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Thermal and Digestion Waste-to-Energy Technologies Worldwide

  • Executive Summary
    • Scope
    • Global Waste and Management and Role of Waste to Energy
    • Waste to Energy Feedstocks and Technologies
    • Applications, Benefits, and Drawbacks of Waste to Energy Technologies
    • Waste to Energy Market Valuations
      • Incineration
      • Gasification
      • Plasma Gasification
      • Pyrolysis
      • Anaerobic Digestion
      • Global Waste to Energy Market Summary
    • Waste to Energy Product Pricing
      • Incineration
      • Gasification
      • Plasma Gasification
      • Pyrolysis
      • Anaerobic Digestion
    • Industry Trends and WtE Financing
    • WtE Facilities Supply Chain
    • Waste to Energy Product Promotion
    • Job Creation
      • Incineration
      • Gasification
      • Plasma Gasification
      • Pyrolysis
      • Anaerobic Digestion
    • Waste to Energy End Users
      • Table Thermal Technology End Users
      • Table Anaerobic Digester End Users
    • Summary
  • Overview of Waste to Energy Technologies
    • Scope
    • Global Waste and Management
    • Role of Waste to Energy
    • Waste to Energy Feedstocks
      • Dairy Waste and Other Animal Husbandry Wastes
        • Table Waste to Energy Feedstock Categories
      • Food Processing Wastes
      • Greenwaste
      • Hospital Waste/Biohazard
      • Industrial Wastes
      • Sanitary Waste
      • Municipal Solid Waste
    • Waste to Energy Systems
      • Table Waste to Energy Technologies and Feedstocks
      • Table Energy Products from Waste to Energy Technologies
      • Incineration
      • Gasification
      • Plasma Gasification
      • Pyrolysis
      • Anaerobic Digestion
    • Applications and Benefits of Waste to Energy Technologies
      • Waste Management: Mass/Volume Reduction and Avoidance of Landfilling
      • Power Generation
      • Methane Production
      • Liquid Fuels Production
      • Heat Production
      • Pollutant Emissions Reduction
      • Greenhouse Gas Emissions Management
      • Destruction of Harmful Microbes and Biological Agents
      • Land Area Requirements
      • Mechanical Biological Treatment
    • Drawbacks of Waste to Energy Technologies
      • Environmental Concerns
      • Potential Competition with Recycling
      • Potential Competition with Composting
      • Increased Pollution under Some Systems
      • Public Opinion
    • Cost/Benefit
    • Summary
  • Waste to Energy Technologies - Market Size and Growth
    • Scope
    • Market Assessment Methodology
      • Project-Based Market Evaluations
      • Additional Market Valuation Factors
      • Demand for Municipal Waste Stream Management and Waste Reduction
      • Reuse, Recycling, Composting, and Waste to Energy
      • Growth of Biomass, Food Waste, and Animal Husbandry Waste to Energy
      • Environmental and Social Concerns of Waste Management
      • Alternative Energy Growth and Demand
    • Waste to Energy Projects
      • Table Anticipated Global WtE Projects
    • Factors Affecting Market Size and Growth
      • Feedstock Availability: landfilling reduction targets, waste stream diversion requirements, and other key waste management trends that inform feedstock availability;
        • Table European Union Mandated Waste Reduction Targets
        • Table Great Britin National Waste Reduction Targets
        • Table New Zealand's Adopted Waste Management Strategy
      • Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction requirements, targets, and strategies;
      • Demand for Alternative and Renewable Energy
      • Costs and WtE Project Economics
      • Public acceptance of WtE
      • Other Relevant Trends
    • WtE Technologies Markets
      • Global Market for Incineration
        • Table Global Market for Incinerators and Incinerator Plant Ancillaries: 2006-2010 Historic and 2011-2021 Projected ($ Millions)
