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Back of the Eye Disorders: Novel Drugs and Delivery Technologies, 2017-2030

Back of the Eye Disorders: Novel Drugs and Delivery Technologies, 2017-2030

According to the World Health Organization, close to 250 million individuals, including 36 million blind people, presently suffer from some form of vision impairment. Further, a recent study published in September 2017 estimates that the number of blind people is likely to increase to 38.5 million, by 2020, and to 115 million, by 2050. Current projections also indicate that, in the US alone, the total economic burden related to vision loss is expected to reach approximately USD 715 billion by 2050. In fact, chronic eye diseases are considered to be one of the main causes of vision loss globally, and an estimated 90% cases of visual impairment are reported to be caused due to such conditions. It is worth highlighting that a significant portion of these chronic ophthalmological disorders are clinical conditions related to the back of the eye.

The current treatment landscape for back of the eye disorders is characterized by the presence of blockbuster drugs, such as Lucentis® and Eylea®, and various other therapeutic options. Despite the success of these therapies, their invasive mode of administration, high dosage frequency and other drug related side effects, are some of the drawbacks that have an adverse impact on their therapeutic potential and adoption. Further, there are no treatment approaches available for a number of ophthalmological indications, such as dry age related macular degeneration (dry AMD), retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and leber congenital amaurosis. In order to overcome these challenges, various stakeholders are engaged in the development of novel therapeutic approaches. With the entry of several start-ups that are driving the innovation in this domain, the pipeline has several novel product candidates in various stages of development. Companies are steadily collaborating to develop and commercialize their products globally, in-license intellectual property to design new treatment modalities and advance research initiatives in this domain.

SCOPE OF THE REPORT
The ‘Back of the Eye Disorders: Novel Drugs and Delivery Technologies, 2017-2030’ report features an extensive study of the market for novel drugs, drug-device combinations and technologies for the treatment of back of the eye disorders. The focus of this study is on the applications and the likely evolution of novel treatment options (excluding steroids and corticosteroids) in the mid to long term. The evolving market has its hopes pinned on the efforts of multiple start-ups, small and large-sized companies. Amongst other elements, the report features:

A detailed assessment of the current market landscape of novel drugs, providing information on various drug / therapy developers, phase of development (clinical, preclinical or discovery stage) of product candidates, information on drug class, molecular target, type of therapy, mechanism of action, route of administration, and key therapeutic indication(s). In addition, we have provided a list of drug device combinations that target the back of the eye.

A world map representation, depicting the most active geographies in terms of the presence of companies developing drugs to treat back of the eye disorders.

A bull’s eye analysis highlighting distribution of pipeline candidates in terms of phase of development, type of target and drug class. A grid analysis based on type of drug class developed / being developed across different indications and stages of development.

An elaborate discussion on lifecycle management strategies, depicting how companies are using various methods to expand patent exclusivity in order to exploit the revenue generation potential of their proprietary products.

Comprehensive profiles of clinical stage (phase II/III and above) drug candidates specifically targeting back of the eye disorders, highlighting their current status of development, mechanism of action, technology, patent portfolio, clinical trial information and recent developments.

A review of currently available technologies and delivery systems that are being used to administer therapeutics to the back of the eye, featuring brief profiles of the various technical advances, key benefits offered and information on the product candidates pipeline that are based on these technologies.

A discussion on various visual prosthesis that are available, highlighting their mechanism of action. In addition, we have provided a comparative 2X2 analysis of the different types visual prosthesis based on supplier power and product competitiveness.

An analysis of the partnerships that have been established in the recent past, covering R&D collaborations, license agreements, mergers and acquisitions, manufacturing and services agreements, and other relevant agreements.

A discussion on the key promotional strategies that have been adopted for marketing approved drugs, namely (based on the approval year) Macugen®, Lucentis®, Eylea® and Jetrea®, that are presently prescribed to treat back of the eye disorders.

One of the key objectives of the report was to understand the primary growth drivers and estimate the future size of the market. Based on various parameters, such as target patient population, likely adoption rates and expected pricing, we have provided an informed estimate on the likely evolution of the market in the short to mid-term and long term, for the period 2017-2030. To account for the uncertainties associated with the development of novel drugs and to add robustness to our model, we have provided three forecast scenarios, portraying the conservative, base and optimistic tracks of the market’s evolution.

