Desalination & Water Sector Report Ed 1 2018
Chapter 1 - THE WORLD’S WATER SUPPLY, CONSUMPTION AND POLLUTION
Overview of precipitation and the resources gap, water withdrawals and water treatment.
Chapter 2 - DESALINATION AND THE WIDER WATER MARKET
Desalination is sometimes presented as the ultimate solution to water shortage, but it fills a niche in the huge global water and waste value chain. It is the most costly means of delivering freshwater and it has environmental impacts which are already becoming serious in some regions. It has an important role in specific regions and conditions of water shortage. Demand for water is growing relentlessly in all sectors, and the world faces shortages if the issue is not addressed. We seek in this report to describe and quantify the desalination market, its development and prospects, and to position it within the wider, much larger water industry. Annual contracted capacity, the cost of desalination and its cost within the water value chain are analysed.
Chapter 3 - WATER POLLUTION
The major sources of water pollution can be classified as industrial, agricultural and municipal; industrial, agricultural and municipal.
Chapter 4 - MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Raw sewage includes waste from sinks, toilets, latrines and industrial processes. Treatment of the sewage is required before it can be safely buried, used, or released back into local water systems. Pretreatment and the three general phases of treatment - Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary - are outlined in detail with their technologies and statistics of treatment levels by country. A further phase of advanced treatment is sometimes employed.
Chapter 5 - AGRICULTURAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Agriculture is both a producer and user of wastewater. As a result, the sector can both cause and suffer the consequences from pollution. The reuse of water in agriculture is one of the areas of great potential. It is already practised formally and informally in many countries. The agricultural sector receives far less investment in technology than either the municipal or industrials sectors, despite being by far the largest water consumer.
Chapter 6 - INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Industrial wastewater contaminants and their treatments are the most varied and the content of industrial effluent is sometimes extremely dangerous, necessitating different treatments. Hardly any of the industries listed contain the same contaminants. Contents, technologies and flows are outlined in detail.
Chapter 7 - DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES
Desalination can be defined as any process that removes salts from water. Desalination processes may be used in municipal, industrial, or commercial applications. A desalination process essentially separates saline water into two parts - one that has a low concentration of salt (treated water or product water), and the other with a much higher concentration than the original feed water, usually referred to as brine concentrate or simply as ‘concentrate’. The many different desalination technologies are outlined in detail, with diagrams and graphics.
Chapter 8 - RENEWABLE ENERGY (RE) POWERED DESALINATION
Renewable energy desalination (RED) systems are witnessing an increasing interest worldwide and these have advantages in some regions.
Chapter 9 - COSTS OF DESALINATION
As desalination technologies have developed and improved, the cost to build desalination plants has declined. This decrease in cost has been one of the primary factors for the acceptance, growth and success of desalination. Costs and the components of capex are analysed.
Chapter 10 - FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES
Considerable amounts of money are being invested in improving desalination technologies in Japan, Germany and the United States. Most of these investments are focused on improving the life and flow capacity of RO membranes and reducing their vulnerability to fouling; reducing the environmental impact of plants; improving their energy efficiency; and reducing overall costs.
Chapter 11 - PEAK SALT - ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF DESALINATION
Desalination, like other major industrial processes, has environmental impacts that must be understood and mitigated. After desalination, the highly concentrated brine is returned to the ocean, with two direct consequences of this cycle. The impact of this discharge on marine organisms is not fully known as environmental impact studies have only been conducted for small and medium-sized desalination plants, however it is clearly an environmental hazard. ‘Peak salt’ is becoming a critical issue for inland seas like the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf.
Chapter 12 - WATER TYPES
Different feed water types, seawater and brackish water, are associated with different desalination technologies.
Chapter 13 - GLOBAL DESALINATION MARKET
In the light of predictions made in recent years about the desalination market, which forecast vigorous continued growth, when the reverse happened, we believe that it is important to review past performance, in order to evaluate future potential. The cost of water and factors affecting the cost of water and desalination are analysed. Learning curve analysis is employed to analyse past performance and predict future price trends. The future market is plotted in value and contracted m3/d. End use and h end users are listed y country.
The regional desalination markets are analysed in the following chapters. The markets are analysed by technologies and countries.
Chapter 14 - NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS - MIDDLE EAST
Chapter 15 - NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS – AFRICA
Chapter 16 - NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS – ASIA
Chapter 17 - NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS – CENTRAL ASIA
Chapter 18 - NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS - PACIFIC
Chapter 19 - NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS - AMERICAS
Chapter 20 - NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS - EUROPE
Chapter 21 - WATER & WASTE TREATMENT AND DESALINATION COMPANIES
With a ½ trillion dollar worldwide industry to be served the stable of companies supplying it is very large and varied, and desalination is one small part of it. The water and waste industry is unconsolidated and consists of a large number of small and medium sized business serving different clients, and a few large companies mainly involved in supplying plants or overseeing the projects. Most of these businesses are involved in several areas of the water and waste treatment sector; desalination industry; pre-treatment, civil engineering, pumps, thermal plant fabrication, high grade alloy materials for thermal plants, membrane plant piping and alloy materials, membranes, pressure vessels, equipment and materials, plant installation, and other services. The largest participants are also involved in management of water and waste plants and networks.
For historical reasons, three private nationwide water and waste companies emerged in France over the last century, operating water concessions for many local authorities. These companies have evolved into global leaders in the water and waste industry.
There are more than 150 participants in the industrial water treatment chemicals market in North America alone that manufacture water treatment chemicals for various end-user applications.
There has been a general trend towards market fragmentation over the past ten years. Ten years ago, 30 of the biggest EPC (engineering, procurement and construction) contractors had over 80% of the total market share, now they are responsible for only 40% of the total new contracted capacity. Many small companies have taken on large desalination projects and more companies entered the desalination sector. The top 25 desalination companies are listed.
Leading reverse osmosis membrane manufacturers are listed, with materials, configuration (hollow, plated, spiral) and application.