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Transformer Report 2015 - Ed 4

Transformer Report 2015 - Ed 4

This is the 4th edition of the StatPlan Transformer Report. The report sizes demand for power and distribution transformers in base year 2014 and fore-casts demand from 2015 to 2020.

The report contains comprehensive quantitative data and qualitative analysis about the transformer markets, globally and for all regions and countries.

1. GENERATOR AND TRANSFORMER INSTALLED BASE ANALYSIS

Base year 2014, transformer type

By region and 124 countries

By type - Generator Trf, Power Trf, Distribution Trf

Power generation capacity MW

Transformer capacity MVA, number of transformers, kVA per transformer

Power transformers — GSU ≥ 220 kV, GSU >35<220 kV, Utility, Industry

Distribution transformers — GSU ≤ 35 kV, Utility, Industry

2. TRANSFORMER DEMAND AT EX-FACTORY & INSTALLED COST $

Demand in base year 2014

By region and 124 countries

By type - Generator Trf, Power Trf, Distribution Trf

3. TRANSFORMER MARKET DEMAND AT EX-FACTORY COST $

Demand in base year 2014, forecast in nominal $ annually to 2020

By region and 124 countries

By type - Generator Trf, Power Trf, Distribution Trf

4. TRANSFORMER MARKET DEMAND IN MVA CAPACITY

Demand in base year 2014, forecast annually to 2020

By region and 124 countries

By type - Generator Trf, Power Trf, Distribution Trf

5. PPI (PRODUCER PRICE INDEX) TREND, FACTORS IMPACTING PRICE

PPI trends are shown and the following factors impacting prices analysed.

Demand for transformers, market and industry trends

Production capacity—surplus/shortage

Input prices of:

Raw materials

Energy

Labour

The economic and financial climate

6. THE TRANSFORMATION PROCESS, POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER TYPES AND OWNERSHIP

Transformers are needed at any stage where the voltage changes up or down. The stages and parameters are mapped as power is stepped up from the generating plant to the high voltage of the transmission grid, down to medium voltage for the distribution grid and to low voltage for the end user.

7. TRANSFORMER : GENERATOR CAPACITY RATIOS — MVA : MW

By region and 124 countries

By type - Generator Trf, Power Trf, Distribution Trf

8. N-1 STANDARD, N-2 CAPABILITY, REDUNDANCY AND REPLACEMENT

The number of transformers used in a network has to take outages into account. In the various parts of a network different degrees of redundancy are applied to achieve a cost-effective N-1 standard of security (the ability to operate without loss of service even after the failure of one key component in the grid.) Large power transformers are costly custom built items and no two are the same so spares cannot be stored, whereas MV distribution trans-formers are commodity items and are kept in stock by distributors and this affects contingency planning. This is discussed and different practices outlined.

9. LONG TERM DEMAND CYCLE 1900-2050

The long term demand cycle depends on new build and replacement. Power trans-formers commonly have 40 year lives and with modern life extension can last even longer so the replacement cycle is a long term issue. To determine the demand cycle it is necessary to chart the growth of the transformer fleet over many decades. Stat-Plan has charted this since 1900 and the cycle is plotted to determine the demand cycle over 150 years.

10. CENTRAL AND DER (DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCES

Distributed energy resources (DER) are smaller power sources that can be aggregat-ed to provide power necessary to meet regular demand. As the electricity grid continues to modernise, DER such as storage and advanced renewa-ble technologies can help facilitate the transition to a smarter grid. DER enter the grid at varying voltages. The impact of DER on grid voltages and hence the specifications of transformers are discussed for Europe and future trends identified.

11. ENERGY EFFICIENCY

Losses in transmission and distribution networks constitute the single biggest loss in any electricity system and 70% of these losses occur in the distribution network. Gov-ernment regulations and programmes to reduce losses with energy efficient distribu-tion transformers are outlined for different regions.

12. LOGISTICS

Power transformers can be the size of a house and weigh over 400 tons. They often have to be transported large distances over difficult terrain with poor roads, over-passes and limited load limits. Logistics problems and solutions are discussed to-gether with their implications for transformers and similar large items of equipment.

