: Estimate: U.S. Healthcare Expenditures ($T)
Figure 11: Estimate: U.S. WBAN Equipment Sales - Medical Applications ($B)
Figure 12: Estimate - U.S. First Responders WBAN Equipment Sales ($B)
Figure 13: Estimate: Global – Medical Devices Connectivity Market ($B)
Figure 14: Bluetooth Protocol Stack
Figure 15: BT ULP Layers
Figure 16: BT HDP Building Blocks
Figure 17: Estimate: Global Sales of BT Modules (Bil. Units)
Figure 18: Estimate: Global Seles of BT Modules ($B)
Figure 19: BT Market Geographical Segmentation
Figure 20: Estimate- BT- HDP Modules Global Sales (Bil. Units)
Figure 21: Estimate: BT- HDP Modules Global Sales ($B)
Figure 22: Estimate: BLE-enable Devices Shipping – Global (Mil. Units)
Figure 23: ZigBee Channels
Figure 24: ZigBee Protocol Stack
Figure 25: ZigBee Applications
Figure 26: Estimate: ZigBee Modules Global Sales ($B)
Figure 27: Estimate: ZigBee Modules Global Sales (Bil. Units)
Figure 28: Estimate: ZigBee PHHC Modules Global Sales ($B)
Figure 29: Estimate: ZigBee PHHC Modules Global Sales (Bil. Units)
Figure 30: ZigBee Market Segmentation (2016)
Figure 31: ZigBee Market Segmentation (2020)
Figure 32: LED Structure
Figure 33: Spectrum (450-750 nm – visible)
Figure 34: LED Properties Illustration
Figure 35: Estimate: U.S. Lighting LED Market ($B)
Figure 36: Estimate: U.S. Lighting LED Market (Bil. Units)
Figure 37: Estimate: Global Lighting LED Market ($B)
Figure 38: Cost and Brightness - Light Sources
Figure 39: WPAN/WLAN Family and VLC
Figure 40: Illustration-VLC Channel
Figure 41: VLC Applications
Figure 42: TAM: VLC Technology ($B)
Table 1: ZigBee and 802.15.6 Radios
Table 2: Sensors Classification
Table 3: MedRadio Frequencies
Table 4: Allowable Power Density
Table 5: NB PHY Characteristics
Table 6: HBC PHY
Table 7: Summary – 802.15.6 Major Features
Table 8: Modulation Parameters: 802.15.4j
Table 9: Transports: IEEE 1073
Table 10: WBAN Healthcare Applications
Table 11: Bluetooth Profiles & Protocols
Table 12: ZigBee Public Profiles - Examples
Table 13: Wavelengths (nm)
Table 14: Laser vs. LED
Table 15: Use Cases - VLC
Table 16: Devices and Characteristics - VLC
Table 17: Frequency Plan – 802.15.7
Table 18: VLC/RF Properties
Table 19: VLC, IR and RF Communications ITS Applications Comparison
Table 20: Locations Technologies-VLC Place
Table 21: Standard Bands

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