        • Table Incinerator Market Data and Projections, Major Countries: 2006 (Historic), 2011 (Projected), and 2021 (Projected) ($ Millions)
        • Table Annual Historic and Projected Global Increases in Incinerator Waste Capacity (Daily Tons) and Power Generation Capacity (MW)
      • Global Market for Gasification
        • Table Global Market for Gasifiers and Gasifier Plant Ancillaries: 2006-2010 Historic and 20112021 Projected ($ Millions)
        • Table Gasification Market Data and Projections, Major Countries: 2006 (Historic), 2011 (Projected), and 2021 (Projected) ($ Millions)
        • Table Annual Historic and Projected Global Increases in Gasifier Waste Capacity (Daily Tons) and Power Generation Capacity (MW)
      • Global Market for Plasma Gasification
        • Table Global Market for Plasma Gasifiers and Plant Ancillaries: 2006-2010 Historic and 20112021 Projected ($ Millions)
        • Table Plasma Gasification Market Data and Projections, Major Countries: 2006 (Historic), 2011 (Projected), and 2021 (Projected) ($ Millions)
        • Table Annual Historic and Projected Global Increases in Plasma Gasifier Waste Capacity (Daily Tons) and Power Generation Capacity (MW)
      • Global Market for Pyrolysis
        • Table Global Market for Pyrolysis and Pyrolysis Plant Ancillaries: 2006-2010 Historic and 2011- 2021 Projected ($ Millions)
        • Table Pyrolysis Market Data and Projections, Major Countries: 2006 (Historic), 2011 (Projected), and 2021 (Projected) ($ Millions)
        • Table Annual Historic and Projected Global Increases in Pyrolysis Waste Capacity (Daily Tons) and Power Generation Capacity (MW)
      • Global Market for Anaerobic Digestion
        • Table Global Market for Anaerobic Digesters and Anaerobic Digesters Plant Ancillaries: 2006- 2010 Historic and 2011-2021 Projected ($ Millions)
        • Table Anaerobic Digester Market Data and Projections, Major Countries: 2006 (Historic), 2011 (Projected), and 2021 (Projected) ($ Millions)
        • Table Annual Historic and Projected Global Increases in Anaerobic Digesters Waste Capacity (Daily Tons) and Power Generation Capacity (MW)
    • Summary
  • Waste to Energy Technologies - Market and Product Trends
    • Scope
    • WtE Product Pricing
      • Global Economic Factors Influencing WtE Project Costs
      • Regional and Cost Considerations
      • Technology Specific Costs and Cost Factors
      • Incinerators
        • Table Incineration Cost Profiles
      • Gasification
        • Table Gasification Cost Profiles
      • Plasma Gasification
        • Table Plasma Gasification, Typical Cost Profiles
      • Pyrolysis
        • Table Pyrolysis, Typical Cost Profiles
      • Anaerobic Digestion/Fermentation/MBT
        • Table Anaerobic Digestion, Typical Cost Profiles, Animal Wastes and Wastewater Treatment
        • Table Anaerobic Digestion, Typical Cost Profiles, MSW
    • Industry Trends
      • Importance of Feedstock Availability
      • New Product Developments and Product Trends
      • Public Relations, Environmental, and Permitting Concerns
    • Waste to Energy Ownership
      • Public Ownership
      • Private Ownership
    • Project Development and Financing Trends
      • Table Common WtE Project Finance Mechanisms
      • Venture Capital and Equities
      • Grant Funding, Government Loans, and Other Government Incentives
      • Public/Government Funding
      • Project Revenues and Cash on Hand
      • Private Debt Financing
      • Mixed Funding Sources
    • Summary
  • Waste to Energy Technologies - Supply Chain and Promotion
    • Scope
    • WtE Facilities Supply Chain
    • Waste Feedstock Supply Chains
    • Waste to Energy Product Promotion
      • Promotion to the End User
      • Promotion to Government and the Public
    • Summary
