Towers and Poles Report 2017 Ed 5 Electricity, Telephone and Street Lights

Towers and Poles Report 2017 Ed 5 Electricity, Telephone and Street Lights

Comprehensive quantitative data and qualitative analysis about the towers, poles and street lighting markets, with market commentary and competitive analysis.

The installed bases and demand of towers, monopoles, utility poles and street lights for base year 2016, forecasts from 2017 to 2021
Market sizes– in unites of towers and poles and $ value
Global analysis, the world, regions and for 124 countries
Production and manufacturers of towers, monopoles, poles & street lights
The march of the monopoles in the transmission networks
Street lighting is a vigorous market driven by the conversion to high efficiency LEDs, a growing market for steel, concrete and composite poles is anlysed
The composite poles industry, market development and production technology are analysed, with profiles of the main producers.
The smart city, efficiency, LEDs and the street light market

1. Lattice Transmission Towers and Monopoles
Installed base in units - Steel, concrete, wood
Annual sales in units 2016-2021
Annual sales in $ value 2016-2021

2. Long term demand cycle
The long term demand cycle charted for new additions and replacements over the long term since 1900.

3. Monopoles and Lattice Towers
Long established in the United States for EHV lines, monopoles are used in China and are now breaking into the conservative markets of Europe with interesting new designs. This trend is driven by pressure on rights-of-way, visual criticism of lattice towers and public fears of EMF dangers to children.

4. Tower and Monopole vendors, production capacity and market shares. The top 34 man-ufacturers are listed with shares of production and the leaders profiled.

5. Types of Lattice Tower
Lattice towers are designed for different functions and stresses and there is wide variation in cost .
Suspension towers
Tension towers
Angle suspension towers
Dead end towers

7. Service life and maintenance of Towers and Monopoles
Maintenance practices have a critical impact on the service life of towers, especially in harsh cli-mate conditions.

8. The value chain - from materials to capex
The value chain is a continuous process of adding cost to a product and depending where you position it the value changes, the end user’s capex being some five times the cost of original ma-terials. The value chain is analysed with different mark-ups for each of six stages.

9. Utility Poles - Electricity, Telegraph, Street Lights
Installed base in units - steel, concrete, wood, composite
Annual sales in units 2016-2021
Annual sales in $ value 2016-2021

10. Utility Poles service life and replacement
Demand depends on new build and replacement. The service lives have been established by region and in some cases for individual countries.
11. Joint use of Utility Poles

Joint use by different utilities is a significant factor in the pole market. The protocols for space allocation and standards are outlined.

12. National market commentary for Utility Poles
Market commentary on installed bases and demand for utility poles in 24 countries, with infor-mation on numbers and type of pole.

13. Types and materials for of Utility Poles and applications
There are many types of pole in use. Different types and applications are outlined.

14. Pole materials and Composites
Composites are analysed in a 23 page section discussing this technology, applications, ad-vantages and disadvantages, market status and manufacturers.

15. Circuits, phases and conductors
Most distribution networks employ single circuits, whereas transmission networks range from single to multiple circuits. This is an important consideration in specifying the type and dimen-sions of towers and poles.

16. ROW - Rights of Way
Rights of Way (ROW) is a significant cost and can be a serious obstacle in designing networks and specifying equipment. It is a significant factor in the trend to Monopoles.

17. Utility Pole and Street Light vendors
Companies manufacturing concrete and steel poles are listed with brief details.
Companies harvesting and preparing wood poles are listed with brief details.