13. ELECTRIFICATION

Electrification rates around the world vary considerably and these are charted, with their impact on electrical markets.

14. TRANSFORMER PRODUCTION CAPACITY AND MANUFACTURERS

Production capacity is assessed for different regions and countries and surplus ca-pacity identified, with its effect on prices. Manufacturers are listed with global market shares.

Please Note: Purchase Option is 1-4 Users


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The power transformer market
United States
Europe
CIS
Middle East and Africa
Asia Pacific
China
LAC
Long term demand cycle
Transformer: generator capacity ratios - MVA : MW
Channels to market
Transformer types
Efficiency transformers
Trends in the generation mix
Manufacturing capacity, global and by region
Price trend
Redundancy
Logistics
Electrification
1. GLOBAL TRANSFORMER DEMAND FORECAST AT EX-FACTORY COST
1.1 WORLD OVERVIEW
2. NORTH AMERICAN TRANSFORMER MARKET
2.1. MARKET REVIEW
2.1.1. Transformer stock
2.1.2. Composition of demand
2.1.3. The utility market in the United States
2.1.4. Market Drivers
2.1.5. Utility Investment
2.2. MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY REVIEW
2.2.1. Manufacturing facilities
2.2.2. Power transformers
2.2.3. USA plant
2.2.4. NAFTA suppliers in Canada and Mexico
2.2.5. Large Power transformers (LPT)
2.2.6. Medium Power Transformers
2.2.7. Distribution transformers
2.2.8. MV distribution transformer
2.2.9. LV distribution transformers
2.2.10. National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)
2.2.11. CEE- Consortium for Energy Efficiency
2.2.12. MEPS Standards
3. EUROPEAN TRANSFORMER MARKETS
3.1. REGIONAL MARKET
3.1.1. Regional Overview of the European utility system
3.1.2. High efficiency transformers
3.1.3. European utility crisis
3.1.4. Market Drivers
3.1.5. MEPS Standards
3.1.6. European manufacturing industry review
3.2. FRANCE
3.2.1. Transformer stock
3.2.2. Market drivers
3.2.3. Market leaders – Alstom, Schneider, development in France
3.3. GERMANY
3.3.1. Transformer stock
3.3.2. Market drivers
3.3.3. Market leader - Siemens
3.3.4. German utility crisis
3.3.5. Transformer manufacturers
3.4. ITALY
3.4.1. Transformer stock
3.4.2. Market drivers
3.4.3. Transformer manufacturers
3.5. SPAIN
3.5.1. Transformer stock
3.5.2. Market drivers
3.5.3. Transformer manufacturers
3.6. UNITED KINGDOM
3.6.1. Transformer stock
3.6.2. Market drivers
3.6.3. Transformer manufacturers
3.7. TURKEY
3.7.1. Transformer stock
3.7.2. Market drivers
3.7.3. Transformer manufacturers
4. CIS TRANSFORMER MARKET
4.1. RUSSIA
4.1.1. Transformer stock
4.1.2. Market drivers
4.1.3. Transformer manufacturers
5. MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA TRANSFORMER MARKETS
6. ASIA PACIFIC TRANSFORMER MARKETS
6.1. REGIONAL OVERVIEW
6.2. CHINA
6.2.1. Transformer stock
6.2.2. Market drivers
6.2.3. MEPS Standards
6.2.4. Manufacturing industry review
6.3. JAPAN
6.3.1. Transformer stock
6.3.2. Market drivers
6.3.3. MEPS Standards
6.3.4. Transformer manufacturers
6.3.5. Overseas production
6.7. INDIA
6.7.1. Transformer stock
6.7.2. Market drivers
6.7.3. MEPS Standards
6.7.4. Manufacturing industry review
6.8.KOREA
6.8.1. Transformer stock
6.8.2. Market drivers
6.8.3. Transformer manufacturers
6.9. TAIWAN
6.9.1. Transformer stock
6.9.2. Market drivers
6.9.3. Transformer manufacturers
7. LAC
7.1. BRAZIL
7.1.1. Transformer stock
7.1.2. Market drivers
7.1.3. Manufacturing industry review
7.2. MEXICO
7.2.1. Transformer stock
7.2.2. Market drivers
7.2.3. MEPS Standards
7.2.4. Transformer manufacturers
8. TRANSFORMER DEMAND AT EX-FACTORY AND INSTALLED COST
8.1. GLOBAL DEMAND
8.2. NORTH AMERICA
8.3 EUROPE AND CIS
8.4. MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA
8.5. LAC
8.6. ASIA PACIFIC
9. TRANSFORMER DEMAND IN MVA CAPACITY
9.1. GLOBAL DMAND
9.2. NORTH AMERICA
9.3. EUROPE AND CIS
9.4. MIDDLE EAST
9.5. AFRICA
9.6. 8ASIA PACIFIC
9.7. LAC
10. UTILITY, GSU & INDUSTRIAL POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER INSTALLED CAPACITY, NUMBERS AND AVERAGE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER KVA PER UNIT
11. NETWORK TRANSFORMER LAYOUT
11.1. THE TRANSFORMATION PROCESS
11.1.1. Stage 1
1.1.2. Stage 2