  • Waste to Energy Technologies - Job Creation Estimates
    • Scope
    • Modes of Job Creation
    • Job Creation Projections and Methods
      • Incineration
      • Gasification
      • Plasma Gasification
      • Pyrolysis
      • Anaerobic Digestion
    • Summary
  • Competitive Profiles
    • Scope
    • Methodology and Selection of Profiles
    • Alpha Bio Systems, Inc.
      • Table Alpha Bio Systems, Inc.
      • Overview
      • Performance
      • Product Portfolio
        • Table Product Portfolio
      • Company News and Developments
    • The Babcock & Wilcox Company
      • Table The Babcock & Wilcox Company
      • Overview
      • Performance
      • Product Portfolio
      • Company News and Developments
    • BlueFire Renewables Inc.
      • Table BlueFire Renewables Inc.
      • Overview
      • Performance
      • Product Portfolio
      • Company News and Developments
    • Covanta Energy Corporation
      • Table Covanta Energy Corporation
      • Overview
      • Performance
      • Product Portfolio
      • Company News and Developments
    • Ener-G PLC
      • Table Ener-G PLC
      • Overview
      • Performance
      • Product Portfolio
      • Company News and Developments
    • Fisia Babcock Environment GmbH
      • Table Fisia Babcock Environment GmbH
      • Overview
      • Performance
      • Product Portfolio
        • Table Product Portfolio
      • Company News and Developments
    • Florida Syngas LLC
      • Table Florida Syngas LLC
      • Overview
      • Performance
      • Product Portfolio
      • Company News and Developments
    • Frontline BioEnergy, LLC
      • Table Frontline BioEnergy, LLC
      • Overview
      • Performance
      • Product Portfolio
      • Company News and Developments
    • Gershman, Brickner & Bratton, Inc. (GBB)
      • Table Gershman, Brickner & Bratton, Inc. (GBB)
      • Overview
      • Performance
      • Product Portfolio
      • Company News and Developments
    • Martin GmbH
      • Table Martin GmbH
      • Overview
      • Performance
      • Product Portfolio
      • Company News and Developments
    • Pyrogenesis Canada, Inc.
      • Table Pyrogenesis Canada, Inc.
      • Overview
      • Performance
      • Product Portfolio
        • Table Product Portfolio
      • Company News and Developments
    • QinetiQ
      • Table QinetiQ
      • Overview
      • Performance
      • Product Portfolio
      • Company News and Developments
    • Siemens AG
      • Table Siemens AG
      • Overview
      • Performance
      • Product Portfolio
      • Company News and Developments
    • Takuma Co., Ltd.
      • Table Takuma Co., Ltd.
      • Overview
      • Performance
      • Product Portfolio
      • Company News and Developments
    • UTS-Residual Processing LLC
      • Table UTS-Residual Processing LLC
      • Overview
      • Performance
      • Product Portfolio
      • Company News and Developments
    • Veolia Environnement S.A.
      • Table Veolia Environnement S.A.
      • Overview
      • Performance
      • Product Portfolio
      • Company News and Developments
    • Wheelabrator Technologies Inc.
      • Table Wheelabrator Technologies Inc.
      • Overview
      • Performance
      • Product Portfolio
      • Company News and Developments
  • End Users
    • Scope
    • Waste to Energy End Users: Thermal Technologies
      • Table Thermal Technology End Users
      • Incineration
      • Gasification and Plasma Gasification
      • Pyrolysis and Depolymerization
    • Waste to Energy End Users: Anaerobic Digesters
      • Table Anaerobic Digester End Users
      • Dairies and Animal Husbandry
      • Food and Meat Processing Industries
      • Municipal Greenwaste and Municipal Solid Waste
      • Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants
        • Table WWTP Anaerobic Digester Typical Production Rate and Cost Parameters
    • Summary

