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Biodegradable Polymers

Biodegradable Polymers

The global biodegradable polymer market should reach 5.6 billion pounds by 2021 from 2.4 billion pounds in 2016 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 18.0%, from 2016 to 2021.

Report Includes
An overview of the global markets for biodegradable polymers, defined as polymers that are completely converted by microorganisms to carbon dioxide, water, and humus.
Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2015, estimates for 2016, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2021.
A discussion of how this niche market is beset with a variety of roadblocks, led by high prices and lack of industrial infrastructure in the United States.
A look at the strong global legislative mandate to increase the usage of these materials.
Coverage of the chemical types of biodegradable polymers along with their properties, production, producers, and applications.
Characterization of the industry by new technologies, stringent environmental restraints, and very unstable oil prices, among other issues.
Profiles of major players in the industry.


Report Scope
Although the term biodegradable polymers is well known, the controversy within the industry as to which materials should be considered biodegradable continues unabated. These resins currently include polyolefin-based compositions containing starch and polymers containing aromatic groups that microorganisms have difficulty utilizing in their metabolism.

Furthermore, there are additives said to convert petroleum-based resins to biodegradable versions. These resultant resins are said to be oxo-biodegradable.

Part of the current debate revolves around defining an acceptable period of time for biodegradation to be completed. Almost all carbon-based materials are biodegradable, if given an acceptable period of time.
This report includes polymers that producers market as fully biodegradable. Most define a fully biodegradable polymer as a polymer that is completely converted by microorganisms to carbon dioxide, water and humus.

In the case of anaerobic biodegradation, carbon dioxide, methane and humus are the degradation products. However, many within the industry insist on a time period for degradation such that the terms biodegradable and compostable are not synonymous. The issue concerning biodegradable versus compostable resins is a very important issue that is discussed in detail.

Polymers derived from renewable resources (non-petroleum-based) are not covered unless they are considered biodegradable since many polymers derived from renewable resources are not biodegradable. These materials are often termed as bio-based. Some polymers are both bio-based and biodegradable.

This report covers the chemical types of biodegradable polymers along with their properties, production, producers and applications. The companies involved will be detailed in terms of their products, including trade names and their impact on the market. Definitions and standards, market drivers, biodegradation testing, environmental issues, composting and relevant technologies will also be discussed.

An examination of global consumption is provided along with considerable information regarding North American, European and Asian products, technologies, markets and companies.