The opinions and insights presented in the report were also influenced by discussions held with senior stakeholders in the industry. These include Elise Brownell (Senior Vice President of Operations and Project Management, Amarantus Bioscience), Quinton Oswald (President and CEO, Neurotech Pharmaceuticals) and Samantha Cobb (CEO, AdAlta). All actual figures have been sourced and analyzed from publicly available information forums and primary research discussions. Financial figures mentioned in this report are in USD, unless otherwise specified.

EXAMPLE HIGHLIGHTS
1. Over 170 product candidates are currently under various stages of development for a diverse range of back of the eye disorders. Eight drugs are commercially available; of these, Lucentis® and Eylea® have already achieved blockbuster status. Nearly 40% of the pipeline molecules are under clinical development; specifically, 1 product candidate is in the pre-registration stage, 8 molecules are being investigated in phase III and phase II/III, 24 molecules in phase II, 27 molecules in phase I/II and 11 molecules in phase I clinical trials. Majority (56%) of the product candidates are still in the preclinical and discovery stages.

2. Gene therapy has emerged as one of the key drug classes being investigated across various phases of development. One such product candidate, LUXTURNA™, received approval from the USFDA for the treatment of patients with confirmed biallelic RPE65 mutation IRD in late 2017. Other important drug classes in this domain include small molecules (20%), antibody based therapeutics (12%), cell therapies (8%) and peptides / proteins (8%).

3. 41% of the products in the pipeline are designed to treat age-related macular degeneration. Nearly 20% of the molecules are being developed for the treatment of diabetes associated eye disorders, such as diabetic macular edema and diabetic retinopathy. In addition, close to 14% of the molecules are under development for the treatment of retinitis pigmentosa, followed by Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (5%) and Stargardt disease (3%). The remaining 17% of the pipeline molecules are being developed for treating posterior uveitis, Usher syndrome and other retinal dystrophies.

4. Majority of product candidates (29%) in the clinical pipeline target various components of the anti-angiogenesis pathway. Most of the approved drugs (57%) also follow this particular mechanism of action. A significant number of molecules (18%) are being developed against various isoforms of VEGF; these molecules are designed to either target VEGF alone or in combination with other molecular targets.

5. The market landscape is characterized by the presence of large-sized (20), mid-sized (21) and small-sized companies (69). Some of the prominent large-sized companies engaged in this domain include (in alphabetical order) AbbVie, Chengdu Kang Hong Pharmaceuticals, Genentech, Novartis, Pfizer, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and Valeant Pharmaceuticals. Similarly, mid-sized companies that are actively contributing to the development of back of the eye disorders include (in alphabetical order) Acucela, Mitotech, Molecular Partners, Novelion Therapeutics, Quark Pharmaceuticals, Stealth Biotherapeutics and ThromboGenics. In addition, small companies, such as (in alphabetical order) Amyndas Pharmaceuticals, ElsaLys Biotech, Envisia Therapeutics, Exonate, GenSight Biologics, Ichor Therapeutics, InFlectis BioScience, Nightstar Therapeutics, Ocugen, Recursion Pharmaceuticals, SanBio and Vision Medicines are also actively involved in this domain.

6. To overcome the challenges related to the effective delivery of drugs to the back of the eye, several innovative technologies are also being developed. Notable examples of advanced drug delivery technologies include (in alphabetical order) BioSeizer (Taiwan Liposome Company), Durasert™ (pSivida), Encapsulated Cell Therapy (Neurotech), EyeCET Platform Technology (Eyevensys), EyeGate II® Delivery System (EyeGate Pharma), Ocular Drug Delivery System (GrayBug Vision), Oculis Platform Technology (Oculis), Replenish Posterior MicroPump™ (Replenish), SCS™ Microinjector (Clearside Biomedical), and Verisome Technology (Icon Bioscience).

7. Given the increase in technological advancements, rise in the aging population across the globe and the unmet across multiple ophthalmological disorders, we anticipate the opportunity to steadily grow in the foreseen future. In fact, specific products, being developed for indications with very large target patient populations, are anticipated to achieve blockbuster status (sales over USD 1 billion) and become prime contributors to future revenues.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The data presented in this report has been gathered via secondary and primary research. For all our projects, we conduct interviews with experts in the area (academia, industry, medical practice and other associations) to solicit their opinions on emerging trends in the market. This is primarily useful for us to draw out our own opinion on how the market will evolve across different regions and technology segments. Where possible, the available data has been checked for accuracy from multiple sources of information.

