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Desalination & Water Sector Report Ed 1 2018

Desalination & Water Sector Report Ed 1 2018

Chapter 1 - THE WORLD’S WATER SUPPLY, CONSUMPTION AND POLLUTION
Overview of precipitation and the resources gap, water withdrawals and water treatment.

Chapter 2 - DESALINATION AND THE WIDER WATER MARKET
Desalination is sometimes presented as the ultimate solution to water shortage, but it fills a niche in the huge global water and waste value chain. It is the most costly means of delivering freshwater and it has environmental impacts which are already becoming serious in some regions. It has an important role in specific regions and conditions of water shortage. Demand for water is growing relentlessly in all sectors, and the world faces shortages if the issue is not addressed. We seek in this report to describe and quantify the desalination market, its development and prospects, and to position it within the wider, much larger water industry. Annual contracted capacity, the cost of desalination and its cost within the water value chain are analysed.

Chapter 3 - WATER POLLUTION
The major sources of water pollution can be classified as industrial, agricultural and municipal; industrial, agricultural and municipal.

Chapter 4 - MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Raw sewage includes waste from sinks, toilets, latrines and industrial processes. Treatment of the sewage is required before it can be safely buried, used, or released back into local water systems. Pretreatment and the three general phases of treatment - Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary - are outlined in detail with their technologies and statistics of treatment levels by country. A further phase of advanced treatment is sometimes employed.

Chapter 5 - AGRICULTURAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Agriculture is both a producer and user of wastewater. As a result, the sector can both cause and suffer the consequences from pollution. The reuse of water in agriculture is one of the areas of great potential. It is already practised formally and informally in many countries. The agricultural sector receives far less investment in technology than either the municipal or industrials sectors, despite being by far the largest water consumer.

Chapter 6 - INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Industrial wastewater contaminants and their treatments are the most varied and the content of industrial effluent is sometimes extremely dangerous, necessitating different treatments. Hardly any of the industries listed contain the same contaminants. Contents, technologies and flows are outlined in detail.

Chapter 7 - DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES
Desalination can be defined as any process that removes salts from water. Desalination processes may be used in municipal, industrial, or commercial applications. A desalination process essentially separates saline water into two parts - one that has a low concentration of salt (treated water or product water), and the other with a much higher concentration than the original feed water, usually referred to as brine concentrate or simply as ‘concentrate’. The many different desalination technologies are outlined in detail, with diagrams and graphics.

Chapter 8 - RENEWABLE ENERGY (RE) POWERED DESALINATION
Renewable energy desalination (RED) systems are witnessing an increasing interest worldwide and these have advantages in some regions.

Chapter 9 - COSTS OF DESALINATION
As desalination technologies have developed and improved, the cost to build desalination plants has declined. This decrease in cost has been one of the primary factors for the acceptance, growth and success of desalination. Costs and the components of capex are analysed.

Chapter 10 - FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES
Considerable amounts of money are being invested in improving desalination technologies in Japan, Germany and the United States. Most of these investments are focused on improving the life and flow capacity of RO membranes and reducing their vulnerability to fouling; reducing the environmental impact of plants; improving their energy efficiency; and reducing overall costs.

Chapter 11 - PEAK SALT - ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF DESALINATION
Desalination, like other major industrial processes, has environmental impacts that must be understood and mitigated. After desalination, the highly concentrated brine is returned to the ocean, with two direct consequences of this cycle. The impact of this discharge on marine organisms is not fully known as environmental impact studies have only been conducted for small and medium-sized desalination plants, however it is clearly an environmental hazard. ‘Peak salt’ is becoming a critical issue for inland seas like the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf.

Chapter 12 - WATER TYPES
Different feed water types, seawater and brackish water, are associated with different desalination technologies.

Chapter 13 - GLOBAL DESALINATION MARKET
In the light of predictions made in recent years about the desalination market, which forecast vigorous continued growth, when the reverse happened, we believe that it is important to review past performance, in order to evaluate future potential. The cost of water and factors affecting the cost of water and desalination are analysed. Learning curve analysis is employed to analyse past performance and predict future price trends. The future market is plotted in value and contracted m3/d. End use and h end users are listed y country.
The regional desalination markets are analysed in the following chapters. The markets are analysed by technologies and countries.