CHAPTER 1 Introduction
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
SCOPE OF REPORT
SOURCES
ANALYSTS' CREDENTIALS
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE
DISCLAIMER
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MARKET, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS.)
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MARKET, BY APPLICATION, 2015-2021 (MILLION LBS.)
CHAPTER 3 TERMINOLOGY
BACKGROUND
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
BIO-BASED
DEGRADABLE AND BIODEGRADABLE
COMPOSTABLE VS. BIODEGRADABLE
CHAPTER 4 BACKGROUND/HISTORICAL
OVERVIEW
THE BIOPOLYMER-SYNTHETIC POLYMER GAP
NICHE MARKETS
A NEW EMPHASIS
ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS PERSIST
INTEGRATION OF BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS WITH DISPOSAL
INFRASTRUCTURE
EARLY STARCH-BASED MATERIALS
INTRODUCTION OF COMPOSTABLE BAGS
CONTINUED R&D
EARLY ENTRANTS
THE IMPORTANCE OF LOOSE-FILL
OTHER FACTORS
BIOPOLYMERS, CONVENTIONAL PLASTICS AND BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS
NATURAL OR SYNTHETIC
THE MOVE TO RENEWABLE SOURCES
EXTENDING THE RECYCLING LOOP
PROCESSING
PROPERTIES
DEFINING BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS
PUBLIC ATTITUDES
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
COMPOSTING
CHAPTER 5 BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS BY CHEMICAL TYPE
OVERVIEW
BACKGROUND
POLYLACTIC ACID
THE PROCESS
BACKGROUND
TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW
GRADES
PROPERTIES
PRODUCTION
PRODUCERS
MODIFICATIONS
SOME PROBLEM AREAS
USE OF BLENDS
APPLICATIONS
BIODEGRADABILITY
POLYESTERS
POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES (PHAS)
Background
Chemistry
Technology Details
Applications
Processes
Properties
Biodegradability
Compostability
Recycling
Certification and Testing
OTHER BIODEGRADABLE POLYESTERS
Ecoflex
Ecovio
Biomax
Bionelle
OTHER IMPORTANT BIODEGRADABLE POLYESTERS
Polycaprolactone (PCL)
Background
Properties
Applications
Overview
Biomedical Applications
Suppliers
PBS-Type Polyesters
Background
Chemistry
Water-Soluble Polymers
Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVOH)
Polyvinyl Alcohol-Based Materials
Background
Applications
Properties
Specific PVOH Properties
Suppliers
Biodegradable Applications
BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER BLENDS
BACKGROUND
PLA BLENDS
FKUR ACTIVITIES
BASF PRODUCTS
RTP AND POLYONE PLA BLENDS
RECENT NATUREWORK LLC DEVELOPMENTS
STARCH-BASED BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS
AGRO-POLYMERS
SUSTAINABLE/BIODEGRADABLE CORN STARCH PRODUCTS
Background
Technical Details
Thermoplastic Starch
MIXTURES OF STARCH AND BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS
Background
Producers
Novamont
TABLE 1 TYPES OF PRODUCTS MADE WITH MATER-BI
Cereplast
Earthshell
Applications of Thermoplastic Starch Polymers
Environmental Issues
Starch-Filled Polymer Composites
OTHER TYPES OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS
PROTEIN-BASED PLASTICS
Background
Benefits
Applications
Consumer
Agricultural
Horticulture
BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS FROM SOYBEANS
GENETICALLY MODIFIED (GM) BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS
BACKGROUND
PHAS
CURRENT SCENARIO
OXO-BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS
BACKGROUND
APPLICATIONS
WHAT IS AN OXO-BIODEGRADABLE PLASTIC ACCORDING TO PROPONENTS?
INPUT FROM THE CEN (EUROPEAN STANDARDS ORGANIZATION)
TECHNOLOGIES
CONTINUING CONTROVERSY OVER OXO-BIODEGRADABLES
Background
Other Conflicting Issues
A Conundrum
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER ADDITIVES
