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Heat Metering Report Ed 1 2017

1. HEAT SUPPLY AND CONSUMPTION
Heat can be used for space heating, heating water, cooking, and various industrial processes. Due to the variety of energy sources and end uses, heat can be produced and consumed at many scales, from very small domestic appli-cations at the local level to large‐scale use in industrial processes and District Heating and Cooling networks.
Industry - with high temperature steam/medium temperature water/chilled water.
District Heating and Cooling systems (DHC).
Commercial buildings and Collective stand-alone Central Heated (CH) buildings.
In small scale units with their own heat source, residential units, with DHC, CH, or own heat.
The Heat Metering and Cost Allocation solutions for these end-users vary.

2. BILLING PRACTICES, HEAT METERING AND TECHNICAL ISSUES
Billing practices range from detailed consumption methods with Heat Meters, cost estimates with Heat Cost Alloca-tors, and calculations without apartment level metering but based on floor area. These are itemised for each of the 28 markets surveyed, with details of the technologies of different meters and their applications - Vortex, Differen-tial Pressure, Magnetic, Ultrasonic. Heat Cost Allocators (HCA).
The vital technical issues are itemised for each country - central group substations, building level substations, apartment level substations - vertical and horizontal internal piping. These issues determine what metering can be employed and where it is not possible. Each country has its own solution.

3. SMART HEAT METERING FOR 4GDH—THE PATH TO THE FUTURE
A review of the development of the 4th Generation (4GDH) of District Heating technology and Smart Heat Meter-ing, and how the Smart Thermal Grid meshes with the Smart Electricity Grid.

4. HEAT METER CONSUMPTION
Sales forecasts for each of 32 countries in Meter and HCA units and $ value from 2016 to 2021.
Analysis by end-user group - heat source (CHP/HOB/waste heat), commercial/industrial buildings, apart-ment buildings, residential units.
Chapters 5 to 12 contain profiles of the Heating Sectors, Heat Metering and Heat Cost Allocation and Billing in each of the listed countries.