The secondary sources of information include
Annual reports
Investor presentations
SEC filings
Industry databases
News releases from company websites
Government policy documents
Industry analysts’ views

While the focus has been on forecasting the market over the coming 13 years, the report also provides our independent view on various technological and non-commercial trends emerging in the industry. This opinion is solely based on our knowledge, research and understanding of the relevant market gathered from various secondary and primary sources of information.

CHAPTER OUTLINES
Chapter 2 is an executive summary of the insights captured in our research. The summary offers a high-level view on the likely evolution of the back of the eye disorders market in the short-mid and long term.

Chapter 3 features a discussion on the general concepts related to the structure of the human eye, primarily focusing on the various disorders associated with the back of the eye. It provides information on the static, dynamic and metabolic barriers that have a significant impact on drug delivery to the back of the eye. The chapter also features a discussion on the different routes used to administer drugs into the eye. In addition, it covers details on the available treatment options (drug classes that have been approved or are currently under development) and drug delivery approaches for back of the eye disorders.

Chapter 4 includes information on over 175 therapeutics that are currently approved or are in different stages of development. It features a comprehensive analysis of the pipeline molecules, highlighting the drug developer, target indication, phase of development, drug class, type of therapy, mechanism of action and route of administration. In addition, it features a schematic representation on a world map, highlighting the key regional hubs developing therapeutics for the treatment of back of the eye disorders. Further, we have provided a logo landscape of product developers in North America, Europe and the Asia Pacific region on the basis of employee base. The chapter also features a comprehensive grid analysis of the various therapeutic product candidates, highlighting their respective target indications, drug class and phases of development.

Chapter 5 includes a detailed discussion on product life cycle management strategies that are being considered by developers of approved drugs. It focuses on the development and commercialization related strategies, which are being used extensively by drug developers to treat back of the eye disorders.

Chapter 6 contains detailed profiles of drugs that are in advanced stages of clinical development (phase II/III and above). Each profile provides information on the current status of development, mechanism of action, technology, patent portfolio, clinical trial information and recent developments.

Chapter 7 presents a comprehensive market forecast, highlighting the future potential of the market till 2030. Based on various parameters, such as target patient population, likely pricing and adoption (driven by clinical efficacy and safety data), we have estimated the evolution of the market over the coming 10-15 years. The chapter provides detailed segmentation of overall opportunity based on drug classes (antibody based therapeutics, fusion proteins, peptides, small molecules, oligonucleotides and others), indications (wet AMD, dry AMD, DME, DR, LHON, Stargardt disease and others), mechanism of action (anti-angiogenesis, anti-inflammatory, complement pathway inhibition, functional protein production, visual cycle modulation and others) and route of administration (intravitreal, topical, oral, subcutaneous and others).

Chapter 8 provides details on the technology platforms and drug delivery systems that have been developed to address the challenges posed by the current treatment approaches in this space. It includes brief profiles of those drug delivery technologies / platforms that are being developed for multiple drug candidates in the clinical stage. Each profile provides information on the developer, key advantages, release profile, type of molecule and technology pipeline. In addition, the chapter highlights the various ocular implants / drug device combinations that are either approved or being developed to target back of the eye disorders.

Chapter 9 highlights the bionic vision technology / visual prostheses, which are designed to restore vision in visually impaired patients. It includes information on the various bionic eye technologies that are either approved or currently in various stages of development for the treatment of back of the eye disorders, specifically RP and wet AMD. It also presents a comparative 2 X 2 matrix analysis of bionic vision technologies, based on parameters, such as phase of development, site of implantation, targeted indications and unique characteristics of these technologies.

Chapter 10 features an elaborate discussion and analysis of the various collaborations and partnerships that have been inked amongst players in this market. We have also discussed the different partnership models (including product development and commercialization, R&D agreements, technology / product licensing agreements, other licensing agreements, mergers / acquisitions and clinical trial collaborations) and the most common forms of deals / agreements that have been established between 2013 and 2017 (including both the years).

Chapter 11 highlights the key promotional strategies that are being implemented by the developers of marketed products, such as Macugen®, Lucentis®, Eylea® and Jetrea®. For the purpose of this analysis, we studied the promotional activities undertaken by the developers of the aforementioned drugs. The promotional aspects covered in the chapter include details provided on the product website (covering key messages for patients and healthcare professionals), patient support offerings and informative downloadable content.