11.1.3. Stage 3
11.1.4. Stage 4
11.1.5. Network Configurations for distribution - Radial, Loop and Network systems
11.1.6. INDUSTRY
11.2. Review of regional utility network practices
11.2.1. The link from medium voltage to low voltage
11.2.2. North America
11.2.3. Japan
11.2.4. Europe
11.3. Types of Transformer
11.3.1. Liquid dielectric transformers
11.3.2. Dry type transformers
11.3.3. Gas filled transformers
11.4. Evolution of power transformers by size and capacity
11.5. Ownership of power and distribution transformers
11.6. Ownership of GSU transformers
12. THE LONG TERM DEMAND CYCLE 1900-2050
12.1. INSTALLED CAPACITY
12.2. INSTALLED CAPCITY VERSUS DEMAND
12.3. The China Factor
12.4. Regional trends- New versus replacement
13. TRANSFORMER : GENERATOR CAPACITY RATIOS - MVA : MW
14. N-1 STANDARD, N-2 AND 2N, REDUNDANCY AND REPLACEMENT
14.1. NETWORK FAILURE
14.2. TRANSFORMER FAILURE
14.2.1. Transformer age
14.2.2. Tap changer
14.2.3. Windings
14.2.4. Core
14.2.5. Tank
14.2.6. Solid insulation
14.2.7. Cooler
14.2.8. Oil insulation
14.2.9. Bushings
14.3. INDUSTRIAL RELIABILITY
14.4. NETWORK RELIABILITY
14.4.1. N-1 AND THE NETWORKS
14.4.2. Electricity distribution
14.4.3. Electricity transmission
14.4.4. Massive size of a power transformer
14.5. TRANSFORMER/GENERATOR RATIOS AND REDUNDANCY
14.5.1. Generation
14.5.2. Transmission
14.5.3. Distribution
15. PRICE TRENDS AND FACTORS DRIVING TRANSFORMER PRICES
15.1. PPI - PRODUCER PRICE INDEX
15.1.1. USA
15.1.2. EU
15.1.3. China
15.1.4. Japan
15.1.5.Korea
15.2. DEMAND FOR TRANSFORMERS - MARKET AND INDUSTRY TRENDS
15.2.1. Utilities
15.3. PRODUCTION CAPACITY
15.3.1. Production capacity of raw materials
15.3.2. Production capacity of manufactured equipment
15.4.MANUFACTURING INPUT COST COMPOSITION
15.4.1. Composition of manufacturing inputs
15.5. INPUT COSTS - RAW MATERIALS
15.5.1. Metal consumption
15.5.2. Steel
15.5.3. Electrical Steel
15.5.4. The electrical steel market
15.5.5. Anti-dumping Measures
15.5.6. Electrical steel producers
15.6. Copper and Aluminium
15.6.1. Copper
15.6.2. Aluminium
15.7. Transformer oil
15.8. INPUT COSTS – LABOUR
15.9. INPUT COSTS – ENERGY
15.10. ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CLIMATE
15.10.1. Overview
15.10.2. Inflation and debt outlook
16. THE POINT OF CONNECTION, CENTRAL AND DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND VOLTAGE
16.1. TRENDS IN THE GENERATION MIX
16.1.1. The impact of generation developments on transformation technology
16.3. Decentralised power
16.3.1. Czech Republic
16.3.2. Germany
16.3.3. Italy
16.3.4. Spain
16.3.5. United States
17. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND HIGH EFFICIENCY TRANSFORMERS
17.1. MEPS (Minimum Energy Performance Standards)
17.1.1. United States
17.1.2. Canada
17.1.3. Mexico
17.1.4. European Union
17.1.5. Australia
17.1.6. Japan
17.1.7. China
17.1.8. India
17.2. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW TECHNOLOGY - AMORPHOUS CORE TRANSFORMERS
17.2.1. The market for AMTs
17.2.2. Amorphous metal ribbon manufacturers
17.2.2.1. Japan
17.2.2.2. China
17.2.2.3. India
17.2.2.4. Taiwan
17.2.2.5. Other
17.3. HTS –HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTOR TRANSFORMERS
18. TRANSFORMER PRODUCTION CAPACITY
18.1. MANUFACTURING CAPACITY, GLOBAL AND BY REGION
18.1.1. North America (United States, Canada & Mexico)
18.1.2. Mexico
18.1.3. Latin America (excluding Mexico)
18.1.4. China
18.1.5. India
18.1.6. Korea
18.1.7. Europe
18.1.8. CIS
18.1.9. Africa
18.2. Global balance of production capacity and demand
19. LOGISTICS
19.1. Rail transport
19.2. Road transport
19.3. Alternative solutions
20. ELECTRIFICATION
20.1. Regional growth characteristics
20.2. Sub-Saharan Africa
20.3. Asia
20.4. MENA
20.5. Latin America
20.6. Europe
20.7. CIS
20.8. North America
20.9. THE IMPACT OF ELECTRIFICATION ON THE ELECTRICAL SUPPLY INDUSTRY
21. METHODOLOGY
21.1. SHORT TERM DEMAND FORECAST
21.2. LONG TERM DEMAND CYCLE
21.2.1. Demand cycles and the market
21.2.2. StatPlan Energy Databases
Figures
Figure 1: Real and nominal % growth in the transformer market, by region, from 2014 to 2020
Figure 2: Ratio of distribution transformers to generating capacity, installed base 1960 to2015
