Next Generation Biofuels

Next Generation Biofuels

Next generation biofuels, also known as advanced biofuels, refer to any type of biofuel that has been made by a novel method, leading to a better product as compared to a current biofuel. The present second, third and fourth generations of biofuels are also all known as next generation biofuels.

Next generation biofuels are being favored over first generation biofuels nowadays because of the better environmental impact they are supposed to have and also because they use non-food feedstock. As advances are made in technology, next generation biofuels are surely going to increase in use as compared to first generation biofuels.

Next generation biofuels can be produced from agricultural residues, waste, non-food cellulosic biomass, algae, and from crops grown on marginal land. Next generation biofuels are said to mitigate climate change as they allow for reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases. Apart from this, these advanced biofuels are also lowering the pressure on food crops as next generation biofuels are produced from non-food feedstock and agricultural residues.

Already several companies are investing in bringing next generation biofuels to the market. However, production costs remain quite high and the efficiency of biomass to biofuels conversion needs improvement in the future. Furthermore, the cost of biomass transportation also needs to be reduced before next generation biofuels become commonly used.

Taiyou Research analyzes the lucrative and growing market for advanced biofuels in its research report Next Generation Biofuels. The report covers the following:

Divided into 8 sections, the report is a comprehensive analysis of not just next generation biofuels, but also first and second generation biofuels.

Section 1 is an introduction to biofuels wherein we cover the basics of biofuels such as how to make biofuels, uses of biofuels, types of biofuels, ethanol and biodiesel markets, the pros and cons of biofuels, a market overview of the global biofuels industry, a comparison between biofuels and fossil fuels and a look at the future demand for biofuels and biomass.

The impact of biofuels on the environment, economy, engines, and on rural development is analyzed.

An analysis of first generation biofuels is included followed by a profile of liquid biofuels such as bioalcohols, biodiesel, bioethers, green diesel and vegetable oil.

An analysis of solid biofuels such as biomass pellets, char and wood fuel.

An analysis of gas biofuels such as biogas, biopropane, synthetic natural gas and syngas.

Section 2 is an introduction to next generation biofuels analyzed what they are, technology development, advantages and the challenges facing the development of next generation biofuels.

Using renewable feedstocks for biofuels is analyzed.

An analysis of lignocellulosic biofuels is conduction through single molecule fuels and mixture of fuels.

We look at the technological considerations for next generation biofuels such as production methods, lignocellulosic bioethanol, synthetic biofuels, biohydrogen, biogas, and other factors are considered.

Biomass potential in the world is analyzed.

Section 3 of the report analyzes second generation biofuels through basics such as technologies used for second generation biofuels, conversion routes used, composition of biomass including cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and other components are analyzed.

A look at the impact of the economic recession on the market for second generation biofuels.

Feedstocks used for second generation biofuels are analyzed. Feedstocks included are bioethanol, black liquor, energy crops, gas biomatter, and green waste.

Technologies used in the production of second generation biofuels such as biochemistry, co-current fixed bed, entrained flow gasifier, fluidized bed reactor, etc.

An analysis of the different types of second generation biofuels as well as factors driving growth of this market.

An analysis of the market for lignocellulosic biofuels through their potential, feasibility to produce fuels from lignocellulosic biomass, types of biofuels produced from lignocellulosic biomass, conversion processes of biomass to fuel, and other factors are analyzed.

An analysis of lignocellulosic ethanol through the purpose of pre-treatment, importance of size reduction, purpose of hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, process integration and challenges facing the market.

An analysis of synthetic biofuels through the process of gasification, components of product gas, necessity of gas cleaning, pathways for fuel synthesis, and other factors are analyzed.

An analysis of biohydrogen through production technologies, thermochemical gasification, fast pyrolysis, other gasification processes, and comparison of different process routes for hydrogen production are looked at.

A look at the role of biorefineries.

How to sustain second generation biofuels in developing countries.

An analysis of second generation biofuels, greenhouse gas emissions and the overall impact on the environment.

Second generation biofuels and genetic engineering and synthetic biology for second generation biofuels are analyzed.

Commercial investment in second generation biofuels is looked at.

Transitioning from first generation biofuels to second generation biofuels along with case studies sums up section 3 of the report.