18. Dangers & mitigation of damage to Towers and Poles by birds.


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Definitions and terms for supports
ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION TOWERS AND MONOPOLES
Installed base of towers and monopoles
Sales of towers and monopoles
The Value Chain
Types of lattice tower
The growth of monopoles
Production and manufacturers of towers and monopoles
Material
Composite poles
PART 1 ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION TOWERS AND MONOPOLES
1. INSTALLED BASE OF ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSON TOWERS & MONOPOLES
Global installed base of towers and monopoles
North America
Europe
CIS
Middle East
North Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
Asia
Pacific
LAC
South America
Central America and Caribbean
2. ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION TOWERS MARKET
Global demand for towers
North America
Europe
CIS
Middle East
Africa
Asia Pacific
LAC
3. LONG TERM DEMAND CYCLES FOR ELECTRICITY TOWERS AND MONOPOLES
Growth of transmission line networks
4. MONOPOLES vs. LATTICE TOWERS
United States
Europe
Netherlands
Scandinavia
Denmark
Iceland
Finland
United Kingdom
Italy
France
Asia Pacific
Middle East
Latin America
South Africa
Cost
Space requirements
Reduction of the electromagnetic field
Foundations
5. TYPES OF TOWER OR PYLONS
Suspension tower
Tension towers
Angle suspension tower
Termination or dead end towers, also called tension towers
Transposition towers
Tower Installation
Build-up or piecemeal method.
Section method
Ground assembly method
Helicopter method.
6. ELEMENTS OF LATTICE TOWER DESIGN
7. SERVICE LIFE AND MAINTENANCE OF STEEL LATTICE TOWERS AND MONOPOLES
Service Life
Maintenance
Phase 1 – Coffee Stain Rust
Phase 2 – Abrasive Rust
Phase 3 – Extensive Abrasive Rust
Phase 4 – Crash
8. COMPETITIONS FOR TOWER DESIGN
9. MANUFACTURERS OF LATTICE TOWERS AND MONOPOLES
Chinese manufacturers
Indian manufacturers
KEC International
Other Asian manufacturers
North and South American manufacturers
Other regions
PART 2 ELECTRICITY, TELEPHONE & STREET LIGHTING POLES
10. UTILITY POLES INSTALLED BASE BY COUNTRY AND UTILITY
Voltage levels of electricity sub-transmission and distribution poles
11. INSTALLED BASE OF POLES BY COUNTRY AND MATERIAL
12. GROWTH OF THE POLE POPULATION
13. DEMAND FOR POLES IN UNITS
14. DEMAND FOR POLES BY VALUE
15. THE VALUE CHAIN – FROM MATERIALS TO CAPEX
The value chain at 6 levels
16. NATIONAL MARKETS FOR ELECTRICITY AND TELEPHONE DISTRIBUTION POLES
United States
Europe
Austria
Czech Republic
Cyprus
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Ireland
Netherlands
Norway
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
United Kingdom:
Russia
Asia Pacific
Japan
China
India
Korea
Singapore and Macau
Australia
Middle East
Africa
17. STREET LIGHTING DEVELOPMENTS
Smart cities
Regional development of smart cities and public lighting
18. MATERIAL COMPOSITION OF POLES AND SERVICE LIFE
Materials
Use
Description
Size classification
H5 - H1
1-5
6-10
Material
Wood
Wood preservatives
Pollution from wood preservatives - Leaching
Steel
Concrete
Composites- fibreglass
Disposal
19. COMPOSITE POLES
Introduction
Development of composite technology and poles in the US
Price/cost
Safety factor
Materials for composites and the manufacturing processes
Filament winding
Pultrusion
Testing composites
Scandinavian trials of composites
Advantages of composite poles
Composite and fibreglass maintenance
Service life of composites and other materials
Hardware modifications
Modular Poles
Manufacturers of composite poles and hardware
Cross arms
20. TYPES OF POLES
Other equipment
Grounding Rod
Dead-end (anchor or termination) poles
Physical access
Construction Classifications
21. POLE SPAN
22. SPACE ALLOCATION ON JOINT USE UTILITY POLES
Supply Space
Safety Zone Space
Communications Space
23. SERVICE LIFE AND MAINTENANCE OF POLES
Wooden Poles
Service life
Maintenance
Ground line Treatment
Internal Treatment
Concrete Poles
Composite Poles
24. MANUFACTURERS OF DISTRIBUTION POLES
North American manufacturers
European manufacturers
African manufacturers
Indian manufacturers
25 CIRCUIT PHASES AND CONDUCTORS
Single circuit
Double circuit
Multiple conductors
Restrictions on multiple use of corridors
26. RIGHTS OF WAY
Multiple use of ROWs
27. DANGER TO AND FROM BIRDS
Extent of the problem
The mechanics of an electrocution
Mitigation and prevention of collisions
Mitigation and prevention of electrocution
METHODOLOGY
The installed base and demand
The model of the demand cycle
Creation of the databases of towers and poles
Short term demand forecast
Street lights
Validation
Figures
Figure 1: Global installed electricity transmission towers, 2016-2021
Figure 2: Global installed electricity transmission towers by regions, 2016
