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“Indoor Public Safety Communications and Localization” Technologies and Markets

“Indoor Public Safety Communications and Localization”Technologies and Markets

This report addresses specifics of wireless communications and localization technologies that support first responders operations inside of enclosures such as buildings, tunnels and similar structures. It also addresses related industries, applicable standards and markets.

Increasingly, public safety entities, commercial wireless service providers, and wireless users require reliable indoor communications. For public safety, reliable coverage is often essential throughout a broad jurisdiction, including coverage on-street, in-building, and in-tunnel. In such cases, there is no substitute for a properly designed dedicated mission-critical communications system with sufficient transmit sites to provide the level of signal required for reliable coverage anywhere within the jurisdiction, whether on-street or indoors.

Indoor wireless communications environments usually do not allow using traditional PSC (Public Safety Communications) networking based on TETRA, P25 or LTE. Building materials attenuate signals and this makes communications unreadable. Localization based on GPS techniques is becoming also questionable due to weak satellite signals inside of a construction.

All these factors make it necessary to develop special methods to extend outdoor communications channels inside of enclosures. Two such methods are analyzed in this report; and they are based on utilization:

-Small Cells

-DAS – Distributed Antenna Systems.

Small Cells base stations are small in size, lightweight and designed to serve up to several tens of users. They may be conveniently spread throughout a building, covering each corridor, hall, corners and so on. The technology relatively recently became commercialized and brought multiple benefits to users.

DAS is used for in-building signals distributions for at least twenty years. The report concentrates on advances in this technology, its specifics and issues.

Standard organizations activities, the in-depth market analysis and survey of the industry are also studied in this report.

There are multiple methods suggested for in-building localization of first responders as well as other people or objects in the operational area. They are based on utilization of sensors, RF signatures in a building, amplification of GPS signals and other. The report concentrates on commercialized methods, and provides details of their advantages and issues. The report also addresses marketing aspects of in-building localization; and surveys patents related to indoor localization.

The report is written for a wide audience of technical and managerial staff involved in the development of reliable PSC and localization inside buildings and other enclosures.


1.0 Introduction
1.1 Need
1.1.1 Outdoor Environment
1.1.2 Indoor Environment
1.1.2.1 Legislation
1.1.2.2 Signal Attenuation
1.1.3 Transparency
1.2 Unified In-Building Wireless
1.2.1 Localization Services
1.2.2 Solutions
1.3 Public Safety Communications Specifics
1.4 Scope and Goals
1.5 Research Methodology
1.6 Target Audience
2.0 PSC Spectrum
2.1 U.S.
2.1.1 FCC - General
2.1.2 800 MHz Band
2.1.3 700 MHz Band
2.1.3.1 700 MHz Nationwide Network – FirstNet
2.2 EU
2.3 Global
3.0 Special Considerations
3.1 Requirements: First Responders Indoor Communications
3.1.1 General
3.2 Choices
3.2.1 Classes
3.2.2 Properties
3.2.2.1 Regulations
3.2.2.2 Involved Parties
3.2.2.3 Factors
3.3 Specifics of In-building Communications
3.3.1 Extended Coverage
4.0 Developmental Trends
4.1 Small Cells Development
4.1.1 Rational
4.2 Nomenclature
4.2.1 Group
4.3 Background
4.4 Applications
4.4.1 Indoor Use Cases
4.4.2 Outdoor Use Cases
4.4.3 Public Safety Communications
4.4.4 Summary
4.5 Benefits and Issues
4.6 Small Cell Market
4.6.1 Market Geography
4.6.2 Estimate
4.7 Standardization
4.7.1 Organizations
4.7.1.1 Small Cell Forum
4.7.1.2 3GPP
4.7.1.2.1 First Standard
4.7.1.2.2 Interfaces – 3GPP
4.7.1.2.3 3GPP Rel.12 and SCs
4.7.1.3 Other
4.8 Small Cell Industry
Airspan
AirHop Communications
Alpha Networks
Argela
Broadcom (acquired by Avago in 2015)
BTI Wireless
Cavium
Cisco
CommScope
Contela
Ericsson
Fujitsu
Huawei
ip.access
Intel
Gilat
Juni
NEC
Nokia
Qualcomm
Radisys
Samsung
Spider Cloud (Corning)
Tektelic
TI
Xilinx
ZTE
4.9 Distributed Antenna System (DAS)
4.9.1 General
4.9.2 Definition
4.9.3 Classifications
4.9.4 Utilization
4.9.5 DAS Benefits
4.9.6 Forum
4.9.7 Specifics of DAS in Public Safety Communications
4.9.8 Market
4.9.8.1 General
4.9.8.2 Cost Efficiency
4.9.8.3 Market Drivers
4.9.8.4 Forecast
4.9.9 Industry
Boingo
Cobham
Comba
CommScope
Corning
Combilent
Crown Castle
Dali Wireless
Ethertronics
Microlab
Radio Frequency Systems
Shyam Telecom
SoliD
Westell
Zinwave
5.0 In-building Wireless Communications: Market Estimate
6.0 In-building Localization
6.1 Standardization Activity
6.2 Survey
6.3 Industry
Apple
Broadcom
Camero
decaWave
Google
indoo.rs
IndoorAtlas
iPosi
Motorola Solutions
NextNav
NIST
Pointer
Qualcomm
Q-Track
Skyhook Wireless
ViewPoint
Wifarer
6.3 Market Estimate
7.0 FirstNet and Indoor Communications
7.1 Transparency
7.2 Contract
7.3 Differences
7.4 Authorities
8.0 Comparison
8.1 DAS
8.2 C-RAN Small Cells
8.3 Small Cells Issues
9.0 Conclusions
Attachment I: Patents Survey – Indoor Localization (2016-2018)
Attachment II: Codes
Figure 1: FCC PSC Spectrum Allocation
Figure 2: 800 MHz Reconfiguration Plan
Figure 3: 700 MHz Band
Figure 4: In-building Communications Systems - Classification
Figure 5: mmWave Advantages
Figure 6: Macro vs Small BS – Shipped (Ratio)
Figure 7: BS: Characteristics and Classification
Figure 8: BS Types and Parameters
Figure 9: SC Use Cases
Figure 10: Estimate: SC Global Shipments (Mil. Units)
Figure 11: Estimate: Global SC Shipments ($B)
Figure 12: 3GPP Rel. 12 SC Enhancements
Figure 13: Scenario 1
Figure 14: Scenario 2
Figure 15: Centralized and Distributed Architectures
Figure 16: Active DAS
Figure 17: Passive DAS
Figure 18: Hybrid DAS
Figure 19: General Layout
Figure 20: Estimate: DAS Equipment Sales - Global ($B)
Figure 21: Market Segments - DAS Types
Figure 22: Estimate: Global Market – In-Building Wireless Communications ($B)
Figure 23: Estimate-Global Market – FR in-Building Communications ($B)
Figure 24: Indoor Ranging – Standardization Activity (2015)
Figure 25: Estimate: Global Indoor Location Market ($B)
Figure 26: Estimate: Global Indoor Location Market – First Responders ($B)
Figure 27: Technical Characteristics
Table 1: RF Signals Attenuation (dB)

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