Each year the world generates more than 2.1 billion tons of waste, disposes of most of that waste it in landfills, and allows it to decay and release methane (a powerful greenhouse gas that drives climate change), carbon dioxide, volatile organic compounds, odors, groundwater quality pollutants, and a host of other air, water, and soil pollutants. Locked inside of the 2.1 billion tons of waste is approximately 24.5 quadrillion Btu of energy - enough heat to generate about 10% of the electricity consumed annually around the globe. Meanwhile, in many developed nations, the availability of landfill capacity has been flat or steadily decreasing due to regulatory, siting, and environmental permitting constraints on new landfills and landfill expansions. As a result, new approaches to waste management are rapidly being written into public and institutional policies at local to national levels.

Landfilling, which is still employed at the overwhelming majority of global waste management facilities in developed nations, generally performs well in terms of throughput, public health, and safety. But many current and widespread waste management practices are mediocre or even poor performers in terms of energy efficiency and environmental performance. For instance, the conventional municipal solid waste chain is commonly characterized by moderate to long haul distances, which generate substantial greenhouse gas emissions, followed by long-term storage in a landfill, releasing methane and other pollutants. In developing nations, landfills can pose major public health concerns, and can in some cases represent a significant fire hazard due to spontaneous ignition. Many liquid waste streams, especially in the livestock and food production industries, are only minimally treated prior to discharge. Dairy wastes, for instance, can result in excessive nutrient loading of farm fields, while municipal wastewater, especially in developing nations, may contain high levels of biochemical oxygen demand, bacteria, and other harmful pollutants.

Waste to energy technologies - incineration, gasification, plasma gasification, pyrolysis, and anaerobic digestion - provide a convenient solution to many of these waste management issues. For instance, installation of a waste to energy conversion facility near a large urban center can reduce the number of truck, train, or barge trips to landfills, reduce the volume of new material that is being stored in landfills, and reduce the proportion of organic matter that is stored in a landfill, which in turn reduces the production rates of landfill methane. Liquid waste to energy technologies can also reduce the concentration of water quality constituents in treated effluent, by substantially reducing bacterial loading, biochemical oxygen demand, and other constituents.

Bolstered by global concern and policy actions relating to climate change, waste to energy technologies also support low-carbon and in some cases carbon-neutral energy production. As a result, the global market for waste to energy technologies has evidenced substantial growth over the last five years, increasing from $4.83 billion in 2006, to 7.08 billion in 2010 with continued market growth through the global economic downturn. Over the coming decade, growth trends are expected to continue, led by expansion in the US, European, Chinese, and Indian markets. By 2021, based on continued growth in Asian markets combined with the maturation of European waste management regulations and European and US climate mitigation strategies, the annual global market for waste to energy technologies will exceed $27 billion, for all technologies combined.

The market expansion projected for waste to energy technologies maintains roots in the waste industry as well as the alternative fuels/power industry. Demand for waste management solutions and for alternative energy sources thereby coalesce to drive demand for waste to energy technologies. A significant advantage of these dual drivers is that demand for waste to energy technologies is resilient. For example, even in the unlikely event that demand for alternative energy slackens over the coming decade, the demand for waste management solutions would remain, and would continue to drive the installation of new waste to energy facilities.

Thermal and Digestion Waste-to-Energy Technologies Worldwide contains comprehensive data on the worldwide market for waste to energy technologies (incineration, gasification, pyrolysis and thermal depolymerization, and anaerobic digestion), including historic (2006-2010) and forecast (2011-2021) market size data in terms of the dollar value of product shipments, with breakdowns at the national level for major markets. The report identifies key trends affecting the marketplace, along with trends driving growth, and central challenges to further market development. The report also provides company profiles for waste to energy leaders in municipal solid waste and other waste management industries.

Report Methodology

The information in Thermal and Digestion Waste-to-Energy Technologies Worldwide is based on data from International Energy Agency, the US Energy Information Agency, the Waste to Energy Research and Technology Council (WTERT), the European Commission, the National Bureau of Statistics of China, India’s Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, the U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. national laboratories, U.S. and global energy research institutions, along with information from other trade associations, business journals, company literature and websites, Securities and Exchange Commission reportings, and research services such as Simmons Market Research Bureau.

