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Telecom Network Report Ed4 2017

The report covers six broad fields of information

Today’s networks

1. The existing and traditional infrastructure of the networks and operators, base stations and back-haul, and limitations for today’s volume of data traffic and QoS.

2. The development of the generations of wireless technology from 1G to 5G is charted and ana-lysed

3. The state of the telecoms market is quantified and forecast to 2021 for all countries.

4. The explosion of data traffic as data overtakes voice is drowning the networks capacity, revealing shortfalls and inflating costs in a market with declining earnings.

The future is already with us

1. The HetNet solutions for increasing network capacity and quality of service are outlined.

2. Virtualisation is already well established in IT and industry. It is now being introduced and re-fined for the telecoms sector, bringing greater agility and flexibility, and reducing costs. The re-ports explains what network virtualisation is and reviews its current status.

The report covers six broad fields of information

Today’s networks

1. The existing and traditional infrastructure of the networks and operators, base stations and back-haul, and limitations for today’s volume of data traffic and QoS.

2. The development of the generations of wireless technology from 1G to 5G is charted and ana-lysed

3. The state of the telecoms market is quantified and forecast to 2021 for all countries.

4. The explosion of data traffic as data overtakes voice is drowning the networks capacity, revealing shortfalls and inflating costs in a market with declining earnings.

The future is already with us

1. The HetNet solutions for increasing network capacity and quality of service are outlined.

2. Virtualisation is already well established in IT and industry. It is now being introduced and re-fined for the telecoms sector, bringing greater agility and flexibility, and reducing costs. The re-ports explains what network virtualisation is and reviews its current status.