Figure 3: Regional growth in electricity transmission towers, 2016-2021
Figure 4: Installed electricity transmission towers, North America, 2016-21
Figure 5: Installed electricity transmission towers, Europe, 2016-21
Figure 6: Installed electricity transmission towers, CIS, 2016-21
Figure 7: Installed electricity transmission towers, Middle East, 2016-21
Figure 8: Installed electricity transmission towers, North Africa, 2016-21
Figure 9: Installed electricity transmission towers, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2016-21
Figure 10: Installed electricity transmission towers, China and India, 2016-21
Figure 11: Installed electricity transmission towers, Rest of Asia, 2016-21
Figure 12: Installed electricity transmission towers, Pacific, 2016-21
Figure 13: Installed electricity transmission towers, South America, 2016-21
Figure 14: Installed electricity transmission towers, Central America, 2016-21
Figure 15 : World sales of electricity transmission towers, nominal $, 2016-2021
Figure 16: Sales of electricity transmission towers by regions, nominal $, 2016
Figure 17 : The global networks of transmission lines, length in route km 1900 to 2050
Figure 18: The evolution of transmission line voltage, the first introductions
Figure 19: The long-term demand cycles for towers, 1900 to 2050
Figure 20: Annual new and replacement installations of towers, 1900 to 2050
Figure 21: The market for lattice towers and poles in the USA, $, 2015
Figure 22: European countries installing new EHV monopoles
Figure 23: Some new designs being installed in Europe
Figure 24: New 400 kV monopole designs in the Netherlands
Figure 25: New EHV poles in Scandinavia
Figure 26: New 400 kV transmission monopoles in Denmark.
Figure 27: Iceland new 220 kV transmission towers
Figure 28: New 400 kV and 275 kV transmission monopoles in the United Kingdom.
Figure 29: A camouflaged 400 kV transmission monopole in the United Kingdom
Figure 30: Terna and 380 kV monopoles
Figure 31: New 380 kV monopole in Dubai
Figure 32: Comparison of the footprint of a monopole versus a lattice tower.
Figure 33: Reduction of electromagnetic fields and space requirements
Figure 34: Economy of foundations
Figure 35: Suspension tower, single steel pole
Figure 36: Lattice steel suspension tower (L6 used in the United Kingdom)
Figure 37: Installation of transmission tower by helicopter
Figure 38: Peak and Cage of a Transmission Tower
Figure 39: Cross Arm and Body of a Transmission Tower
Figure 40: 220-kV single-circuit LST
Figure 41: 500-kV single-circuit LST
Figure 42: 220-kV double-circuit LST
Figure 43: 500-kV double-circuit LST
Figure 63: The principle of exponential corrosion
Figure 64: Phase 1 – Coffee Stain Rust
Figure 65: Phase 2 – Abrasive Rust
Figure 66: Phase 3 – Abrasive Rust
Figure 67: Phase 3 – The tower falls
Figure 74: Dietmar Koering of Arphenotype, competition for Icelandic Electrical Transco/1
Figure 75: Dietmar Koering of Arphenotype, competition for Icelandic Electrical Transco/2
Figure 76: Dietmar Koering of Arphenotype, competition for Icelandic Electrical Transco/3
Figure 77: Y Pylon by Knight Architects competition for National Grid 2012
Figure 78: Plexus by Arup for National Grid 2012
Figure 79: The Land of Giants, Iceland, Choi & Shine
Figure 44: Installed base of poles by country and utility, 2016
Figure 45: Major countries stock of electricity poles, telephone poles and street lights
Figure 46: Historical growth of the pole population; electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street lights, 1900 to 2015, forecast to 2050
Figure 47: Demand for poles; electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street lights, 1900 to 2015, forecast to 2050
Figure 48: Additions and replacements for poles; electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street lights, 1900 to 2015, forecast to 2050
Figure 49: New additions and replacements of poles with a 35 year service life, 1900 to 2040
Figure 50: Global demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street lights in real and nominal $ value,2016-2021
Figure 52: Utility pole in Japan
Figure 53: Examples of LED street lighting adoption
Figure 51: A nest of poles for shipment
Figure 55: Double-circuit, 138-kV line on wood structures
Figure 56: Double-circuit, 138-kV line on galvanized steel poles
Figure 57: Single-circuit 138-kV line on weathering steel
Figure 58: H-frame wood structure
Figure 54: Lines in Bolivia (left) have considerably longer span than lines in Laos (right)
Figure 59: Space allocations on a joint utility pole
Figure 60: Supply space on a utility pole
Figure 61: Safety Zone Space on a utility pole
Figure 62: The Communications Space in a utility pole
Figure 68 : Outline of potential decay patterns