Section 4 of the report analyzes second generation biofuels by country. We analyze each market by production of first generation biofuels in the country, national policy targets for biofuels, types of lignocellulosic feedstock, the market for second generation biofuels, economic and ecological impact and a SWOT analysis of the second generation biofuels market.

Markets analyzed include Brazil, China, India, Mexico, South Africa and Thailand.

Moving to section 5 of the report, we analyze the global market for third generation biofuels - that is Algal Fuels.

Basics of algal fuels is analyzed and we also look at using algae as an energy source.

Producing biological hydrogen from algae is analyzed.

Investment in the industry and market analysis of algal fuels in the US and Europe along with corporate development follows.

Using algae for transport and power generation is analyzed along with fuel production from algae.

Pros and cons facing fuel production from algae is looked at.

Technology behind third generation biofuels such as biological concepts, algae production, biodiesel production from algae, extraction of algal oil, etc. are analyzed in the report.

Section 6 deals with fourth generation biofuels.

Section 7 is an analysis of the major players in the industry and there is a total of 95 companies analyzed in this report.

Section 8 is the Concluding chapter of the report and here we look at some case studies such as Producing Wood Ethanol in Canada, Producing Biofuels with High- Efficiency, Life Cycle Assessment of Biofuels, an Appendix and a Glossary.

