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Markets in Wear Coatings: Hard Chrome and Its Alternatives

Markets in Wear Coatings: Hard Chrome and Its Alternatives

Thintri Inc. announces the release of Markets in Wear Coatings: Hard Chrome and its Alternatives, 2016, a new update of its study on hard chrome wear coatings and chrome replacement. This comprehensive examination of the subject discusses the various technologies, the industries in which they will, and won’t, be used, and forecasts to 2022.

Used as a fundamental wear-resistant coating in a wide range of industries— aerospace, heavy equipment, automotive and many others — hard chrome plating has overcome increasing obstacles to market growth in recent years. Industry downsizing and consolidation following toughened legislation led to the closure or offshore relocation of as many as half of the chrome plating shops in North America, but the remaining the chrome plating industry has been stable for several years. Most chrome plating shops, having accommodated new regulations, are now thriving and profitable.

However, the situation is changing rapidly. In this, the fourth update to Thintri’s original 2003 study on wear coatings, alternatives to hexavalent hard chrome are now poised to have a significant impact on hex chrome’s markets to the degree that sales of hard chrome plating consumables may fall into negative territory.

A number of alternatives to hard chrome are available. The chief substitute is thermal spray, in particular high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF), often favored due to its high strength and wear resistance and fast turnaround time. Some of the industry has begun transitioning to high-velocity air-fueled (HVAF) and high energy plasma spray. Thermal spray as a rule, however, faces fundamental limitations such as high cost, low throughput and difficulty with complex shapes or non-line of sight situations.

Thermal spray faces growing competition from new plating solutions that easily accommodate non-line of sight and complex shapes. These include electroless nickel composite plating, which can deposit diamond-composite coatings, and electrodeposited nanocrystalline cobalt-phosphorus alloys. Plasma vapor deposition (PVD) can make thin, high quality coatings for less cost, in some cases, than even decorative chrome.

The big news is that hard trivalent chrome, long sought as a more health- and environmentally-friendly alternative to hex chrome, is now a commercial reality. Hard trivalent chrome coatings have been demonstrated in large scale production and the technology is now available. The impact will be significant on established markets for hex chrome plating, since it’s among the most economical and easily implemented hex chrome substitute. The good news for chrome platers is that they can convert to hard trivalent chrome coatings with relative ease and remain at the forefront of wear coating technology.

However, new legislative initiatives, particularly REACH in Europe, have made many nervous about any chromium content at all in their coatings, leading to growing interest in chromium- free coatings. Furthermore, REACH has also targeted cobalt salts, a prime constituent of nanocrystalline cobalt-phosphorus coatings, a very promising and economical plating alternative to hard chrome.