Chapter 12 provides a detailed analysis, capturing the key parameters and trends that are likely to influence the future of the back of the eye disorders market within the biopharmaceutical industry, under a comprehensive SWOT framework.

Chapter 13 summarizes the overall report. In this chapter, we have provided a list of key takeaways from the report, and expressed our independent opinion related to the research and analysis described in the previous chapters.

Chapter 14 is a collection of interview transcripts of the discussions that were held with key stakeholders in this market. The chapter provides details of interviews held with Elise Brownell (Senior Vice President of Operations and Project Management, Amarantus Bioscience), Quinton Oswald (President and CEO, Neurotech Pharmaceuticals) and Samantha Cobb (CEO, AdAlta).

Chapter 15 is an appendix, which provides information on drugs that have been discontinued over time.

Chapter 16 is an appendix, which provides tabulated data and numbers for all the figures provided in the report.

Chapter 17 is an appendix, which provides the list of companies and organizations mentioned in the report.

LIST OF COMPANIES / LIST OF COMPANIES AND ORGANIZATIONS

The following companies and organizations have been mentioned in the report.

1 4D Molecular Therapeutics
2 AbbVie
3 Academy of Finland
4 Accredo Health Group
5 Achillion Pharmaceuticals
6 Aciont
7 ActiveSite Pharmaceuticals
8 Acucela
9 AdAlta
10 Adverum Biotechnologies
11 Aegerion Pharmaceuticals
12 Aerie Pharmaceuticals
13 Aerpio Therapeutics
14 Affilogic
15 AGTC
16 Alcon (a Novartis division)
17 Alfred Hospital
18 Alimera Sciences
19 Alkeus Pharmaceuticals
20 Allegro Ophthalmics
21 Allergan
22 Allinky Biopharma
23 ALTEOGEN
24 Amarantus BioScience
25 Amarna Therapeutics
26 Ampio Pharmaceuticals
27 Amyndas Pharmaceuticals
28 Apellis Pharmaceuticals
29 Apexian Pharmaceuticals
30 Apexigen
31 Apollo Endosurgery
32 Appletree CI Group
33 Araim Pharmaceuticals
34 Ascendis Pharma
35 AsclepiX Therapeutics
36 Astellas Institute for Regenerative Medicine (AIRM)
37 Astellas Pharma
38 Athena Vision
39 AyuVis Research
40 Bascom Palmer Eye Institute
41 Bausch + Lomb
42 Bayer
43 BCM Families Foundation
44 Benitec Biopharma
45 Besse Medical
46 Bicycle Therapeutics
47 BIOCND
48 Biogen
49 BioInvent
50 Biokine Therapeutics
51 BioLight Lifesciences
52 Bionic Sight
53 Bionic Vision Technologies (BVT)
54 BIOPHYTIS
55 BioTime
56 Biovista
57 Case Western Reserve University (CWRU)
58 Catalent
59 Catalyst Biosciences
60 Université catholique de Louvain
61 Cellular Dynamics International (CDI)
62 Ceregene
63 Charlesson
64 Chengdu Kanghong Pharmaceuticals Group
65 Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
66 Cipla BioTec
67 Clanotech
68 Clearside Biomedical
69 Clonz Biotech
70 Coherus Biosciences
71 Columbia University
72 CoMentis
73 Copernicus Therapeutics
74 Critical Pharmaceuticals
75 CuraScript SD
76 CVS Caremark
77 Daiichi Sankyo
78 DelSiTech
79 Dompé
80 Editas Medicine
81 Eleven Biotherapeutics
82 ElsaLys Biotech
83 Envisia Therapeutics
84 Exonate
85 EyeGate Pharma
86 Eyemedics
87 Eyetech Pharmaceuticals
88 Eyevensys
89 Ferrer
90 Fondation Voir et Entendre
91 Formycon
92 ForSight VISION 4
93 Foundation Fighting Blindness (FFB)
94 FUJIFILM Holdings
95 Galapagos
96 Galaxy Ophthalmics
97 Gemini Therapeutics
98 Genable Technologies
99 Gene Signal
100 Gene Techno Science
101 Genaera Corporation
102 Genentech
103 Genethon
104 GenSight Biologics
105 Gilead Sciences
106 Graybug Vision
107 Grey Innovation
108 GlaxoSmithKline (GSK)
109 Gunma University
110 Hadassah Medical Center
111 Hanmi Pharmaceutical
112 Harvard Medical School (HMS)
113 Healios
114 Hemera Biosciences
115 Henogen (a subsidiary of the Novasep group)
116 HORAMA
117 Huabo Biopharm
118 i2 Pharmaceuticals
119 Ichor Therapeutics