Executive Summary
Section 1: Introduction to Biofuels
1. Introduction to Biofuels
1.1 What are Biofuels?
1.2 How to Make Biofuels
1.3 Uses of Biofuels
1.3.1 Uses of Biodiesel
1.4 Types of Biofuels
1.5 Ethanol & Biodiesel Markets
1.5.1 Ethanol
1.5.2 Biodiesel
1.6 Pros & Cons of Biofuels
1.7 Direct Biofuels
1.8 Market Overview - Global Biofuels Industry
1.9 Biofuel Usage in Developed Economies and Developing Countries
1.10 First Generation Biofuels
1.11 Biofuels vs. Fossil Fuels
1.12 Are Biofuels worth it?
1.13 Future Demand for Biofuels & Biomass
2. Impact of Biofuels
2.1 Environmental & Economic Impact
2.2 Impact on Engines
2.3 Impact on Rural Development
2.3.1 Policy Impact
2.3.2 Environmental Impact
2.3.3 Impact of Biofuel Programs
2.3.4 Creation of Employment
3. Energy Diversification - Is it Justified?
4. First Generation Biofuels
5. Liquid Biofuels
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Bioalcohols
5.3 Biodiesel
5.4 Bioethers
5.5 Green Diesel
5.6 Vegetable Oil
6. Solid Biofuels
6.1 Features of Solid Biofuels
6.2 Types of Solid Biofuels
6.2.1 Biomass Pellets
6.2.2 Char
6.2.3 Wood Fuel
7. Gas Biofuels
7.1 Biogas
7.2 Biopropane
7.3 Synthetic Natural Gas
7.4 Syngas
Section 2: Introduction to Next Generation Biofuels
1. Next Generation Biofuels
1.1 What are Next Generation Biofuels?
1.2 Next Generation Technology Development
1.3 Advantages of Next Generation Biofuels
1.4 Challenges facing the Development of Next Generation Biofuels
2. Using Renewable Feedstocks for Biofuels
3. Lignocellulosic Biofuels – New Emerging Market
3.1 Overview
3.2 Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass
3.2.1 Single Molecule Fuels
3.2.2 Mixture of Fuels
4. Technological Considerations for Next Generation Biofuels
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Production Methods
4.3 Lignocellulosic Bioethanol
4.4 Synthetic Biofuels
4.5 Biohydrogen
4.6 Biogas
4.7 Economical Considerations
4.8 Environmental Considerations
4.9 Technological Considerations
4.10 Conclusion
5. Biomass Potential Worldwide
Section 3: Second Generation Biofuels
1. Introduction to Second Generation Biofuels
1.1 What are Second Generation Biofuels?
1.2 Technologies Used for Second Generation Biofuels
1.3 Conversion Routes for Second Generation Biofuels
1.4 Composition of Biomass
1.4.1 Cellulose
1.4.2 Hemicellulose
1.4.3 Lignin
1.4.4 Water
1.4.5 Ash and Other Components
1.4.6 Validation of Surrogate Molecules
2. Impact of the Economic Recession on Second Generation Biofuels
3. Feedstocks for Second Generation Biofuel
3.1 Bioethanol
3.2 Black Liquor
3.3 Energy Crops
3.4 Gas Biomatter (Methane)
3.5 Green Waste
4. Technologies Involved in Production of Second Generation Biofuels
4.1 Biochemistry
4.2 Co-Current Fixed Bed
4.3 Counter-Current Fixed Bed
4.4 Entrained Flow Gasifier
4.5 Fluidized Bed Reactor
4.6 Gasification
4.7 Pyrolysis
4.8 Torrefaction
5. Types of Second Generation Biofuels
5.1 BioDME
5.2 Bioethanol & Biobutanol
5.3 Biohydrogen
5.4 Biomethanol
5.5 DMF
5.6 Fischer-Tropsch Fuels
5.7 Hydro Thermal Upgrading (HTU)
5.8 Mixed Alcohols
5.9 Wood Diesel
6. Growth Drivers for Second Generation Biofuels
6.1 Overview
6.2 Regulatory Support
6.3 Blending Mandates
6.4 Trade Opportunities for Developing Countries
6.5 Government Funding
6.6 Foreign Investment
6.7 Trade in Feedstock
6.8 Scientific Cooperation and Research & Development
7. Analysis of Lignocellulosic Biofuels
7.1 What are Lignocellulosic Biofuels?
7.2 Potential of Lignocellulosic Biofuels
7.3 Is it Feasible to Produce Fuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass?
7.4 Types of Biofuels Produced from Lignocellulosic Biomass
7.4.1 Single Molecule Fuels or Additives
7.4.2 Mixture of Compounds – Classical Fuels
7.5 Structure of Lignocellulosic Biomass
7.6 Conversion Process of Biomass to Fuel
7.7 Producing Biofuels from Catalytic Processing of Biomass
7.8 Requirement of Next Generation Biorefineries for Producing Liquid Fuels
7.9 Feedstocks for Lignocellulosic Biofuels
8. Analysis of Lignocellulosic Ethanol
8.1 Overview
8.2 Importance of Size Reduction
8.3 Purpose of Pre-Treatment
8.4 Purpose of Hydrolysis
8.5 Fermentation
8.6 Distillation