Chapter 14 - NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS - MIDDLE EAST

Chapter 15 - NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS – AFRICA

Chapter 16 - NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS – ASIA

Chapter 17 - NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS – CENTRAL ASIA

Chapter 18 - NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS - PACIFIC

Chapter 19 - NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS - AMERICAS

Chapter 20 - NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS - EUROPE

Chapter 21 - WATER & WASTE TREATMENT AND DESALINATION COMPANIES
With a ½ trillion dollar worldwide industry to be served the stable of companies supplying it is very large and varied, and desalination is one small part of it. The water and waste industry is unconsolidated and consists of a large number of small and medium sized business serving different clients, and a few large companies mainly involved in supplying plants or overseeing the projects. Most of these businesses are involved in several areas of the water and waste treatment sector; desalination industry; pre-treatment, civil engineering, pumps, thermal plant fabrication, high grade alloy materials for thermal plants, membrane plant piping and alloy materials, membranes, pressure vessels, equipment and materials, plant installation, and other services. The largest participants are also involved in management of water and waste plants and networks.
For historical reasons, three private nationwide water and waste companies emerged in France over the last century, operating water concessions for many local authorities. These companies have evolved into global leaders in the water and waste industry.
There are more than 150 participants in the industrial water treatment chemicals market in North America alone that manufacture water treatment chemicals for various end-user applications.
There has been a general trend towards market fragmentation over the past ten years. Ten years ago, 30 of the biggest EPC (engineering, procurement and construction) contractors had over 80% of the total market share, now they are responsible for only 40% of the total new contracted capacity. Many small companies have taken on large desalination projects and more companies entered the desalination sector. The top 25 desalination companies are listed.
Leading reverse osmosis membrane manufacturers are listed, with materials, configuration (hollow, plated, spiral) and application.