Figure 3: Utility investment I transmission and distribution, 1977 to 2015, nominal $
Figure 4: Imports of power transformers (Oil filled ≥ 10 MVA), into the United States from
Figure 5: Market capitalisation of seleced European utilities
Figure 6: RWE Profit and loss
Figure 7: Investment as a % of GDP, selected countries and economic groupings, 1980-2020
Figure 8: The UK Electrical Power Transmission and Distribution System
Figure 9: Evolution of transformers in voltage kV and capacity MVA
Figure 10: Proportion of capacity (MVA) generator, utility and private industry ownership of
Figure 11: Installed capacity of power and distribution transformers, GVA, 1900 - 2050
Figure 12: Global installed transformation capacity and demand 1900 - 2050, GVA
Figure 13: The cycle of demand, new and replacement capacity, 1900 - 2050, GVA.
Figure 14: Installed power transformer capacity and annual demand, 1900 - 2050, VA.G
Figure 15: Installed distribution transformer capacity and annual demand, 1900 - 2050, GVA.
Figure 16: Global utility transformation capacity installed base, GVA, 1900 – 2050
Figure 17: Annual transformer demand, excluding China, 1900 - 2050
Figure 18: Annual transformer demand including China, 1900 - 2050
Figure 19: Regional variations, new versus replacement capacity, 1950 - 2050, by region
Figure 20: Power, distribution and speciality transformers Producer Price Index, USA, 2005=100, 1998-2015
Figure 21: Europe Producer Price Index for industrial manufactures 2012 to 2015
Figure 22: China Producer Price Index for industrial goods 2005 to 2015
Figure 23: Japan Producer Price Index for industrial goods 2005 to 2015
Figure 24: Korea Producer Price Index for industrial goods 2012 to 2015
Figure 25: Average annual investment in T&D infrastructure
Figure 26: Costs of manufacturing an oil filled- transformer
Figure 27: World metal consumption (Total of aluminium, copper, lead, nickel, tin and zinc)
Figure 28: Prices of copper and aluminium 1960-2014
Figure 29: Copper prices 2007-2013
Figure 30: Aluminium prices
Figure 31: Labour compensation cost, including direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labour-related taxes (US = 100).
Figure 32: Labour costs including wages and salaries, social insurance and labour-related taxes
Figure 33: Minimum wages in China in yuan per month 1995 to 2012
Figure 34: Wage inflation in China versus the US, India and Mexico, 2005 to2012
Figure 35: Global energy cost index (2010 = 100)
Figure 36: Total growth of GDPs between 2008 and Q3 2014, the period encompassing the financial crisis, recession and recovery
Figure 37: Inflation 2005 to 2015
Figure 38: Global generating capacity mix, 1990 - 2050
Figure 39: Global generating capacity mix by energy source, 1990 - 2050
Figure 40: Capacity and generation by each energy source as percent of total, 1990 - 2013
Figure 41: Capacity and generation by each energy source as percent of total, 1990 - 2013
Figure 42: Two Schnabel cars unloaded
Figure 43: Schnabel car with load
Figure 44: The largest load ever transported by road in the United Kingdom
Figure 45: Overhead obstructions
Figure 46: Transformer off the road
Figure 47: Share of people without electricity access for developing countries
Figure 48: World electrification - % of households with electricity, 1900-2050
Figure 49: World electrification – number and % of households with electricity, 1900-2050
Figure 50: Selected major countries - % of households with electricity, 1900-2050
Figure 51: Selected major countries – Number of households with electricity, 1900-2050
Figure 52: Additions of electrified households in each decade by region, 2010 to 2050
Figure 53: Regional totals of electrified households 2010 to 2050
Figure 54: Diagram of new plus total replacement capacity
Tables
Table 1: World, total transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million
Table 2: World, generator transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million
Table 3: World, power network transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million
Table 4: World, distribution transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million