8.7 Process Integration
8.8 Issues and Challenges
9. Analysis of Synthetic Biofuels
9.1 Overview
9.2 Importance of Size Reduction
9.3 Gasification
9.4 Components of Product Gas
9.5 Necessity of Gas Cleaning
9.6 Gas Upgrading
9.7 Pathways for Fuel Synthesis
9.7.1 Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Synthesis
9.7.2 Bio-SNG Production
9.7.3 Production of Ethanol and Higher Alcohols via Gasification
10. Analysis of Biohydrogen
10.1 Overview
10.2 Production Technologies
10.3 Thermochemical Gasification with Water Gas Shift
10.4 Fast Pyrolysis with Reforming of Carbohydrate Fraction of Bio-Oil
10.5 Feasibility of Direct Solar Gasification
10.6 Other Gasification Process
10.7 Hydrogen Production from Biomass Derived Syngas Conversion
10.8 Supercritical Conversion of Biomass
10.9 Microbial Conversion of Biomass
10.10 Comparison of Different Process Routes for Hydrogen Production
11. Role of Biorefineries
11.1 What is a Biorefinery?
11.2 Realizing the Potential of a Biorefinery
11.3 Emergence of Advanced Biorefineries
11.4 Types of Advanced Biorefineries
12. Sustaining Second Generation Biofuels in Developing Countries
12.1 Overview
12.2 Economic Impact of Second Generation Biofuels
12.2.1 Second Generation Biofuel Plants are Capital Intensive
12.2.2 Supply Costs of Biomass
12.2.3 Production Costs for Biofuels
12.3 Impact on the National Budget
12.3.1 Foreign Currency Savings
12.3.2 Requirement for Subsidies
12.4 Creating a Legal Political Framework
12.5 Securing Biomass Supplies
12.6 Access to Energy Services
12.7 Issue of Food Security
13. Second Generation Biofuels, GHG Emissions & Impact on the Environment
13.1 Overview
13.2 Impact of Second Generation Biofuels on Ecosystems, Carbon Cycle and Global Climate
13.3 GHG Balances
13.4 Impact on Soil
13.5 Impact on Water
13.6 Impact on Biodiversity
14. Second Generation Biofuels and Genetic Engineering
15. Synthetic Biology for Second Generation Biofuels
16. Commercial Investment in Second Generation Biofuels
16.1 Overview
16.2 Investment Costs
16.3 Operating Costs
16.4 Cost Assessments and Targets
17. Transitioning from First Generation to Second Generation Biofuels
18. Case Study: Pilot Projects for Second Generation Biofuels
18.1 Biochemical Ethanol & Biorefinery Demonstration Projects
18.2 Thermochemical BTL Demonstration Projects
Section 4: Analysis of Second Generation Biofuels by Country
1. Brazil
1.1 Overview
1.2 First Generation Biofuels Production
1.3 National Policy Target for Biofuels
1.4 Types of Lignocellulosic Feedstock
1.5 Second Generation Biofuels in Brazil
1.6 Production Costs for Second Generation Biofuels in Brazil
1.7 Economic Impact
1.8 Ecological Impact
1.9 Second Generation Biofuels in Brazil: SWOT Analysis
1.10 Conclusion
2. China
2.1 Overview
2.2 First Generation Biofuels Production
2.3 National Policy Target for Biofuels
2.4 Types of Lignocellulosic Feedstock
2.5 Second Generation Biofuels in China
2.6 Production Costs for Second Generation Biofuels in China
2.7 Economic Impact
2.8 Ecological Impact
2.9 Second Generation Biofuels in China: SWOT Analysis
2.10 Conclusion
3. India
3.1 Overview
3.2 First Generation Biofuels Production
3.3 National Policy Target for Biofuels
3.4 Types of Lignocellulosic Feedstock
3.5 Second Generation Biofuels in India
3.6 Production Costs for Second Generation Biofuels in India
3.7 Economic Impact
3.8 Ecological Impact
3.9 Second Generation Biofuels in India: SWOT Analysis
3.10 Conclusion
4. Mexico
4.1 Overview
4.2 First Generation Biofuels Production
4.3 National Policy Target for Biofuels
4.4 Types of Lignocellulosic Feedstock
4.5 Second Generation Biofuels in Mexico
4.6 Production Costs for Second Generation Biofuels in Mexico
4.7 Economic Impact
4.8 Ecological Impact
4.9 Second Generation Biofuels in Mexico: SWOT Analysis
4.10 Conclusion
5. South Africa
5.1 Overview
5.2 First Generation Biofuels Production
5.3 National Policy Target for Biofuels
5.4 Types of Lignocellulosic Feedstock
5.5 Second Generation Biofuels in South Africa
5.6 Production Costs for Second Generation Biofuels in South Africa
5.7 Economic Impact
5.8 Ecological Impact