Executive Summary
E.1 Introduction
E.2 Hard Chrome Wear Coatings
E.2.1 Health & Environmental Hazards, Legislation
E.2.2 The Hard Chrome Industry Today
E.2.3 Hard Chrome Markets
E.2.4 The Need for Chrome Alternatives in Wear Coatings
E.3 Primary Chrome Alternatives
E.3.1 Thermal Spray
E.3.1.1 HVOF/HVAF
E.3.1.2 Plasma Spray
E.3.1.3Twin Wire Arc Spray
E.3.2 Thermal Spray Consumables
E.3.3 Plated and PVD Alternatives to Chrome
E.3.3.1Trivalent Chrome
E.3.3.2 Electroless Nickel and its Variations
E.3.3.3 Nanocrystalline Alternatives
E.3.3.4 Physical Vapor Deposition
E.3.5 Electrospark Deposition
E.3.6 Explosive Bonding
E.4 The Market Outlook for Alternatives
Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Today’s Hard Chrome Plating Industry
2.1 Chromium
2.2 Chrome Plating
2.3 Health and Environmental Effects
2.4 Effects of Pollution Control Legislation
2.4.1 OSHA’s PELs
2.4.2 EPA Rules
2.4.3 Europe
2.5 The Industry Today
Chapter 3: Hard Chrome Markets and Market Drivers
3.1 Overview: Chrome’s Dominance in Wear Coatings
3.2 Today’s Hard Chrome Plating Markets
3.2.1 Aerospace Markets for Hard Chrome Plating
3.2.1.1Aircraft Actuator Hydraulics
3.2.1.2 Landing Gear
3.2.1.3 Gas Turbines
3.2.1.4 Other Aircraft Components
3.2.1.5 Overhaul & Repair
3.2.2 Oil Field, Heavy Equipment, and General Industrial Markets for Hard Chrome
3.3 Drawbacks in Using Hard Chrome
3.4 Hard Chrome Market Conditions Today
3.5 Hard Chrome Market Forecasts
3.5.1 Introduction
3.5.2 Aerospace
3.5.3 Industry
3.5.3.1 Oil & Gas
3.5.3.2 Hydraulics & Heavy Machinery
3.5.3.3 Other General Industry
Chapter 4: Alternative Technologies to Hexavalent Chrome Plating
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Thermal Spray
4.2.1 Thermal Spray Technologies Today
4.2.2 High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF)
4.2.2.1 D-Gun
4.2.2.2 HVAF
4.2.2.3 HVOF vs. Chrome
4.2.3 Plasma Spray
4.2.3.1 Conventional Plasma Spray
4.2.3.2 High Energy Plasma
4.2.4 Twin Wire Arc Spray
4.2.5 Thermal Spray Metal Powder/Polymer Combinations
4.2.6 Cold Spray
4.2.7 Powders
4.2.9 Health, Safety & Environmental Issues in Thermal Spray
4.3 Plating Alternatives to Hard Chrome
4.3.1 Trivalent Chromium
4.3.1.1 Faraday Technology
4.3.1.2Atotech
4.3.1.3 ECOCHROM
4.3.2 Electroless Nickel Plating
4.3.2.1 Electroless Nickel Boron
4.3.2.2 Electroless Nickel Composite Coating
4.3.3 Electrodeposited Nanocrystalline Coatings
4.3.3.1 Integran’s Electrodeposited NanocrystallineCobalt-Phosphorus
4.3.3.2 US Chrome/USCTechnologies
4.3.4 Plated Tin Alloys
4.4 Electrospark Deposition
4.5 Explosive Bonding
4.6 Laser Cladding
4.7 Vacuum Techniques
4.7.1 PVD
4.7.2 Intensified Plasma-Assisted Processing
4.8 Line of Sight, Inner Diameter Issues
Chapter 5: Markets for Chrome Alternatives
5.1 Target Hard Chrome Markets, Penetration by Alternatives
5.2 Markets and Forecasts for Non-Chrome Plated and VaporDeposition Solutions
5.3 Commercial Demand and Market Forecasts, Thermal Spray
5.3.1 Background: Industrial Thermal Spray in Today’s Economy
5.3.2 Oil Field Applications
5.3.3 Hydraulics and Heavy Equipment
5.3.4 Other General Industry
5.4 Aerospace Demand and Forecasts
5.4.1 Commercial vs. Defense Demand
5.4.2 Opportunities in Overhaul and Repair vs. Manufacture
5.4.3 Landing Gear
5.4.4 Aircraft Hydraulics
5.4.5 Gas Turbines
5.4.5.1Aircraft Gas Turbines
5.4.5.2 IGTs
5.4.6 Other Aerospace Applications
5.5 Thermal Spray Supplier Markets and Forecasts
5.5.1 Wear Coatings Markets
5.5.2 Markets for Services
5.5.3 Cost Issues
5.5.4 Geographic Segmentation
5.5.5 Powder Providers and Markets
5.5.6 Equipment Providers and Markets
5.5.7 HVOF vs. Plasma vs. Wire Arc
Tables and Figures
Figure E-1 Overall Worldwide Hard Hex Chrome Consumables Market Forecast
Figure E-2 Markets, Hard Hex & Trivalent Chrome Consumables,Wear Coatings
Figure E-3 Forecast, Total Hard Chrome Consumables Markets,Wear Coatings
Figure E-4 Overall Market Forecast, Thermal Spray Consumables,Wear Coatings
Table 2-1 Domestic Sodium Dichromate & Chromic Acid Production,US
Table 2-2 Typical Process Parameters for Chrome Plating, Conventional Baths
Table 2-3 Symptoms of Hexavalent Chromium Exposure Among Chrome Plating and Chromium Chemical Workers
Figure 2-1 Sources of Hexavalent Chromium Emissions, 2005
Figure 3-1 Worldwide Chrome Plating Demand, Consumables, Equipment,
Services, Hard vs. Decorative, 2016