Figure 69 : Decay in a wood utility pole
Figure 70: Tower for single circuit, three phase system (three conductors)
Figure 71: Tower for double circuit, three phase system (six conductors)
Figure 72: Tower for multiple circuits, three phase system (twelve conductors)
Figure 73: Multiple lines, lattice towers and monopoles in same corridor
Figure 80: A distribution line right of way
Figure 81: A wetland-scrub/shrub-dominated community the first year after a mow.
Figure 82: A grass-dominated community in an agricultural matrix the first year after a mow.
Figure 83: An example of a single ROW corridor.
Figure 84: An example of parallel transmission ROW corridor
Figure 85 : Typical European right of way cross section, self-supporting tower
Figure 86: Typical European right of way cross section, guyed tower
Figure 87: Right-of-way comparison for equivalent capacity of 765-kV and 345-kV lines
Figure 88: Blue crane electrocuted in South Africa
Figure 89: White storks in their nest on a utility pole in Vladeni in Romania
Figure 90: An example of a pole-mounted transformer
Figure 91: Distribution pole with symmetric chevron (arrow) on top as bird exclusion device
Figure 92 : Dedicated nesting pole next to distribution pole with bird exclusion device
Figure 93: Additions and replacements from 1945 to 1950
Figure 94: Additions and replacements from 1900 to 1950
Figure 95: Comparison of the installed base an annual demand for towers, 1900 to 2050
Tables
Table 1: Global installed electricity transmission towers, by region, 2016-2021
Table 2: Installed electricity transmission towers, North America, 2016-21
Table 3: Installed electricity transmission towers, Europe, 2016-21
Table 4: Installed electricity transmission towers, CIS, 2016-21
Table 5: Installed electricity transmission towers, Middle East, 2016-21
Table 6: Installed electricity transmission towers, North Africa, 2016-21
Table 7: Installed electricity transmission towers, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2016-21
Table 8: Installed electricity transmission towers, Asia, 2016-21
Table 9: Installed electricity transmission towers, Pacific, 2016-21
Table 10: Installed electricity transmission towers, South America, 2016-21
Table 11: Installed electricity transmission towers, Central America, 2016-21
Table 12: Sales of electricity transmission towers by regions, nominal $, 2016
Table 13: Sales of electricity transmission towers, North America, nominal $, 2016-2021
Table 14: Sales of electricity transmission towers, Europe, nominal $, 2016-2021
Table 15: Sales of electricity transmission towers, CIS, nominal $, 2016-2021
Table 16: Sales of electricity transmission towers, Middle East, nominal $, 2016-2021
Table 17: Sales of electricity transmission towers, North Africa, nominal $, 2016-2021
Table 18: Sales of electricity transmission towers, Sub-Saharan Africa, nominal $, 2016-2021
Table 19: Sales of electricity transmission towers, Asia, nominal $, 2016-2021
Table 20: Sales of electricity transmission towers, Pacific, nominal $, 2016-2021
Table 21: Sales of electricity transmission towers, South America, nominal $, 2016-2021
Table 22: Sales of electricity transmission towers, Central America, nominal $, 2016-2021
Table 81: Description and cost of repairs
Table 83: Manufacturers of steel towers and poles, by share of production capacity
Table 23 : Numbers of electricity poles, telephone poles and streetlights, 2016
Table 24: Electricity, telephone poles and street lights in North America, 2016
Table 25: Electricity, telephone poles and street lights in Europe, 2016
Table 26: Electricity, telephone poles and street lights in CIS, 2016
Table 27: Electricity, telephone poles and street lights in the Middle East, 2016
Table 28: Electricity, telephone poles and street lights in North Africa, 2016
Table 29: Electricity, telephone poles and street lights in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2016
Table 30: Electricity, telephone poles and street lights in Asia, 2016
Table 31: Electricity, telephone poles and street lights in Pacific, 2016
Table 32: Electricity, telephone poles and street lights in South America, 2016
Table 33: Electricity, telephone poles and street lights in Central America, 2016
Table 34: Numbers of electricity poles, telephone poles and streetlights by material, 2016
Table 35: Electricity, telephone poles and street lights in North America by material, 2016
Table 36: Electricity, telephone poles and street lights in Europe by material, 2016
Table 37: Electricity, telephone poles and street lights in CIS by material, 2016
Table 38: Electricity, telephone poles and street lights in the Middle East by material, 2016
Table 39: Electricity, telephone poles and street lights in North Africa by material, 2016