5.9 Second Generation Biofuels in South Africa: SWOT Analysis
5.10 Conclusion
6. Thailand
6.1 Overview
6.2 First Generation Biofuels Production
6.3 National Policy Target for Biofuels
6.4 Types of Lignocellulosic Feedstock
6.5 Second Generation Biofuels in Thailand
6.6 Production Costs for Second Generation Biofuels in Thailand
6.7 Economic Impact
6.8 Ecological Impact
6.9 Second Generation Biofuels in Thailand: SWOT Analysis
6.10 Conclusion
Section 5: Third Generation Biofuels
1. Introduction to Third Generation Biofuels – Algal Fuels
1.1 Overview
1.2 What is Algal Fuel?
1.3 Fuels Produced from Algae
1.3.1 Biodiesel
1.3.2 Biobutanol
1.3.3 Biogasoline
1.3.4 Methane
1.3.5 Ethanol
1.3.6 Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO)
1.3.7 Ethanol from Living Algae
1.3.8 Transport Fuels
1.3.9 Jet Fuel
1.4 Pros & Cons of Algal Fuels
2. Using Algae as an Energy Source
3. Producing Biological Hydrogen from Algae
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Technological Evolution
3.3 Bioreactor Design Issues
3.4 Biohydrogen Production from Algae
3.5 Applications
3.6 Ongoing Research & Development
3.7 Addition of Copper
4. Investment in the Industry
5. Market Analysis
5.1 Algal Fuel in the US
5.2 Algal Fuel in Europe
5.3 Corporate Developments
6. Using Algae for Transport & Power Generation
7. Fuel Production from Algae
7.1 Overview
7.2 Basics of Fuel Production
7.3 Production Technologies & Strategies
7.3.1 Overview
7.3.2 Infrastructure for Production
7.4 Products & Co-products
7.4.1 Biodiesel
7.4.2 Ethanol from Algal Biomass
7.4.3 Hydrocarbons
7.4.4 Mixed Alcohols
7.4.5 Co-products
7.5 Improving the Yield
8. Advantages of Fuel Production from Algae
9. Challenges Facing Third Generation Biofuels
10. Technology behind Third Generation Biofuels
10.1 Biological Concepts
10.2 Algae Production
10.3 Fuel Production Options
10.4 Biodiesel Production from Algae
10.5 Ethanol Production from Algae
10.6 Hydrocarbons Production from Algae
10.7 Extraction of Algal Oil
10.8 Types of Biofuel Produced
11. Producing Microalgal Biomass
12. Direct Liquefaction of Algae for Biodiesel Production
Section 6: Fourth Generation Biofuels
1. Fourth Generation Biofuels
Section 7: Analysis of Major Players in the Industry
1. A2BE Carbon Capture
2. Abengoa Bioenergy
3. GmbH
4. BD AgroRenewables GmbH & Co. KG
5. Air Liquide
6. Algae Floating Systems Inc
7. AlgaeLink, N.V.
8. Algaewheel
9. Algenol Biofuels
10. AlgoDyne Ethanol Energy Corporation
11. Amyris Biotech
12. Andritz AG
13. Archer Daniels Midland Co.
14. Aquaflow Bionomic Corporation
15. Aurora Biofuels
16. BASF
17. BEST Energies
18. Bio Fuel Systems
19. BioConstruct GmbH
20. BioGasol ApS
21. Blue Marble Energy
22. BlueFire Ethanol
23. BP Plc
24. BRI Energy
25. Broin Companies/POET
26. Butamax Advanced Biofuels LLC
27. Cargill Inc
28. Cellana
29. Chemrec
30. Chippewa Valley Ethanol Company LLC
31. Codexis, Inc
32. Choren
33. Cobalt Technologies
34. Colusa Biomass Energy Corporation
35. Coskata
36. D1 Oils Plc
37. Dao Energy, LLC
38. Diversified Energy Corporation
39. DuPont Danisco
40. Dyadic International, Inc
41. Ecofin LLC/Alltech Inc
42. Enerkem
43. EnviTec Biogas GmbH
44. Flambeau River Biofuels LLC
45. Frontier Renewable Resources
46. Fuel Bio Holdings, LLC
47. Gevo
48. Global Green Solutions
49. GreenerBioEnergy Corporation
50. GreenFuel Technologies
51. Greenlane Biogas
52. GS CleanTech
53. Gushan Environmental Energy
54. Haldor-Topsøe AS
55. ICM Incorporated
56. Imperium Renewables
57. Infinifuel
58. International Energy, Inc
59. Inventure Chemical
60. Iogen Corporation
61. Lignol
62. Live Fuels Inc
63. LS9, Inc
64. Lurgi AG
65. Mascoma Corporation
66. NatureWorks, LLC
67. Nedalco
68. NESTE Oil Oyj
69. Novozymes
70. Pacific Ethanol
71. Pan Gen Global
72. PetroAlgae
73. Petrobras
74. PetroSun
75. QTeros
76. Range Fuels
77. Repotec Renewable Power Technologies Umwelttechnik GmbH
78. Sapphire Energy
79. Seambiotic
81. Shell
82. Solazyme
83. Solena Group
84. Solix Biofuels
85. Süd-Chemie AG
86. TMO Renewables
87. US BioEnergy Corporation
88. Valcent Products Inc
89. VeraSun Energy Corporation
90. Verenium
91. Virgin Green Fund
92. West Biofuels LLC
93. Xethanol BioFuels, LLC