120 Icon Bioscience
121 Iconic Therapeutics
122 Illinois Institute of Technology
123 Inception Sciences
124 InFlectis BioScience
125 InnoCore Pharma
126 Innovent Biologics
127 Intas Pharmaceuticals
128 Intrexon
129 Ionis Pharmaceuticals
130 I'rom Group
131 Ixchel Pharma
132 Janssen
133 jCyte
134 Jeil Pharmaceutical
135 Jiangsu T-mab BioPharma
136 Johns Hopkins University
137 K.N. Toosi University of Technology
138 Kala Pharmaceuticals
139 Kalos Therapeutics
140 KalVista Pharmaceuticals
141 KMG Pharma
142 Kodiak Sciences
143 Kowa Company
144 Laboratoire de Génétique Médicale de Strasbourg
145 LeadArtis
146 Lin Bio Science
147 Lonza
148 Loyola University Chicago
149 Lpath
150 Massachusetts General Hospital
151 Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT)
152 McKesson
153 Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW)
154 MeiraGTx
155 Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
156 Merck
157 MimeTech
158 Mimetogen Pharmaceuticals
159 MiniFAB
160 Mitotech
161 Molecular Partners
162 Monash University
163 MorphoSys
164 Mosaic Biosciences
165 M's Science Corporation
166 Mystic Pharmaceuticals
167 Nano Retina
168 Nanovision
169 National Institutes of Health (NIH)
170 Nektar Therapeutics
171 Neovacs
172 Neurotech Pharmaceuticals
173 NeXstar Pharmaceuticals
174 Novartis
175 Novelion Therapeutics
176 Ocata Therapeutics
177 OccuRx
178 Ocugen
179 Ocular Therapeutix
180 Oculis
181 OcuNexus Therapeutics
182 Odylia Therapeutics
183 Ohr Pharmaceutical
184 OliX Pharmaceuticals
185 Omeros
186 Opthea
187 Ophthotech
188 Opsis Therapeutics
189 Optobionics
190 Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health & Science University(OHSU)
191 Osaka University
192 Oxford BioMedica
193 Oxular
194 Paloma Pharmaceuticals
195 Pangere Center for Inherited Retinal Diseases, The Chicago Lighthouse
196 PanOptica
197 Patheon
198 Pfenex
199 Pfizer
200 Pieris Pharmaceuticals
201 Pixium Vision
202 Polus
203 PolyActiva
204 Potentia Pharmaceuticals
205 Preceyes
206 ProLynx
207 Promedior
208 ProQR
209 Proretina Therapeutics
210 Proteostasis Therapeutics
211 pSivida
212 Qilu Pharmaceuticals
213 Quark Pharmaceuticals
214 Ra Pharma
215 Recursion Pharmaceuticals
216 Regeneron Pharmaceuticals
217 REGENXBIO
218 Reliance RX
219 ReNeuron
220 Replenish
221 Retina Foundation of the Southwest
222 Retina Implant
223 Retinagenix
224 RetroSense Therapeutics
225 Ribomic
226 Roche
227 Royal DSM
228 RWTH Aachen University
229 RXi Pharmaceuticals
230 Saksin Lifesciences
231 Samsung Bioepis
232 SanBio
233 Sanofi
234 Santen Pharmaceuticals
235 Santhera Pharmaceuticals
236 Santo Holding
237 SciFluor Life Sciences
238 Second Sight
239 Selexis
240 SENJU Pharmaceutical
241 SENS Research Foundation
242 SGS Life Science
243 Shanghai Jiao-Tong University
244 Sonikure Technology
245 Spark Therapeutics
246 Stanford University
247 Stealth BioTherapeutics
248 Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma
249 Sun Pharmaceutical
250 Syracuse University
251 Taiwan Liposome Company
252 Tanox
253 Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary
254 The University of Manchester
255 University of Massachusetts Medical School
256 University of Pennsylvania
257 TheraKine
258 ThromboGenics
259 TRACON Pharmaceuticals
260 University of Tübingen
261 Tyrogenex
262 UCL Business
263 Universal Cells
264 University License Equity Holding (ULEHI), University of Colorado
265 University of California
266 University of Melbourne
267 University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC)
268 University of Utah
269 University of Virginia School of Medicine
270 VAXIER THERAPEUTICS
271 Versant Ventures
272 Verseon
273 VESSL Therapeutics
274 Vision Medicines
275 Vision Technologies
276 Walgreens Specialty Pharmacy
277 Wellstat Ophthalmics Corporation
278 WuXi AppTec
279 Xbrane Biopharma
280 XL Vision Sciences