What You’ll Get in This Report

Thermal and Digestion Waste-to-Energy Technologies Worldwide makes important predictions and recommendations regarding the near term future of the global waste to energy market, with breakdowns for each of the five technologies considered in this report, with additional market breakdowns for major national markets. It pinpoints methods that current and prospective industry players can capitalize on existing trends, spearhead new trends, and identify and expand into niche and specialty markets. No other market research report provides both comprehensive analysis and extensive, quality data that Thermal and Digestion Waste-to-Energy Technologies Worldwide offers. Plus, you’ll benefit from extensive data, presented in easy-to-read and practical charts, tables and graphs.

How You’ll Benefit from This Report

If your company is already doing business in the waste to energy market, in associated manufacturing industries, or is considering making the leap, you will find this report invaluable, as it provides a comprehensive package of information and insight not offered in any other single source. Waste to energy technology holders and developers, investors, marketers, midstream industry, and waste to energy startups will also benefit from key insights into market structure, the supply chain, projects worldwide, and industry suppliers associated with waste to energy technologies. The report provides an extensive review of markets for waste to energy, including appurtenances, from 2006 as well as projects and trends through 2021.

This report will also help:

  • Marketing managers identify market opportunities and develop targeted promotion plans for waste to energy technologies, components, materials, and services.
  • Research and development professionals stay on top of competitor initiatives and explore demand for waste to energy technologies, components, materials, and associated services.
  • Business development executives and entrepreneurs understand the dynamics of the industry/market and identify possible partnerships.
  • Advertising agencies working with clients in the waste to energy industry to understand the market for waste to energy technologies, their application, and the product procurement and project construction process; to develop messages and images that compel consumers to invest in companies supplying or operating waste to energy facilities.
  • Information and research center librarians provide market researchers, brand and product managers and other colleagues with the vital information they need to do their jobs more effectively.


Market Insights: A Selection From The Report


Incineration
Figure 1-8 summarizes incinerator capital costs. Bars in the figure represent average capital costs for the incinerator itself, as well as ancillaries, shown in $/kW5 and $/ton-year6 capacity. Error bars represent the minimum and maximum total (i.e., technology plus ancillary costs) values obtained during SBI’s data collection efforts. As shown, the average incinerator cost for announced projects is $8,650/kW or $1,960/Ton-Yr, whereas peak reported costs for incinerators were $13,500/kW or $2,800/Ton-Yr. These figures are higher than the capital
costs for the other thermal WtE technologies reviewed in this report. However, high cost does...

Plasma Gasification
Plasma gasification technologies share many of the same characteristics of standard gasification technologies - namely, both generate syngas under low-oxygen conditions. The basic technology behind plasma gasification been around since the 1950s, however, only over the last decade has plasma gasification been developed commercially for WtE facilities. Project reviews completed for this report indicated that there are approximately 5 functioning plasma gasification facilities located worldwide, located primarily in Japan, Taiwan, and Canada, with at least two additional plants in Germany and Australia, that have been recently mothballed. All identified facilities were constructed between 2002 and 2011.

Venture Capital and Equities
[Additionally, equity investors typically acquire a share in the company/facility in which they are investing, meaning that the project sponsor must relinquish a portion of its vested interest and control. While these conditions may be unpalatable to some potential project sponsors, there is a substantial amount of capital available through these sources. For instance, global venture capital and equity financing in 2009 reached a year-long total of $6.6 billion. This rate was significantly down from a peak of $11.8 billion during 2008, prior to the effects of the global financial crisis.75 However, SBI’s review of preliminary data available for 2010 indicate that venture capital and equity financing for renewable energy, including waste to energy projects, is again climbing, and will surpass 2009 data by at least 10%.

In the News

Worldwide Waste to Energy Market Expansion Expected Through 2021; Industry to Reach $27 Billion

New York, March 10, 2011 — Across the globe humans generate more than 2 billion tons of waste annually. This waste, by way of landfill, releases host of air, water, and soil pollutants as it decays such as methane gas, carbon dioxide, volatile organic compounds, odors, and groundwater parasites. However, a closer look reveals that within this 2.1 billion tons of waste there is over 24 quadrillion Btus of energy available for harvesting; enough heat to generate about 10% of the electricity consumed annually around the globe.