94. XL Renewables
95. Zeachem
Section 8: Conclusion
1. Case Study: Wood Ethanol in Canada
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Technical Developments
1.3 Why Produce Ethanol?
1.4 Wood Ethanol Production Technologies
1.4.1 Fermentation
1.4.2 Gasification
1.5 Demonstration Projects in Canada
1.6 Sources of Wood for Wood Ethanol Production
1.6.1 Fast Growing Plantations
1.6.2 Industrial Wood Waste
1.6.3 Forest Residue
1.7 Wood-based Ethanol Markets
1.8 Regulatory Incentives
1.9 Research & Development
1.10 Conclusion
2. Producing Biofuels with High-Efficiency, Small-Scale Reactors
3. Producing Distributed Biofuels with Fast Pyrolysis
4. Deriving Green Diesel & Jet Fuel Range Alkanes
5. Life Cycle Assessment of Biofuels
6. Overview of Biofuels of the First and Second Generation and Related Feedstock and Conversion Processes
7. Appendix
8. Glossary
List of Figures
Figure 1: Substitutability of Biofuels with Common Petroleum-derived Fuels
Figure 2: Substitutability of Biofuels for Clean Fossil Fuels used for Cooking
Figure 3: Global Biofuel Production (in millions of gallons), 2005-2017
Figure 4: Biomass in Total Primary Energy Supply 2010 in Selected Countries
Figure 5: Demand for Biofuels and Land Requirements in 2050 in the IEA Blue Map Scenario
Figure 6: Biofuels CO2 Profile Saving by Feedstock
Figure 7: Overview on Production Pathways
Figure 8: Biofuel Production Costs
Figure 9: Total Driving Costs – Private Cars (WTW)
Figure 10: Technology Versus Economic Aspects
Figure 11: Economic Versus Environmental Aspects
Figure 12: Literature Review of Global Bioenergy Potentials for 2050
Figure 13: Complete Molecular Structure of Biomass Containing all Three Main Components: Cellulose is shown in Orange, the Hemicellulose in Blue, and the Lignin in Green
Figure 14: Highlighted Structure of Cellulose
Figure 15: Highlighted Structure of Hemicellulose
Figure 16: Highlighted Structure of Lignin
Figure 17: From Raw Materials to DME
Figure 18: Process Flow Diagram for Ethanol Production from Ligno-Cellulose
Figure 19: Biofuel Mandate in the United States Renewable Fuels Standard
Figure 20: Cellulose Chain
Figure 21: Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Fuel
Figure 22: Processing Steps in Lignocellulose to Bioethanol Production
Figure 23: Breakdown of Lignin, Cellulose and Hemicellulose
Figure 24: Example of the Three Stages of the Cellulose Hydrolysis by Cellulase Enzyme Complex
Figure 25: Typical Process Integration in Lignocellulose Ethanol Production
Figure 26: Two Basic Variants in the SHF Process Integration
Figure 27: Principal Synthetic Biofuel Processing Chain
Figure 28: Characteristic Conditions for Thermal Utilization Processes
Figure 29: Classification of Gasification Technologies
Figure 30: Fixed-bed Updraft Gasifier
Figure 31: Fixed-bed Downdraft Gasifier
Figure 32: Stationary Fluidised-bed Gasifier
Figure 33: Circulating Fluidised-bed Gasifier
Figure 34: Circulating Fluidized Two-Bed Gasifier
Figure 35: Entrained Flow Gasifier
Figure 36: Pathways from Biomass to Hydrogen
Figure 37: Biorefinery: A General Concept
Figure 38: Biorefinery: Feedstocks and Products
Figure 39: Classification of Biorefineries Based on Feedstock
Figure 40: Estimated Production Costs for Thermo-Chemical FT Liquid Biofuel Production Options, Methanol, Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) and Hydrogen Production Plants
Figure 41: Operating Costs for Lignocellulosic Ethanol Plants using Corn Stover Feedstock and Various Pretreatment Systems
Figure 42: Operating Costs for Unit Operations of Ligno-Cellulosic Ethanol Plants for Varying Feedstocks and Pretreatments
Figure 43: Extrapolation between Recent Cost Estimates for 2nd-Generation Ethanol Production in the US and the US DOE target in 2012, with a Forecast to 2020
Figure 44: Production Cost Ranges for 2nd-Generation Biofuels Compared with Wholesale Petroleum Fuel Prices Correlated with the Crude Oil Price over a 16 Month Period, and 2030 Projections Assuming Significant Investment
Figure 45: Comparison of Net Energy Investment (Input/Output) of Bioethanol Production from Various Studies
Figure 46: Photobioreactor Design (A) and Picture (B)