CHAPTER 6 GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER PRODUCERS
TABLE 2 KEY GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER PRODUCERS
TABLE 3 KEY GLOBAL POLYLACTIC ACID PRODUCERS
TABLE 4 KEY GLOBAL POLYESTER BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER PRODUCERS
TABLE 5 KEY GLOBAL STARCH-BASED BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER PRODUCERS
CHAPTER 7 MARKET ESTIMATES AND FORECASTS
SUMMARY
TABLE 6 GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MARKET, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION POUNDS)
GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MARKET BY APPLICATION
TABLE 7 GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MARKET, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION POUNDS)
GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MARKET BY REGION
OVERVIEW
TABLE 8 GLOBAL BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER MARKET, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION POUNDS)
NORTH AMERICA
EUROPE
ASIA
GLOBAL DEMAND AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF INDIVIDUAL
BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS
PLA
TABLE 9 GLOBAL PLA MARKET, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION POUNDS)
TABLE 10 GLOBAL PLA MARKET, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION POUNDS)
STARCH-BASED BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS
TABLE 11 GLOBAL STARCH-BASED PLASTICS MARKET, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION POUNDS)
TABLE 12 GLOBAL STARCH-BASED PLASTICS MARKET, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION POUNDS)
POLYESTERS
TABLE 13 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PHA AND OTHER BIODEGRADABLE POLYESTERS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION POUNDS)
TABLE 14 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PHA AND OTHER BIODEGRADABLE POLYESTERS, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION POUNDS)
CHAPTER 8 APPLICATIONS
OVERVIEW
PACKAGING
BACKGROUND
CHOICE OF RESIN IS THE FIRST STEP IN SUSTAINABLE PACKAGING
OBSTACLES
TARGETED APPLICATIONS
SHEET EXTRUSION APPLICATIONS
CLEAR RIGID PACKAGING
STRETCH BLOW MOLDING PACKAGING
FOOD PACKAGING
Overview
A Prominent Example
Single-Serve Market
THERMOFORMED PACKAGING
CUPS AND UTENSILS
NEW BOTTLE DEVELOPMENTS IN BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER PACKAGING
IMPACT OF FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRY
FOAM PACKAGING
Overview
Biodegradable Polyethylene Foams
Biodegradable Engineered Foams
Biodegradable Air Cushions
LOOSE-FILL PACKAGING
Overview
The Process
Storopack
FP International
Pro-Pac Packaging
MEDICAL
OVERVIEW
BACKGROUND
PROPERTIES REQUIRED
BREADTH OF APPLICATIONS
CRITERIA FOR POLYMER SELECTION
ORTHOPEDIC FIXATION DEVICES
DETAILS ON THE TYPES OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS USED IN THE MEDICAL FIELD
Background
Polyglycolides
Polylactides
Polycaprolactone
Polydioxanone
Polyanhydrides
PACKAGING AND STERILIZATION IMPLICATIONS
Background
Sterilization
DEGRADATION OF MEDICAL PLASTICS
COMMERCIAL BIODEGRADABLE MEDICAL DEVICES
Background
Sutures
Dental Devices
Orthopedic Fixation Devices
Drug Delivery
Hydrogels
Microspheres
Tissue Engineering
Bone Replacement
Stents
OTHER APPLICATIONS
BACKGROUND
FIBERS
Overview
Hygiene-Related Fiber Disposable Products
Nonwovens
Biodegradable Drug-Loaded Fibers
PAPER COATINGS
Overview
Examples of Biodegradable Commercial Products for Paper Coating
Applications
Biodegradable Polymer Coated Paper and Paperboard
PAPER CUPS
AGRICULTURAL APPLICATIONS