Figure 3-2 Geographic Distribution, Hard Chrome Production, 2016
Figure 3-3 Projected Geographic Distribution, Hard Chrome Production, 2022
Figure 3-4 Global Hard Chrome Consumables Market Breakdown, 2016..39
Figure 3-5 Aerospace Chrome Plating Consumables Market Segments, 2016
Figure 3-6 Aerospace Hard Chrome Consumables Markets, Commercial vs. Defense, 2016
Figure 3-7 Hard Chrome Demand Segmentation in Gas Turbines, Aerospace vs. IGT, 2016
Table 3-1 Industrial Hard Chrome Applications
Figure 3-8 Overall Hard Hex Chrome Consumables/Equipment/Services Market Forecast
Figure 3-9 Aerospace Hard Hex Chrome Consumables Market Forecast
Figure 3-10 Hard Hex Chrome Consumables/Equipment/Services Market Forecast, Oil & Gas
Figure 3-11 Overall Hydraulics & Heavy Equipment Hard Hex Chrome Market Forecast
Figure 3-12 Hydraulics Hard Hex Chrome Markets: Mining & Earth
Moving vs. Forestry & Logging
Figure 3-13 Market Forecast: Hard Hex Chrome in Agriculture, Waste & Recycling
Figure 3-14 Market Forecast: Hard Hex Chrome in Construction, Concrete & Asphalt
Figure 3-15 Market Forecast: Hard Hex Chrome Consumables in Defense & Government, Freight Transport
Figure 3-16 Hard Hex Chrome Consumables Market Forecast: General Industry
Figure 3-17 Market Forecast: Hard Hex Chrome Consumables in General Industry by Market Segment
Figure 3-18 Hard Hex Chrome vs. Hard Trivalent Chrome Markets
Figure 3-19 Overall Hard Chrome Consumables Market Forecast
Figure 5-1 Overall Market Forecast, Consumables & Equipment, Plated and PVD Alternatives
Figure 5-2 Market Forecast, Consumables and Equipment, Plated and PVD Alternatives by Segment
Figure 5-3 hermal Spray Equipment vs. Consumables Market, 2016
Figure 5-4 hermal Spray Powder Market Forecast, Oil and Gas Sector
Figure 5-5 hermal Spray Services Market Forecast, Oil and Gas Sector
Figure 5-6 Forecast, Thermal Spray Powder, Mining & Earth Moving, Forestry & Logging
Figure 5-7 Forecast, Thermal Spray Powder, Agriculture, Waste & Recycling
Figure 5-8 Forecast, Thermal Spray Powder, Construction, Concrete & Asphalt
Figure 5-9 Forecast, Thermal Spray Powder, Defense & Government, Freight Transport
Figure 5-10 Forecast, Thermal Spray Powder, Overall Hydraulics and Heavy Equipment
Figure 5-11 Forecast, Thermal Spray Services, Overall Hydraulics and Heavy Equipment
Figure 5-12 Forecast, Thermal Spray Powder, General Industry by Segment
Figure 5-13 Forecast, Thermal Spray Powder, Overall General Industry
Figure 5-14 Forecast, Thermal Spray Services, Overall General Industry
Figure 5-15 Defense vs. Commercial Aerospace Demand, Thermal Spray Powder, Wear Coatings, 2016
Figure 5-16 Defense vs. Commercial Aerospace Demand, Thermal Spray Services, Wear Coatings, 2016
Figure 5-17 Aerospace Thermal Spray Powder Demand, Manufacture vs. Repair
Figure 5-18 Aerospace Overhaul & Repair, Thermal Spray Outsource vs. In-House, 2016
Figure 5-19 Thermal Spray Powder Demand Forecast, Landing Gear
Figure 5-20 Thermal Spray Powder Demand Forecast, Aircraft Hydraulics..138
Figure 5-21 Thermal Spray Powder Demand Forecast, Aircraft Gas Turbines
Figure 5-22 Thermal Spray Powder Demand Forecast, IGTs
Figure 5-23 Thermal Spray Powder Demand Forecast, Other Aerospace
Figure 5-24 Thermal Spray Services Forecast, Overall Aerospace
Figure 5-25 Overall Thermal Spray Wear Coatings Consumables Market Forecast
Figure 5-26 Overall Market Forecast, Thermal Spray Services
Table 5-1 Time Study Results, HVOF vs. Chrome Plating on a Landing Gear Piston: Hours to Plate 737-300 NLG IC Landing Gear Piston: HVOF vs. Chrome Plating
Figure 5-27 Geographic Segmentation Forecast, Thermal Spray Powders, Wear Coatings
Figure 5-28 Geographic Segmentation Forecast, Thermal Spray Equipment, Wear Coatings
Figure 5-29 Thermal Spray Powder Market Segments by Coating Type, 2016
Figure 5-30 Overall Thermal Spray Wear Coating Powder Market Forecast
Figure 5-31 Market Share, Carbide Powder Producers, 2016
Figure 5-32 Overall Thermal Spray Wear Coating Equipment Market Forecast
Figure 5-33 Market Share, Thermal Spray Equipment Producers, 2016
Figure 5-34 Market Share, Plasma Spray Equipment Producers, 2016
Figure 5-35 Market Share, HVOF Equipment Producers, 2016
Figure 5-36 Market Share, Wire Arc Equipment Producers, 2016
Figure 5-37 Thermal Spray Segmentation and Forecast, Consumables
Figure 5-38 Thermal Spray Segmentation and Forecast, Equipment

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