Figure 47: Algae Bioreactors for Hydrogen Production
Figure 48: Fuel Cell
Figure 49: Functioning of Algae without Copper
Figure 50: Functioning of Algae with Copper
Figure 51: Algae Farm
Figure 52: Algal Oil
Figure 53: Mechanism of Production of Biodiesel from Algae
Figure 54: HDVB
Figure 55: Generalized Process for Ethanol Production, based on Cellulosic Plant Fiber but Similar to the Processes under Experimentation for Lignocellulosics
Figure 56: Residence Time of a Reaction versus the Reaction Temperature
Figure 57: Small Scale Portable Reactor for Liquid Fuel Production by Distributed Fast Pyrolysis
Figure 58: Reaction Pathways for Conversion of Polysaccharides into Liquid Alkanes by Aqueous-Phase Processing
Figure 59: Life Cycle Assessment for Biofuel Production
Figure 60: Three Primary Needs (biomass Growth, Fuel Production and Fuel Utilization) for the Biofuel Economy
Figure 61: Routes to Make a Biofuel
Figure 62: Production of Advanced Biofuels under the Renewable Fuel Standard
Figure 63: Impacts of Alternative Biofuels Scenarios
Figure 64: Increasing Number of Functional Groups
Figure 65: Biomass vs. Petroleum Processing
Figure 66: Strategies for Thermochemical Conversion
List of Tables
Table 1: Classification of Biofuels
Table 2: Biomass and Biofuels Consumption in ETP 2008 Blue Map Scenario
Table 3: First Generation Biofuels
Table 4: Potential U. S. Biomass Resources
Table 5: Comparison of Technological Aspects
Table 6: Classification of Second-Generation Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Feedstocks
Table 7: Chemical Composition of Biomass Feedstock: Feedstock Composition and Property Database
Table 8: Ratio of Methoxy to Phenylpropanoid Group by Feedstock
Table 9: Calculated versus Published Higher Heating Value by Feedstock
Table 10: Biofuel Support Policies in the Studied Countries
Table 11: Overview on Second-Generation Biofuel Projects in Emerging and Developing Countries
Table 12: Potential of US Biomass Resources
Table 13: Cellulose, Hemicellulose, and Lignin Contents in Common Agricultural Residues and Wastes
Table 14: Chemical Pre-Treatment of Lignocellulose
Table 15: Physical Pre-treatment Methods
Table 16: Biological Pre-treatment Methods
Table 17: Merits and Demerits of Different Processes of Biomass Conversion to Hydrogen
Table 18: Some Biomass Feedstock used for Hydrogen-Production
Table 19: Capital Investment Costs for Various Pretreatments Calculated from a Number of Bio-Chemical Ethanol Plants in US
Table 20: IEA 2nd-Generation Biofuel Cost Assumptions for 2010, 2030 and 2050
Table 21: US DOE Funding Support for Commercial 2nd Generation Plant Capacity, Planned or Under Construction
Table 22: Assessment of Residues from Forestry and Agriculture
Table 23: Potential Second Generation Biofuel Production and Number of Plants
Table 24: Theoretical Second Generation Biofuel Production Costs in Brazil
Table 25: Assessment of Residues from Forestry and Agriculture
Table 26: Potential Second Generation Biofuel Production and Number of Plants
Table 27: Theoretical Second Generation Biofuel Production Costs in China
Table 28: Assessment of Residues from Forestry and Agriculture
Table 29: Potential Second Generation Biofuel Production and Number of Plants
Table 30: Theoretical Second Generation Biofuel Production Costs in India
Table 31: Assessment of Residues from Forestry and Agriculture
Table 32: Potential Second Generation Biofuel Production and Number of Plants
Table 33: Theoretical Second Generation Production Costs in Mexico
Table 34: Assessment of Residues from Forestry and Agriculture
Table 35: Potential Second Generation Biofuel Production and Number of Plants
Table 36: Theoretical Second Generation Biofuel Production Costs in South Africa
Table 37: Assessment of Residues from Agriculture
Table 38: Potential Second Generation Biofuel Production and Number of Plants
Table 39: Theoretical Second Generation Biofuel Production Costs in Thailand
Table 40: Comparison of Biological and Chemical Catalysts for Making Fuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass

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