Background
Positive Aspects Cited by Proponents of Biodegradable Film Usage in
Agriculture
A Recent Update on Biodegradable Mulches for Agricultural Applications
Production of Biodegradable Plastic Mulches
TABLEWARE
AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS
Overview
TABLE 15 U.S. AUTOMOTIVE SALES, 2001-2021 (MILLION UNITS)
TABLE 16 HYBRID SALES FOR THE U.S., 2008-2015 (THOUSAND UNITS)
CAFE Issues
Current Status of Auto Applications
PLA Properties and Products
ELECTRONICS
Overview
Current Status of Electronic Applications
Fujitsu
NEC and Unitika
Sony
Samsung Cheil
Telecom Italia
Panasonic
Biodegradable Electronics Research
CHAPTER 9 DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS
OVERVIEW
CONFUSION IN DEFINITIONS
SOME TECHNICAL ASPECTS
BACKGROUND
THE TERM "BIO-BASED" OFTEN IS CONFUSING TO CONSUMERS
DEGRADABLE TESTS ARE NOT UNIFORM
Overview
Oxo-Bio Standards
Hydro-Bio Standards
ASTM D6400
Conclusions
SUMMARY OF STANDARDS
TABLE 17 KEY ASTM STANDARDS RELATED TO BIODEGRADABLE
POLYMERS
OVERVIEW OF ASTM TESTS AND SPECIFICATIONS BASED ON TYPE OF ENVIRONMENT
TABLE 18 ASTM TESTS AND SPECIFICATIONS, BY TYPE OF ENVIRONMENT
FTC STANDARDS
USDA "BIOPREFERRED" PROGRAM
STANDARDS OUTSIDE NORTH AMERICA
BACKGROUND
EN 13432, ASTM D6400, ISO 17088
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
BACKGROUND
SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL
BACKGROUND
FEDERAL LEGISLATION
ECONOMIC DRIVING FORCES
OTHER LEGISLATIVE ISSUES
IMPACT OF LANDFILLS
RECYCLING
Background
Other Developments
Chemical Recycling for Cradle-to-Cradle PLA
Other PLA Recycling Operations
CONSUMERS' PERCEPTIONS ABOUT BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS
BACKGROUND
U.S. ASPECTS
Overview
Negative Views of Biodegradable Plastics
Compost Toxicity
Increased Aquatic BOD
Risk to Marine Species
Litter
EUROPEAN ASPECTS
JAPANESE ASPECTS
CHAPTER 10 TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF THE DEGRADABILITY OF RESINS
POLYOLEFINS
POLYSTYRENE
PVC
OTHER THERMOPLASTICS AND THERMOSETS
MODES OF DEGRADATION OF SELECTED BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS
TABLE 19 TIME LAG FOR VISUAL CHANGE DURING DEGRADATION FOR SELECTED MATERIALS (WEEKS)
TABLE 20 TIME LAG FOR DEGRADATION PROCESS OF SELECTED
MATERIALS (MONTHS)
EFFECT OF POLYMER STRUCTURE ON BIODEGRADATION
BACKGROUND
MORPHOLOGY
EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL/EXPOSURE CONDITIONS ON
BIODEGRADATION
Background
Early Regulations
Significance of Moisture, Temperature and/or Oxygen
Role of Microorganisms
Presence of Methane
Increasing Decomposition in Landfills
Function of Compost Operations
Other Factors
Conclusions
MORE DETAILS ON THE CONCEPT OF COMPOSTING
OVERVIEW
TABLE 21 ESTIMATED COMPOSTING TIMES
BACKGROUND
KEY PROPERTIES FOR COMPOSTABLE PLASTICS
MATERIALS THAT MEET SPECIFICATIONS
COMPOST STREAM AND INFRASTRUCTURE
COMPOSTABLE PLASTICS
BIODEGRADABILITY AND COMPOSTABILITY
COMPOSTABLE PRODUCTS
RESTRICTIONS ON COMPOSTABLE CLAIMS
STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
BENEFITS OF COMPOST TO SOIL
WHAT ARE THE CHALLENGES OF USING COMPOSTABLE PLASTICS?
U.S. ACTIVITIES
EUROPEAN ACTIVITIES
JAPANESE ACTIVITIES
MUTUAL INTERESTS OF THE GREEN PLASTICS INDUSTRY AND COMPOSTING
PLA PROBLEMS IN COMPOSTING FACILITIES
AN INTERESTING/BAFFLING SET OF DEFINITIONS
A RECENT DEVELOPMENT
Third-Party Certification Program
CHAPTER 11 PATENTS RELATED TO BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS
USING BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS TO INHIBIT SCALE FORMATION IN OIL
WELLS
GLOBAL GREEN PRODUCTS LLC (DOVER, DE) - NO. 9,382,466 (JULY 5, 2016)