1. PREFACE
1.1. Scope of the Report
1.2. Research Methodology
1.3. Chapter Outlines
2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
3. INTRODUCTION
3.1. Background and Context
3.2. Structure of the Eye
3.3. Components of Back of the Eye
3.3.1. Retina
3.3.2. Vitreous Humor
3.3.3. Optic Nerve
3.4. The Visual Cycle
3.5. Barriers to the Back of the Eye
3.5.1. Static Barriers
3.5.2. Dynamic Barriers
3.5.3. Metabolic Barriers
3.6. Route of Administration of Drugs to Back of the Eye
3.7. Disorders Associated with Back of the Eye
3.8. Treatment Options for Back of the Eye Disorders
3.8.1. Laser Treatment
3.8.2. Vitrectomy / Vitreous Surgery
3.8.3. Drugs
3.8.3.1. Angiogenesis Inhibitors
3.8.3.2. Complement Factor Inhibitors
3.8.3.3. Visual Cycle Modulators
3.8.3.4. Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
3.8.3.5. Gene Therapies
3.8.3.6. Stem Cell Therapies
3.9. Drug Delivery Platforms for Back of the Eye Disorders
3.9.1. Implantable Devices
3.9.2. Intravitreal Injections
3.9.3. Depot Injections
3.9.4. Transscleral Iontophoresis
3.9.5. Nanotechnology
3.9.6. Encapsulated Cell Technology
4. COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE
4.1. Chapter Overview
4.2. Back of the Eye Disorders: Clinical Pipeline
4.2.1. Analysis by Phase of Development
4.2.2. Analysis by Drug Class
4.2.3. Analysis by Mechanism of Action
4.2.4. Analysis by Type of Molecular Target
4.2.5. Analysis by Target Indication
4.2.6. Analysis by Type of Therapy
4.2.7. Analysis by Route of Administration
4.3. Back of the Eye Disorders: Preclinical / Discovery Pipeline
4.3.1. Analysis by Drug Class
4.3.2. Analysis by Target Indication
4.4. Back of the Eye Disorders Pipeline: Leading Players
4.5. Back of the Eye Disorders Pipeline: Most Prominent Hubs
4.6. Back of the Eye Disorders Pipeline: Regional Landscape
4.7. Back of the Eye Disorders Pipeline: Grid Analysis
5. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Macugen®
5.2.1. Overview
5.2.2. Mechanism of Action
5.2.3. Life Cycle Management Strategy
5.2.3.1. Geographic Expansion
5.2.3.2. Development of New Formulation
5.2.4. Collaborations
5.3. Lucentis®
5.3.1. Overview
5.3.2. Mechanism of Action
5.3.3. Life Cycle Management Strategy
5.3.3.1. Indication and Geographic Expansion
5.3.3.2. Strategic Pricing
5.3.3.3. Development of New Formulation
5.3.3.4. Development of Combination Therapies
5.3.4. Collaborations
5.4. Eylea®
5.4.1. Overview
5.4.2. Mechanism of Action
5.4.3. Life Cycle Management Strategy
5.4.3.1. Indication and Geographic Expansion
5.4.3.2. Therapeutic Area Expansion
5.4.3.3. Development of an Intravitreal Depot
5.4.3.4. Strategic Pricing and Reimbursement
5.4.3.5. Development of Combination Therapies
5.4.4. Collaborations
5.5. Jetrea®
5.5.1. Overview
5.5.2. Mechanism of Action
5.5.3. Life Cycle Management Strategy
5.5.3.1. Indication and Geographic Expansion
5.5.3.2. Development of New Formulation
5.5.3.3. Reimbursement Strategies
5.5.4. Collaborations
5.6. Conbercept
5.6.1. Overview
5.6.2. Mechanism of Action
5.6.3. Life Cycle Management Strategy
5.6.3.1. Indication Expansion
6. DRUG PROFILES
6.1. Chapter Overview
6.2. LUXTURNA™ (Spark Therapeutics): Mechanism of Action, Indication, Route of Administration, Molecular Target, Key Developments and Clinical Results
6.3. Sirolimus (Santen Pharmaceutical): Mechanism of Action, Indication, Route of Administration, Molecular Target, Key Developments and Clinical Results
6.4. Abicipar Pegol (Molecular Partners / Allergan): Mechanism of Action, Indication, Route of Administration, Molecular Target, Key Developments and Clinical Results
6.5. Brolucizumab (Alcon, a Division of Novartis): Mechanism of Action, Indication, Route of Administration, Molecular Target, Key Developments and Clinical Results