Table 5: North America, total transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million
Table 6: North America, generator transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million
Table 7: North America, power network transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million
Table 8: North America, distribution transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million
Table 9: US power and distribution transformer stock, 2014
Table 10: Detailed shipment data for power and distribution transformers in the US, 2009
Table 11: Market shares of Power Transformer Producers in the United States
Table 12: Europe, total transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million . 41
Table 13: Europe, generator transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million
Table 14: Europe, power network transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million
Table 15: Europe, distribution transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million
Table 16: French power and distribution transformer stock, 2014
Table 17: German power and distribution transformer stock, 2014
Table 18: Italian power and distribution transformer stock, 2014
Table 19: Spanish power and distribution transformer stock, 2014
Table 20: UK power and distribution transformer stock, 2014
Table 21: Turkish power and distribution transformer stock, 2014
Table 22: Russian power and distribution transformer stock, 2014
Table 23: MENA, total transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million .. 61
Table 24: MENA, generator transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million
Table 25: MENA, power transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million63
Table 26: MENA, distribution transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million
Table 27: Asia Pacific, total transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million
Table 28: Asia Pacific, generator transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million
Table 29: Asia Pacific, power network transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million
Table 30: Asia Pacific, distribution transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million
Table 31: Chinese power and distribution transformer stock, 2014
Table 32: Japanese power and distribution transformer stock, 2014
Table 33: Transformer manufacturers in Japan
Table 34: Indian power and distribution transformer stock, 2014
Table 35: Transformer manufacturers in India
Table 36: Korean power and distribution transformer stock, 2014
Table 37: Taiwanese power and distribution transformer stock, 2014
Table 38: LAC, total transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million
Table 39: LAC, generator transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million
Table 40: LAC, power network transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million
Table 41: LAC, distribution transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million
Table 42: Brazilian power and distribution transformer stock, 2014
Table 43: Mexican power and distribution transformer stock, 2014
Table 44: Transformer demand at ex-factory and installed cost, World, 2014, $ million
Table 45: Transformer demand at ex-factory and installed cost, North America, 2014, $ million
Table 46: Transformer demand at ex-factory and installed cost, Europe and CIS, 2014, $ million
Table 47: Transformer demand at ex-factory and installed cost, Middle East and Africa, 2014, $ million 91
Table 48: Transformer demand at ex-factory and installed cost, LAC, 2014, $ million
Table 49: Transformer demand at ex-factory and installed cost, Asia Pacific, 2014, $ million
Table 50: Annual demand for power and distribution transformers, MVA, World, 2014-2020
Table 51: Annual demand for power and distribution transformers, MVA, North America, 2014-2020... 93
Table 52: Annual demand for power transformers, MVA, North America 2014,-2020
Table 53: Annual demand for distribution transformers, MVA, North America, 2014-2020
Table 54: Annual demand for power and distribution transformers, MVA, Europe and CIS, 2014-2020 .. 94
Table 55: Annual demand for power transformers, MVA, Europe and CIS, 2014,-2020