MANUFACTURING METHOD OF AN ECO FRIENDLY FOAMING PACKAGE
MATERIAL
TRI CAN CO. LTD. (HSINCHU HSIEN, TAIWAN) - NO. 9,056,423 (JUNE 16, 2015)
BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS FOR USE WITH IMPLANTABLE MEDICAL DEVICES
ADVANCED CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMS INC. (SANTA CLARA, CALIF.) - NO. 7,875,283 (JANUARY 25, 2011)
BIAXIALLY ORIENTED POLYLACTIC ACID FILM WITH HIGH BARRIER TORAY PLASTICS (AMERICA) (NORTH KINGSTON, R.I.) - NO, 7,951,438
(MAY 31, 2011)
USE OF SELECTION PRESSURES TO ENABLE MICROBIAL BIOSYNTHESIS OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES FROM ANAEROBIC DEGRADATION PRODUCTS
LELAND STANFORD JUNIOR UNIVERSITY (PALO ALTO, CALIF.) - NO. 8,030,021 (OCTOBER 4, 2011)
POLYLACTIC ACID COMPOSITION
TEIJIN LIMITED (OSAKA, JAPAN) - NO. 8,030,382 (OCTOBER 4, 2011)
CHEIL INDUSTRIES INC. (GUM-SI, KOREA) - NO. 8,232,343 (JULY 31, 2012)
MEDICAL ARTICLES CONTAINING BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS AND ACID-NEUTRALIZING CATIONIC SPECIES
BOSTON SCIENTIFIC SCIMED INC. (MAPLE GROVE, MINN.) - NO. 8,263,103 (SEPTEMBER 11, 2012)
POLYLACTIC SHRINK FILMS AND METHODS OF CASTING SAME
PLASTICS SUPPLIERS INC. (COLUMBUS, OHIO) - NO. 8,263,197 (SEPTEMBER 11, 2012)
POLYLACTIC ACID FIBER
KIMBERLY CLARK WORLDWIDE INC. (NEENAH, WIS.) - 8,268,738 (SEPTEMBER 18, 2012)
METHOD OF MANUFACTURE OF POLYLACTIC ACID FOAMS
BIOPOLYMER NETWORK LTD. (CANTERBURY, NEW ZEALAND) - NO. 8,283,389 (OCTOBER 9, 2012)
POLYLACTIC ACID RESIN COMPOSITION
ADEKA CORP. (TOKYO, JAPAN) - NO. 8,293,824 (OCTOBER 23, 2012)
POLYLACTIC ACID AND MANUFACTURING PROCESS THEREOF
TEIJIN LIMITED (OSAKA, JAPAN) - NO. 8,304490 (NOVEMBER 6, 2012)
PROCESS FOR THE MODIFICATION OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS
AKZO NOBEL N.V. (ARNHEM, THE NETHERLANDS) - NO. 8,334,348 (DECEMBER 12, 2012)
BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER AND COMPOUNDS
TECHNOFILM S.P.A. (SANT'ELPIDIO A MARE, ITALY) - NO. 8,349,914 (JANUARY 8, 2013)
PROCESS FOR EXTRACTING AND RECOVERING POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES
(PHAS) FROM CELLULAR BIOMASS
PHB INDUSTRIAL (SERRANA-SP, BRAZIL) - NO. 8,357,508 (JANUARY 22, 2013)
COMPATABILIZED POLYPROPYLENE AND PLA BLENDS AND METHODS OF MAKING AND USING SAME
FINA TECHNOLOGY INC. (HOUSTON, TEX.) - NO. 8,362,145 (JANUARY 29, 2013)
POLYLACTIC ACID COMPOSITION AND MOLDING COMPRISING THE COMPOSITION
TOHCELLO CO., LTD (TOKYO, JAPAN) - NO. 8,362,157 (JANUARY 29, 2013)
HYUNDAI MOTOR COMPANY (SEOUL, KOREA) - NO. 8,378,027 (FEBRUARY 19, 2013)
TORAY INDUSTRIES INC. (JAPAN) - NO. 8,431,212 (APRIL 30, 2013)
CHAPTER 12 COMPANY PROFILES
BASF
BIOLOGISCHE NATURVERPACKUNGEN GMGH & CO. KG (BIOTEC)
BIOMATERA
BIOME BIOPLASTICS LTD.
BIOMER
BIOPOLYMER TECHNOLOGIES AG (BIOP)
CEREPLAST
CERESTECH INC.
CORBION AMERICA
EARTHSHELL CONTAINER CORP.
FKUR PLASTICS CORP.
FUTERRO
GALACTIC SA
HUHTAMAKI INC.
METABOLIX
MHG
MITSUI CHEMICALS
NATUREWORKS LLC
NOVAMONT
PLANTIC TECHNOLOGIES LTD.
PLAXICA LTD.
PSM NORTH AMERICA
RODENBURG BIOPOLYMERS B.V.
SYNBRA TECHNOLOGY
TEIJIN, LTD.
TEKNOR-APEX
TIANAN BIOLOGIC MATERIAL COMPANY LTD.
TIANJIN GREEN BIO-SCIENCE CO. LTD.
TORAY
TOYOBO COMPANY LTD.
UHDE INVENTA-FISCHER GMBH
ZHEJIANG HISUN BIOMATERIALS CO.
CHAPTER 13 APPENDIX I
SELECTED ACRONYMS USED IN REPORT
CHAPTER 14 APPENDIX II
SELECTED GLOSSARY OF TERMS
CHAPTER 15 APPENDIX III
BIODEGRADABLE PRODUCTS INSTITUTE (BPI)
TABLE 22 BPI MEMBER COMPANIES
CHAPTER 16 APPENDIX IV
PRICING
TABLE 23 U.S. LIST PRICES FOR SELECTED BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS, 2015 (DOLLARS/POUND)

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