5. HEAT METERNG IN THE CIS - Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Belarus.

6. HEAT METERING IN THE BALTIC REPUBLICS - Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania.

7. HEAT METERING IN EASTERN EUROPE - Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Slovakia.

8. HEAT METERING IN THE NORDICS - Denmark, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden.

9. HEAT METERING IN WESTERN EUROPE - Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, United Kingdom.

10. HEAT METERING IN UNITED STATES

11. HEAT METERING IN CHINA

12. HEAT METERING IN KOREA

13. HEAT METER VENDORS - Heat Meter vendors and Metering & Billing services companies are profiled.


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1. HEAT SUPPLY AND CONSUMPTION
Residential use of heat
Heat metering/measurement
Commercial buildings
Industrial use of heat
2. BILLING PRACTICES AND HEAT METERS
Billing practices
Shares for basic and consumption based cost
Methods of calculation of each cost component
Collective central heating
Apartment level meters or heat cost allocators - allocation methods
Types of heat meter
Heat metering for steam systems
Vortex meters
Differential pressure (DP) meters / Pitot tubes
Measuring the condensate side
Magnetic flow meters - Magmeters
Ultrasonic meters
Technical issues for apartment level heat meters
One pipe system with vertical distribution
Two pipe system with vertical distribution
One pipe systems with vertical and horizontal distribution
How a heat meter works
Apartment level heat consumption measurement
Heat consumption sub-meters
Heat cost allocators (HCA)
Evaporative heat cost allocator
Electronic heat cost allocator
RF heat cost allocator
Meter reading
Central heating
3. SMART HEAT METERING FOR 4GDH
Smart District Heating - the Smart Thermal Grid
The first Smart Thermal Grids - Denmark, Sweden, Austria and Germany.
The objective of smart DHC
1 Low temperature District Heating
2.District Cooling
3.Renewable energy sources, waste-to energy and surplus heat in DHC systems
4.Smart DHC as an integrated system: CHP, storage, DSM, ICT interactions with networks
Optimisation of existing DHC infrastructure
Smart DHC research
4. HEAT METER CONSUMPTION
5. HEAT METERING IN THE CIS
Vertical piping
RUSSIA
Heat metering
Apartment level heat metering
Building level heat metering
Metering legislation
Certification and type approval
Production of heat meters
Meter types
Russian meter manufacturers
Building and industrial heat meters
Apartment level heat meters
UKRAINE
Building level heat meters
Apartment level heat meters
Option 1. The current metering situation in Ukraine.
Option 2. DH with building-level heat meters, but no temperature controls.
Option 3. DH with building-level heat meters and rehabilitated group substations (CTPs),
with temperature controls at the CTP.
Option 4. DH with building-level meters and heat substations (ITPs) of Ukrainian configuration
Option 5. DH with building-level heat meters and ITPs of European configuration.
Option 5.1. DH with building-level heat meters, ITPs, control temperature for an individual building,
and thermostatic radiator valves (TRVs) and heat-cost allocators (HCAs) in each apartment.
Option 6. Apartments disconnect from DH system and install an apartment-level gas heater.
Ukrainian heat meter manufacturers
BELARUS
Building level heat meters
Apartment level heat meters
KAZAKHSTAN
Building level heat meters
Apartment level heat meters
6. HEAT METERING IN THE BALTICS REPUBLICS
ESTONIA
Building level heat meters
Apartment level heat meters
LATVIA
Apartment level heat meters
LITHUANIA
Building level heat meters
Apartment level heat meters
7. HEAT METERING IN EASTERN EUROPE
The Soviet technical legacy for heat
POLAND
Building level meters
Apartment level meters
Heat meter manufacturers
CZECH REPUBLIC
Building level meters
Apartment level meters
Heat meter manufacturers
HUNGARY
Building level meters
Apartment level meters
ROMANIA
Building level meters
Apartment level meters
Meter manufacturers
SLOVAKIA
Building level meters
Apartment level meters
BULGARIA
Building level metering
Apartment level metering
Heat meter manufacturers
8. HEAT METERING IN THE NORDIC COUNRIES
DENMARK
Building level metering
Apartment level metering
Heat meter manufacturers
Figure 20: The first heat cost allocator produced by Kemp & Lauritzen in 1917,
FINLAND
Building level metering
Apartment level metering
GREENLAND
Heat metering
ICELAND
Building level metering
Apartment level metering
NORWAY
Building level metering
Apartment level metering
SWEDEN
Building level metering
Apartment level metering
Boverket Metering Report
Commercial office metering
9. HEAT METERING IN WESTERN EUROPE
AUSTRIA
Building level metering
Apartment level metering
FRANCE
Building level metering
Apartment level metering
GERMANY
German tenancy law regarding utilities
Building level metering
Apartment level metering
Heat meter manufacturers
Metering services
ITALY
Building level metering
Apartment level metering
Heat meter manufacturers
Building level metering
Apartment level metering
Heat meter manufacturers
96
Building level metering
Apartment level metering
Heat meter manufacturer
10. HEAT METERING IN THE UNITED STATES
Heat metering for steam and hot water systems
Heat meter manufacturers
11. HEAT METERING IN CHINA
Group level and building level metering
Apartment level metering
Heat meter manufacturers
12. HEAT METERING IN KOREA
Building level metering
Apartment level metering
Heat meter manufacturers
Figures
Figure 1:Schematic overview of energy flows from total primary energy supply (TPES)
to total final energy use for heat (FEH)
Figure 2: Global consumption of heat by end user groups
Figure 3: Heat requirement by temperature in different industry sectors
Figure 4: Space heat and hot water cost allocation
Figure 5: Latent and sensible heat
Figure 6: Schematic of a 50 storey tower block with riser pipe after heating
Figure 7: One pipe system with vertical distribution
Figure 8: Two pipe system with vertical distribution
Figure 9: Comparison of vertical connections for radiators with horizontal feeders
Figure 10: Components of a heat meter
Figure 11: Schematic of a heat energy meter system
Figure 12 : Radio heat cost allocator system
Figure 13: European cities with District Heating systems
Figure 14: Sales of heat meters by country, Europe in units, 2016 to 2021
Figure 15: Sales of heat meters by country, Europe n $ million, 2016 to 2021
Figure 16: Sales of heat meters by country, CIS in units, 2016 to 2021
Figure 17: Sales of heat meters by country, CIS in $ million, 2016 to 2021
Figure 18 : Sales of heat meters by country, China, Korea, Japan and USA in units, 2016 to 2021
Figure 19: Sales of heat meters by country, China, Korea, Japan and USA in $ million, 2016 to 2021 . 38
Figure 20: District heating’s share of the residential; heating market
Figure 21: The first heat cost allocator produced by Kemp & Lauritzen in 1917,
Figure 22: Heat carriers used to heat new homes in Germany.
Figure 23: Market share of metering services companies in Germany
Figure 24: Chinese heat billing compared with Denmark
Figure 25: Demonstration of heat metering/heat cost allocators retrofits in Hubei
Figure 26: Chinese heat meter market shares in units, 2015
Tables
Table 1: Five themes for smart DHC
Table 2: Sales of heat meters all countries in units, 2016 to 2021
Table 3: Sales of heat meters all countries in $, 2016 to 2021
Table 4: Sales of heat cost allocators all countries in units, 2016 to 2021
Table 5: Sales of heat cost allocators all countries in $ million, 2016 to 2021
Table 6: Sales of heat meters and heat cost allocators all countries in units, 2016
Table 7: Sales of heat meters and heat cost allocators all countries in $, 2016
Table 8: Type of meter produced

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