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Evolution of the technology generations 1G to 5G
Spectrum refarming
Introduction to virtualisation in all industries
Network virtualisation
MVNO Mobile Virtual Network Operator and Sub-Brands
Backhaul and Fronthaul
Development of the market
Macro cell sites and base stations
Tower ownership
The HetNet, Densification and small cells
1. TELECOMS NETWORK TECHNOLOGY AND DEPLOYMENTS
Network technology
HetNet/Heterogeneous Network
Virtualisation
Cells
Types of base station
Macro cells
Small cells
Microcells
Metrocells
Picocells
Femtocells
DAS
Small cells or DAS?
Wi-Fi
2. RISING VOLUME OF DATA TRAFFIC
3. TECHNOLOGY PENETRATION – 1G to 5G
Timeline of mobile development
Unique mobile subscribers
2G
3G
Smartphones – 3G & 4G
4G LTE
5G
5G trials
5G network deployments
Coverage
Spectrum refarming
4. MIGRATION TO 4G IN CHINA, INDIA AND PAKISTAN
China
India
Pakistan
5.TRADITIONAL NETWORK ARCHITECTURE, BACKHAUL AND FRONTHAUL
Backhaul
Macro and micro backhaul
Front haul
6.VIRTUALISATION
Introduction to virtualisation in all industries
Types of virtualisation
The development of virtualisation
The benefits of virtualisation
The virtualisation market
Server virtualisation
Desktop virtualisation
Application virtualisation
7.NETWORK VIRTUALISATION
NV Network Function Virtualisation
SDN Software-defined Networking
The OSI model of data communications
V-RAN
Service providers and enterprise networks
MNOs and the virtual network
The NV market
MVNO Mobile Virtual Network Operator
MVNO Business models
MVNE - Mobile Virtual Network Enabler
MVNA Mobile Virtual Network Aggregator
Sub-brands
MVNO and sub-brand segments
8.CENTRALISED AND DISTRIBUTED BASEBAND
9.MOBILE MARKET REVIEW
The development of mobile telephony in the United States
The emergence of new telecommunications players
Cable
The Internet
Cellular and Wireless
Europe
The development of mobile telephony in Europe
France
Germany
Italy
Poland
Spain
Sweden
United Kingdom
CIS
Russia
Ukraine
The development of mobile telephony in the CIS
MENA
Saudi Arabia
North Africa
Egypt
Algeria
Morocco
Tunisia
Sub-Saharan Africa
EAC - East African Community
Ethiopia
Kenya
Uganda
ECCAS, Economic Community of Central African States
DR Congo
ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States
Cote d’Ivoire
Ghana
Nigeria
Senegal
SADC Southern African Development Community
South Africa
Mozambique
Tanzania
Asia Pacific
China
India
Japan
The development of mobile telephony in Japan
Indonesia
Malaysia
Myanmar
Thailand
Vietnam
Central and South America
Brazil
Mexico
Argentina
10. NETWORK DISTRIBUTION OF GROUND BASED TOWERS, ROOFTOPS, DAS AND STREET POLES
11. INSTALLED BASE OF MACRO CELL SITES
12. EXPENDITURE ON MACRO CELL SITES
Prices of tower base stations
NORTH AMERICA
EUROPE
France
Germany
Italy
Poland
Spain
Sweden
United Kingdom
Revenue of tower construction
CIS
Russia
Ukraine
MENA
Saudi Arabia
North Africa
Egypt
Algeria
Sub-Saharan Africa
Tower sharing
EAC - East African Community
Kenya
Uganda
ECCAS, Economic Community of Central African States
DR Congo
ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States
Cote d’Ivoire
Ghana
Nigeria
Senegal
SADC Southern African Development Community
South Africa
Mozambique
Tanzania
Asia Pacific
China
India
Japan
Indonesia
Malaysia
Myanmar
Thailand
Vietnam
Central and South America
Brazil
Mexico
Argentina
13. THE HETNET, DENSIFICATION AND SMALL CELLS - DEVELOPMENTS AND INSTALLED BASE
Densification
Why we need to densify
Types of base station
Introduction
The early developments of small cells
Why were these early micro/picocellular 2G base stations not successful?
The penetration of small cell base stations
Market segments
Small cell shipments to 2015
Cost of deployment of small cells
14. BASE TRANSCEIVER STATIONS (BTS) FOR MACRO CELLS AND SMALL CELLS
15. EXPENDITURES ON SMALL CELL SITES
16. MANUFACTURERS OF LATTICE TOWERS AND MONOPOLES
Chinese manufacturers
Other Asian manufacturers
North American manufacturers
Brazil
Turkey
17. BACKHAUL VENDORS
18. INFRASTRUCTURE SHARING
Tower infrastructure companies
The economics of telcos and towercos
Reduced time-to-market
The towerco business model
19. ENERGY COSTS AND SOURCES
20. THE TOWERCO MARKET
Tower infrastructure companies
United States
Europe
CIS
Asia Pacific
India
Indonesia
China
Japan
MENA
Sub-Saharan Africa
South America
20. CRITERIA FOR MARKET EVALUATION
Criteria for MNO market evaluation – numbers of subscribers, ARPU, ARPA
21. NETWORK GLOSSARY, DEFINITIONS AND EXPLANATIONS
NV Network Virtualisation
METHODOLOGY
Figures
Figure 1: HetNets
Figure 2: Types of macro cell ground based towers (GBT)
Figure 3: Street poles
Figure 4: Macro cell rooftop towers (RTT)
Figure 5: Microcell base station
Figure 6: Metrocell base station
Figure 7: Picocell base station
Figure 8: Some examples of femtocells
Figure 9: Mobile network coverage and evolving technologies
Figure 10: 4G LTE penetration, top 20 countries, Q4 2015
Figure 11: US total data consumption by device type in petabytes/month, 2014 -20
Figure 12: Data traffic from wireless and mobile devices 2010 to 2020
Figure 13: 2G o 4G download rates
Figure 14: Global mobile connections by technology, 2010 to 2020
Figure 15: Coverage of 4G in 2016,
Figure 16: The difference in take-up of 3g and 4G in China
Figure 17: The Backhaul Network in the MNO Architecture
Figure 18: Traditional and virtual architecture
Figure 19: Perceived attributes of NV solutions
Figure 20: NV Vendors considered among NV end users
Figure 21: Regional distribution of MVNOs, December 2015
Figure 22: The 10 countries with the largest number of MVNOs:
Figure 23: Distributed and mixed centralised and distributed baseband deployments
Figure 24: The countries of the East Africa Community
Figure 25: The countries of the Economic Community of Central African States
Figure 26: The countries of the Economic Community of West African States
Figure 27: The countries of the Southern African Development Community
Figure 28: Global installed base of telecoms towers, 2016-2021
Figure 29: Global installed telecoms towers by region, 2016
Figure 30: Installed telecoms towers (active), USA and Canada, 2016-2021
Figure 31: Installed telecoms towers, Europe by country, 2016-2021
Figure 32: Installed telecoms towers, CIS by country, 2016-2021
