1. HEAT SUPPLY AND CONSUMPTION
Heat can be used for space heating, heating water, cooking, and various industrial processes. Due to the variety of energy sources and end uses, heat can be produced and consumed at many scales, from very small domestic appli-cations at the local level to large‐scale use in industrial processes and District Heating and Cooling networks.
Industry - with high temperature steam/medium temperature water/chilled water.
District Heating and Cooling systems (DHC).
Commercial buildings and Collective stand-alone Central Heated (CH) buildings.
In small scale units with their own heat source, residential units, with DHC, CH, or own heat.
The Heat Metering and Cost Allocation solutions for these end-users vary.
2. BILLING PRACTICES, HEAT METERING AND TECHNICAL ISSUES
Billing practices range from detailed consumption methods with Heat Meters, cost estimates with Heat Cost Alloca-tors, and calculations without apartment level metering but based on floor area. These are itemised for each of the 28 markets surveyed, with details of the technologies of different meters and their applications - Vortex, Differen-tial Pressure, Magnetic, Ultrasonic. Heat Cost Allocators (HCA).
The vital technical issues are itemised for each country - central group substations, building level substations, apartment level substations - vertical and horizontal internal piping. These issues determine what metering can be employed and where it is not possible. Each country has its own solution.
3. SMART HEAT METERING FOR 4GDH—THE PATH TO THE FUTURE
A review of the development of the 4th Generation (4GDH) of District Heating technology and Smart Heat Meter-ing, and how the Smart Thermal Grid meshes with the Smart Electricity Grid.
4. HEAT METER CONSUMPTION
Sales forecasts for each of 32 countries in Meter and HCA units and $ value from 2016 to 2021.
Analysis by end-user group - heat source (CHP/HOB/waste heat), commercial/industrial buildings, apart-ment buildings, residential units.
Chapters 5 to 12 contain profiles of the Heating Sectors, Heat Metering and Heat Cost Allocation and Billing in each of the listed countries.
5. HEAT METERNG IN THE CIS - Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Belarus.
6. HEAT METERING IN THE BALTIC REPUBLICS - Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania.
7. HEAT METERING IN EASTERN EUROPE - Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Slovakia.
8. HEAT METERING IN THE NORDICS - Denmark, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden.
9. HEAT METERING IN WESTERN EUROPE - Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, United Kingdom.
10. HEAT METERING IN UNITED STATES
11. HEAT METERING IN CHINA
12. HEAT METERING IN KOREA
13. HEAT METER VENDORS - Heat Meter vendors and Metering & Billing services companies are profiled.