Table 40: Electricity, telephone poles and street lights in Sub-Saharan Africa by material, 2016
Table 41: Electricity, telephone poles and street lights in Asia by material, 2016
Table 42: Electricity, telephone poles and street lights in Pacific by material, 2016
Table 43: Electricity, telephone poles and street lights in South America by material, 2016
Table 44: Electricity, telephone poles and street lights in Central America by material, 2016
Table 45: Installed base of electricity poles, telephone poles and street lights, 2016 - 2021
Table 46: Installed base of electricity, telephone poles and street lights in North America, 2016 - 2021
Table 47: Installed base of electricity, telephone poles and street lights in Europe, 2016 - 2021
Table 48: Installed base of electricity, telephone poles and street lights in CIS, 2016 - 2021
Table 49: Installed base of electricity, telephone poles and street lights in the Middle East, 2016 - 2021
Table 50: Installed base of electricity, telephone poles and street lights in North Africa, 2016 - 2021
Table 51: Installed base of electricity, telephone poles and street lights, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2016 - 2021
Table 52: Installed base of electricity, telephone poles and street lights in Asia, 2016 - 2021
Table 53: Installed base of electricity, telephone poles and street lights in Pacific, 2016 - 2021
Table 54: Installed base of electricity, telephone poles and street lights, South America, 2016 - 2021
Table 55: Installed base of electricity, telephone poles and street lights, Central America, 2016 - 2021
Table 56: New additions and replacements of poles with a 35 year service life, 1900 to 2040
Table 57: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street lights by region, 2016-2021
Table 58: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street lights by country, North America, 2016-2021
Table 59: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street lights by country, Europe, 2016-2021
Table 60: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street lights by country, CIS, 2016-2021
Table 61: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street lights by country, Middle East, 2016-2021
Table 62: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street lights by country, North Africa, 2016-2021
Table 63: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street lights by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2016-2021
Table 64: Demand for poles electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street lights by country, Asia, 2016-2021
Table 65: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street lights by country, Pacific, 2016-2021
Table 66: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street lights by country, South America, 2016-2021
Table 67: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street lights by country, Central America, 2016-2021
Table 68: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street lights by region in nominal $ value, 2016-2021
Table 69: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street lights by country nominal $ value, North America, 2016-2021
Table 70: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street lights by country nominal $ value, Europe, 2016-2021
Table 71: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street lights by country in nominal $ value, CIS, 2016-2021
Table 72: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street lights by country in nominal $ value, Middle East, 2016-2021
Table 73: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street lights by country in nominal $ value, North Africa, 2016-2021
Table 74: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street lights by country in nominal $ value, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2016-2021
Table 75: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street lights by country in nominal $ value, Asia, 2016-2021
Table 76: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street lights by country in nominal $ value, Pacific, 2016-2021
Table 77: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street lights by country in nominal $ value, South America, 2016-2021
Table 78: Demand for electricity MV/LV poles, telephone poles, street lights by country in nominal $ value, Central America, 2016-2021
Table 80: Costs and mark-up from Bill of Materials to Capex
Table 79: Service lives of poles with different materials
Table 82: Recommended Pole Inspection Schedules, Rural Utilities Service, US
Table 84 : Estimates of the annual number of collision victims with above ground transmission lines (excluding distribution lines) for three different countries.
Table 85 : The size of large raptors

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