Figure 33: Installed telecoms towers, Middle East by country, 2016-2021
Figure 34: Installed telecoms towers, North Africa by country, 2016-2021
Figure 35: Installed telecoms towers, Sub-Saharan Africa by country, 2016-2021
Figure 36: Global installed telecoms towers, China and India, 2016-2021
Figure 37: Global installed telecoms towers, selected countries in Asia Pacific
Figure 38: Global installed telecoms towers, selected countries in LAC, 2016-2021
Figure 39: The structure of tower ownership in Europe, 2016 and 2020
Figure 40: Illegal rooftop towers in India
Figure 41: Evolution of network design increased densification
Figure 42: The Gartner Hype Curve
Figure 43: Cumulative shipments of small cells, 2011 to 2016
Figure 44: Cumulative shipments of small cells by cell type, 2013 to 2016
Figure 45: Annual shipments of small cells by type, 2014 to 2017
Figure 46: Total cost of installation of small cells by cost component
Figure 47: Mobile traffic by cell site type by 2020
Figure 48: Demand for cellular base stations, macro and micro, 2016-21.
Figure 49: Structure of a mobile network
Figure 50: Breakdown of tower expenses, capex and opex, as a % of total cost
Figure 51: Number of countries sharing or co-location of passive infrastructure
for telecoms operators
Figure 52: Example of infrastructure sharing of 2 tenants and 4 tenants
Figure 53: Number of bad-grid and off-grid towers, in 2014 and projected for 2020.
Figure 54: Number of towers owned by independent towercos and by MNOs
Figure 55: Analog vs digital signals
Figure 56: Containers vs. virtual machines
Figure 58: 2G o 4G download rates
Figure 59: Current Telecommunications Hierarchy Diagram.
Figure 60: High level NFV framework
Tables
Table 1: Prefixes for units of data speed
Table 2: Global mobile connections by region, 2010 to 2020
Table 3: Global mobile connections by technology, 2010 to 2020
Table 4: Penetration of 2G among mobile connections by region, 2010 to 2020
Table 5: Penetration of 3G among mobile connections by region, 2010 to 2020
Table 6: Penetration of 3G & 4G among mobile connections by region, 2010 to 2020
Table 7: 4G leaders at end 2016
Table 8: Penetration of 4G among mobile connections by region, 2010 to 2020.
Table 9: Coverage of 4G in 2016
Table 10: Number of 4G base stations in China, 2017
Table 11: Reasons to Use Virtualisation
Table 12: OSI Open Source Interconnection, 7 Layer Model
Table 13: The first MVNOs
Table 14: Segments of the MVNO and Sub-brand market
Table 15: Major Mobile Operators in the United States
Table 16: MVNOs in the United States
Table 17: The distribution of macro cell sites by type
Table 18: Distribution of GBTs and urban cell sites; RTTs, DASs and poles in 2016.
Table 19: Global installed telecoms towers in thousands, by region, 2016-2021
Table 20: Installed telecoms towers, North America by country, 2016-2021
Table 21: Installed telecoms towers, Europe by country, 2016-2021
Table 22: Global installed telecoms towers, CIS by country, 2016-2021
Table 23: Installed telecoms towers, Middle East by country, 2016-2021
Table 24: Global installed telecoms towers, North Africa by country, 2016-2021
Table 25: Installed telecoms towers, Sub-Saharan Africa by country, 2016-2021
Table 26: Global installed telecoms towers, Asia by country, 2016-2021
Table 27: Global installed telecoms towers, Pacific by country, 2016-2021
Table 28: Installed telecoms towers, South America by country, 2016-2021
Table 29: Installed telecoms towers, Central America by country, 2016-2021
Table 30: Expenditure on telecoms towers by region, 2015 to 2020
Table 31: Costs of constructing a telecoms towers in selected countries and regions
Table 32: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades,
USA and Canada nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
Table 33: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and
replacements and upgrades, Europe, nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
Table 34: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, CIS,
nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
Table 35: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, Middle
East nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
Table 36: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, North
Africa, nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
Table 37: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, Sub-
Saharan Africa, nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
Table 38: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, China
and India nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
Table 39: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers, replacements and upgrades, Asia
nominal $ million, 2016 – 2021 (including China and India)
Table 40: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, Pacific,
nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
Table 41: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, South
America, nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
Table 42: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, Central
America, nominal $ million, 2016 – 2021
Table 43: Small cells expenditure by region, 2015 to 2020
Table 44: Small cells expenditure in Europe by country, 2015 to 2020
Table 45: Small cells expenditure in North America by country, 2015 to 2020
Table 46: Small cells expenditure in Middle East by country, 2015 to 2020
Table 47: Small cells expenditure in Asia Pacific by country, 2015 to 20
Table 48: Manufacturers of steel towers and poles, by share of production capacity
Table 49: Backhaul vendors, macro cell and small cell
Table 50: Share of towerco ownership of towers by region, 2016
Table 51: Incidence of sharing in regions and selected countries
Table 52: Number of independent towers in regions and selected countries, installed base,
2016
Table 53: Top telecom tower companies in the United States with number of towers installed,
2012, 2014 and 2016
Table 54: Tower portfolios of operator-promoted tower infrastructure companies/telecom operators
and of third party tower companies in India, 2015
Table 55: Numbers of towers owned by Japanese telecoms operators
Table 56: OSI Open Source Interconnection, 7 Layer Model
Table 57: Small cell characteristics 239

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