The gold standard in this market is manual compression. Although effective, this approach is wasteful of man-power, with perhaps 20 minutes to several hours of compression time required. With the general shortage of nursing labor, many hospitals are finding it cost-effective to employ VCDs to accelerate the closure process.
This chapter only covers the market for closure devices that were used in association with coronary procedures.
Invasive and Non-Invasive Devices
There are two types of vascular closure devices: invasive and non-invasive. Invasive devices operate by inserting a device component into the arterial hole and causing closure by various mechanisms (including sutures and collagen sponges). Non-invasive devices act at the exterior of the skin to achieve hemostasis. In addition, there are two main forms of non-invasive devices: patches and inflatable pressure bulbs.