GLOSSARY


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Desalination within the global water value chain
The global water value chain capex
Desalination capex
Cost of desalination
The global water value chain
Demand for desalination
The competitive pressures – water pollution and its reuse
Industrial waste water
Agricultural pollution
Municipal water pollution
Water Stress
Technology
Desalination Costs
Advantages of Desalination
Peak salt - environmental impact of desalination
1.THE WORLD’S WATER SUPPLY, CONSUMPTION AND POLLUTION
The resources gap
Wastewater treatment
2.DESALINATION AND THE WIDER WATER MARKET
The water value chain
Water supply
Sanitation
Salinity
Desalination annual contracted capacity
Desalination capex
Cost of desalination
3.WATER POLLUTION
Industrial waste water
Agricultural pollution
Municipal water pollution
4.MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Preliminary treatment/screening
1.Primary treatment
2.Secondary treatment
3.Tertiary treatment
Advanced treatment
Africa
Arab countries
Asia Pacific
Europe and North America
Latin America and the Caribbean
5.AGRICULTURAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT
6.INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Content of industrial wastewater
Industrial water treatment
Cost factors of industrial water treatment
Flow rates
Water quality
Target purity
Construction materials
Capital costs of industrial water treatment
Process water treatment
Process purification and separation
Wastewater treatment systems
7.DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES
Thermal
Multistage Flash (MSF)
Multi Effect Distillation (MED)
Mechanical Vapour Compression / Vapour Compression (VCD)
Membrane
Reverse Osmosis (RO)
Forward Osmosis (FO)
Electrodialysis (ED) and (EDR)
Hybrid Systems
Energy Recovery Devices
8.RENEWABLE ENERGY (RE) POWERED DESALINATION
Solar
Solar Thermal
Solar PV
Wind
Geothermal
Medring
Biomass
Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR)
Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC)
55 Cogeneration
Hybrid Systems
Energy Recovery Devices
8.RENEWABLE ENERGY (RE) POWERED DESALINATION
Solar
Solar Thermal
Solar PV
Wind
Geothermal
Medring
Biomass
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)
Wave
Salinity Gradient/Osmotic Power
Hydroelectric
Nuclear
9.COSTS OF DESALINATION
Cost Components – CAPEX
Cost Components – OPEX
10. FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES
Forward Osmosis (FO).
Capacitive Deionisation (CDI)
The FO market
Other new desalination technologies
11. PEAK SALT - ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF DESALINATION
Peak salt
Technical factors
Water Stress, Surplus and Users
Water Users
12. WATER TYPES
13. GLOBAL DESALINATION MARKET
Historical development of the desalination market
Cost of water
Construction cost versus size
Construction gains and plant size
Cost trends
Future price trends
The learning curve concept
Validation of the learning curve predictions
Capex
Installed cost
The installed base of desalination plant
End -users of desalination
Private and Public Sector Participation
14.NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS – MIDDLE EAST
Middle Eastern Mediterranean countries
Israel and the Palestinian Territories
Jordan
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)
Bahrain
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Persian Gulf countries
Iran
Iraq
Yemen
15.TIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS - AFRICA
North Africa
Algeria
Egypt
Libya
Morocco
Sudan
Tunisia
Sub-Saharan Africa
Kenya
Namibia
South Africa
16.NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS - ASIA
Afghanistan
China
The desalination market in China
Past constraints on desalination development in China
India
Japan
Maldives
Pakistan
Singapore
South Korea
Taiwan
17.NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS – THE STANS
Kazakhstan
Turkmenistan
Uzbekistan
18.NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS - PACIFIC
Australia
Pacific Islands
19.NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS - AMERICAS
NORTH AMERICA
Mexico
United States
Financial engineering
Municipal desalination
Industrial desalination
Regional distribution of desalination.
SOUTH AMERICA
Brazil
Chile
Peru
Caribbean
American Virgin Islands
Anguilla and the Bahamas
Aruba
Barbados
Bermuda
Bonaire
British Virgin Islands
Cayman Islands
Cuba
Netherland Antilles
Puerto Rico
St Maarten
Trinidad and Tobago
20.NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS - EUROPE
North
Ireland
United Kingdom
Cyprus
Greece
Italy
Malta
Spain
21.WATER & WASTE TREATMENT AND DESALINATION COMPANIES
The three French leaders in water & waste, municipal and industrial
Suez
Veolia Environnement
SAUR Group-Societé d'Aménagement Urbain et Rural
Industrial waste water treatment companies
Companies managing and optimising the global industrial water cycle.
Desalination
GLOSSARY
Figures
Figure 1: The global water cycle
Figure 2: Global freshwater withdrawals; consumption and wastewater production
by major water use sector
Figure 3: The water value chain
Figure 4: Use of withdrawn water by regions
Figure 5: Investment in water supply by type of cost
Figure 6: Investment in distribution by type of cost, new networks, renovation & maintenance
Figure 7: Investment in wastewater collection by type of expenditure, treatment or collection
Figure 8: The mismatch of capex versus consumption in the water and waste sector
Figure 9: Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita in 2013