Table 56: Annual demand for distribution transformers, MVA, Europe and CIS, 2014-2020
Table 57: Annual demand for power and distribution transformers, MVA, Middle East, 2014-2020
Table 58: Annual demand for power transformers, MVA, Middle East, 2014,-2020
Table 59: Annual demand for distribution transformers, MVA, Middle East, 2014-2020
Table 60: Annual demand for power and distribution transformers, MVA, Africa, 2014-2020
Table 61: Annual demand for power transformers, MVA, Africa, 2014,-2020
Table 62: Annual demand for distribution transformers, MVA, Africa, 2014-2020
Table 63: Annual demand for power and distribution transformers, MVA, Asia Pacific, 2014-2020
Table 64: Annual demand for power transformers, MVA, Asia Pacific, 2014,-2020
Table 65: Annual demand for distribution transformers, MVA, Asia Pacific, 2014-2020
Table 66: Annual demand for power and distribution transformers, MVA, LAC, 2014-2020
Table 67: Annual demand for power transformers, MVA, LAC, 2014,-2020
Table 68: Annual demand for distribution transformers, MVA, LAC, 2014-2020
Table 69: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, World
Table 70: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership, World
Table 71: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, North America
Table 72: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership North America
Table 73: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, Europe
Table 74: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership, Europe
Table 75: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, CIS
Table 76: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership, CIS
Table 77: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, Middle East
Table 78: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership, Middle East
Table 79: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, Asia Pacific
Table 80: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership, Asia Pacific
Table 81: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, Africa
Table 82: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership Africa
Table 83: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, LAC
Table 84: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership, LAC
Table 85: Average numbers of household consumers per DT
Table 86: Number of LV consumers, number of distribution transformers and average LV customers per transformer in selected countries
Table 87: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), World
Table 88: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), Europe
Table 89: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), CIS
Table 90: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), Middle East
Table 91: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), Africa
Table 92: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), Asia Pacific
Table 93: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), North America
Table 94: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), Latin America
Table 95: Electrical steel producers by country and production in 2009
Table 96: Voltage level of for connection to the grid, German rules
Table 97: Grid voltage connection by installation size for solar PV in Czech Republic, 2012
Table 98: Grid voltage connection by installation size for solar PV in Germany, 2012
Table 99: Grid voltage connection by installation size for solar PV in Italy, 2012
Table 100: Grid voltage connection by installation size for solar PV in Spain, 2012
Table 101: Network losses by region
Table 102: Manufacturers of energy efficient transformers in China, 2013
Table 103: Global manufacturers’ production capacity power and distribution transformers, 2013
Table 104: China, domestic manufacturers’ production capacity power and distribution transformers, 2013
Table 105: India, manufacturers’ production capacity power and distribution transformers, 2013
Table 106: CIS, manufacturers’ production capacity power and distribution transformers, 2013
Table 107: Population and electrical parameters of South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

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