Leading market research firm, SBI Energy found in their latest study, Thermal and Digestion Waste-to-Energy Technologies Worldwide that waste to energy technologies — incineration, gasification, plasma gasification, pyrolysis, and anaerobic digestion — provide a convenient solution to many of these waste management issues. So much so, that the market will grow at a rate of about 11% through 2021.

Global concern and policy actions relating to climate change are driving waste to energy technologies and support low-carbon and in some cases carbon-neutral energy production demands. As a result, the global market for waste to energy technologies has evidenced substantial growth over the last five years, increasing from $5 billion in 2006, to $7 billion in 2010 and was unaffected throughout the global economic downturn.

“Waste to energy market expansion is rooted in the waste management and in the alternative fuels/power industry. Demand for waste management solutions and for alternative energy sources thereby coalesce to drive demand for waste to energy technologies,” says Shelley Carr, SBI Energy publisher. "A significant advantage of these dual drivers is that demand for waste to energy technologies is proven resilient. As landfill availability continues to decline, the demand for waste management solutions will remain regardless of economic stresses, and will continue to drive the installation of new waste to energy facilities," Carr notes.

Over the coming decade, growth trends are expected to continue for the industry, led by expansion in the U.S., European, Chinese, and Indian markets. By 2021, Asian markets combined with the maturation of European waste management regulations and European and U.S. climate mitigation strategies, the annual global market for waste to energy technologies will exceed $27 billion, for all technologies combined.

Thermal and Digestion Waste-to-Energy Technologies Worldwide contains comprehensive data on the worldwide market for waste to energy technologies (incineration, gasification, pyrolysis and thermal depolymerization, and anaerobic digestion). The market study also reports historical market and growth in dollars (2006 - 2010), at the national level for major markets, as well as future forecast data through 2021. The report identifies key trends affecting the marketplace, along with trends driving growth, and central challenges to further market development. The report examines the strategic profiles of the waste to energy leaders in municipal solid waste and other waste management industries.

Additional Materials


Down and Dirty: Generating Profit from Landfill Waste
Blog Submission: March 3, 2011

Humans generate tons - billions of tons - of waste each year. At over 2.1 billion tons of municipal waste annually, the world has a significant waste problem. Most of this waste is transported to landfills, where it sits, decays, and releases a suite of environmental pollutants.  But there is a better way to control and reuse this waste -converting it into energy.

Locked inside the 2.1 billion tons of municipal waste that we generate each year is approximately 24.5 quadrillion Btu of energy - enough heat to meet about 10% of global annual electricity consumption. Not surprisingly, many nations including Europe, Canada, and parts of Asia, have been adding to or gearing up waste to energy operations for over a decade.

According to the most recent data available from the International Energy Agency, from 2000 to 2006, global waste to energy power production from municipal and industrial wastes increased from 283 terawatt hours to 383 terawatt hours, a 35% increase over that period.

SBI Energy recently evaluated waste to energy technologies, including incineration, gasification, plasma gasification, pyrolysis, and anaerobic digestion.  SBI Energy’s in-depth analyses of the global market forecasts the market will increase from approximately $9 billion in 2011 to $27 by 2021, equivalent to a CAGR of 11%.

Historically speaking, 95% of the global waste to energy market was dominated by two technologies: incineration and anaerobic digestion. But with new advances, other technologies - specifically pyrolysis, plasma gasification, and gasification - will gain market share and together will comprise over 30% of the total waste to energy market by 2015.

Additional Materials


Waste to Energy (WtE) Technology
SBI Energy White Paper

Incineration, the most commonly employed WtE technology both in the United States and globally, was waste management first, with energy generated more as a useful side-product or even afterthought. Only in recent decades has power generation driven demand for incinerator installations. Reducing the amount of waste that goes to a landfill or avoiding landfills altogether is a strong driver in the waste to energy (WtE) industry worldwide.

Where is this market headed, what new technologies exist and what opportunities and challenges will manufacturers and investors face in the next 10 years?

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