Figure 10: The cost of water supply measures (Indian example)
Figure 11: A model of primary, secondary and tertiary water treatment
Figure 12: Percentage of population served by different types of sanitation systems, 2014
Figure 13: Changes in wastewater treatment in regions of Europe between 1980 and 2012
Figure 14: (a) the main desalination processes; (b) the contribution of each desalination
process to the world water production
Figure 15: Diagram of Multistage Flash Distillation plant
Figure 16: Diagram of Multi Effect Distillation plant
Figure 17: Diagram of Vapour Compression desalination plant
Figure 18: Brief timeline of the development of Reverse Osmosis membranes.
Figure 19: Diagram demonstrating the principles of osmosis
Figure 20: Diagram demonstrating the principles of Reverse Osmosis
Figure 21: Flow diagram of a Reverse Osmosis system
Figure 22: Diagram of a cross-flow membrane compared to a conventional membrane
Figure 23: Diagram demonstrating the principles of Forward Osmosis
Figure 24: Diagram of Electrodialysis desalination
Figure 25: Typical hybrid plant set up
Figure 26: Energy required to deliver 1 m3 of clean water from various sources
Figure 27: Shares of renewable technologies in desalination
Figure 28: Global regions appropriate for solar thermal power plants
Figure 29: Water stressed countries with wind power potential
Figure 30: Global hotspots for geothermal activity
Figure 31: The Medring
Figure 32: Potential sites for OTEC desalination plants: Caribbean, China, India, Northern Australia, South Western American States and Countries in the Persian Gulf
Figure 33: Typical SWRO desalination plant CAPEX breakdown
Figure 34: Typical SWRO desalination plant OPEX breakdown
Figure 35: Forward Osmosis
Figure 36: The difference between Reverse Osmosis and Forward Osmosis
Figure 37: Percentage of population facing severe water stress, 2007
Figure 38: Global water needs including potential climate change/pollution-driven change
Figure 39: Different water sources used in the desalination industry
Figure 40: Installed capacity in m3/d and online capacity additions, 1960-2017
Figure 41: Capex costs in the MENA region
Figure 42: Opex costs in the MENA region
Figure 43: Capex and Opex in the MENA region
Figure 44: Unit construction cost by size
Figure 45: Awarded SWRO capacity from 1977 to 2015 distributed by (top) SWRO plant size
and (bottom) online SWRO capacity from 1977 to 2015 distributed by region.
Figure 46: SWRO Cost Trends
Figure 47: Cumulative Online Capacity by technology from 1969 to 2015
Figure 48: (top) SWRO Capex Learning Curve for 1977 - 2015 and 1979 - 2003 and (bottom)
fit of the modelled capex values to the actual capex values.
Figure 49: Price trend per m3/d for water sales and capex, 1972 to 2017
Figure 50: Desalination annual capex and contracted m3/d, 1972 to 2022
Figure 51: Capex of desalination plants in nominal $ by region, 2017 to 2022
Figure 52: Total desalination capacity by country, m3/day
Figure 53: Share of desalination capacity, 2017
Figure 54: Total worldwide installed capacity by user type
Figure 55: Share of desalination capacity by country in the Middle East
Figure 56: Water demand in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the UAE, Qatar, Algeria and Libya (not including agricultural)
Figure 57: Seawater desalination plants in Saudi Arabia
Figure 58: The Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System
Figure 59: Supply capacity of large-scale desalination and recycled water plants for
major capital cities versus total urban water use, 2006-07 to 2012-13 (GL/yr)
Figure 60: Cost distribution of desalination processes
Figure 61: Location and extent of saline aquifers
Tables
Table 1: Shares of water supply
Table 2: Composition of water & waste infrastructure and supply cost, 2018
Table 3: Wastewater treatment level in Arab countries
Table 4: Countries with the lowest level of wastewater treatment in Asia Pacific
Table 5: Connections to wastewater treatment
Table 6: % levels of treatment in selected countries, 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2016
Table 7: Generation of wastewater by type of industry, EU, 2011
Table 8: Content of typical wastewater in some major industries
Table 9: Desalination technologies and processes
Table 10: Comparison of different filtration and membrane systems
Table 11: Comparison of the different desalination technologies
Table 12: Benefits of different hybrid configurations
Table 13: Possible combinations of renewable energy and desalination technology
Table 14: Comparison of different energy sources for desalination
Table 15: Costs for three SWRO plants located in various locations of the globe, such as the US, the Middle East, and Australia.
Table 16: Naturally occurring salinity levels
Table 17: Water scarce countries
Table 18: Water footprint for different energy sources
Table 19: Capex of desalination plants in nominal $ by region, 2017 to 2022
Table 20: Types of public and private sector participation in the desalination industry
Table 21: Key decision makers for desalination plant applications in countries with a significant or potentially significant desalination market
Table 22: Cumulative investment in water desalination in selected MENA countries ($billion using 2004 prices as a baseline)
Table 23: Summary of Australian desalination plants
Table 24: Surface water storage, desalination capacity, desalinated water supplied and recycled water supplied by region.
Table 25: Overview of suppliers of RO membranes

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