6.6. GS010 (GenSight Biologics): Mechanism of Action, Indication, Route of Administration, Molecular Target, Key Developments and Clinical Results
6.7. Lampalizumab (Roche): Mechanism of Action, Indication, Route of Administration, Molecular Target, Key Developments and Clinical Results
6.8. Optina (Ampio Pharmaceuticals): Mechanism of Action, Indication, Route of Administration, Molecular Target, Key Developments and Clinical Results
6.9. Squalamine (OHR Pharmaceutical): Mechanism of Action, Indication, Route of Administration, Molecular Target, Key Developments and Clinical Results
6.10. Zuretinol (Novelion Therapeutics): Mechanism of Action, Indication, Route of Administration, Molecular Target, Key Developments and Clinical Results
6.11. Zimura (Ophthotech): Mechanism of Action, Indication, Route of Administration, Molecular Target, Key Developments and Clinical Results
7. MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS
7.1. Chapter Overview
7.2. Forecast Methodology and Key Assumptions
7.3. Overall Back of the Eye Disorders Market, 2017-2030
7.4. Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Distribution by Indications
7.4.1. Back of the Eye Disorders Market for Wet Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
7.4.2. Back of the Eye Disorders Market for Dry AMD
7.4.3. Back of the Eye Disorders Market for Diabetic Macular Edema (DME)
7.4.4. Back of the Eye Disorders Market for Diabetic Retinopathy (DR)
7.4.5. Back of the Eye Disorders Market for Stargardt Disease
7.4.6. Back of the Eye Disorders Market for Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON)
7.4.7. Back of the Eye Disorders Market for Other Indications
7.5. Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Distribution by Drug Class
7.6. Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Distribution by Mechanism of Action
7.7. Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Distribution by Route of Administration
8. TECHNOLOGY PLATFORMS, DELIVERY SYSTEMS AND DRUG DEVICE COMBINATIONS
8.1. Chapter Overview
8.2. Drug Formulation Technologies
8.3. Drug Delivery Technologies / Systems
8.3.1. Profiles of Key Drug Delivery Technologies / Systems
8.3.1.1. BioSeizer (Taiwan Liposome Company): Type of Technology, Key Features, Sustained Release (Duration), Type of Molecules and Technology Pipeline
8.3.1.2. Durasert™ (pSivida): Type of Technology, Key Features, Sustained Release (Duration), Type of Molecules and Technology Pipeline
8.3.1.3. Encapsulated Cell Therapy (Neurotech Pharmaceuticals): Type of Technology, Key Features, Sustained Release (Duration), Type of Molecules and Technology Pipeline
8.3.1.4. EyeCET Platform Technology (Eyevensys): Type of Technology, Key Features, Sustained Release (Duration), Type of Molecules and Technology Pipeline
8.3.1.5. EyeGate II® Delivery System (EyeGate Pharma): Type of Technology, Key Features, Sustained Release (Duration), Type of Molecules and Technology Pipeline
8.3.1.6. Ocular Drug Delivery Technology (Graybug Vision): Type of Technology, Key Features, Sustained Release (Duration), Type of Molecules and Technology Pipeline
8.3.1.7. Oculis Platform Technology (Oculis): Type of Technology, Key Features, Sustained Release (Duration), Type of Molecules and Technology Pipeline
8.3.1.8. Replenish Posterior MicroPump™ (Replenish): Type of Technology, Key Features, Sustained Release (Duration), Type of Molecules and Technology Pipeline
8.3.1.9. SCS™ Microinjector (Clearside Biomedical): Type of Technology, Key Features, Sustained Release (Duration), Type of Molecules and Technology Pipeline
8.3.1.10. Verisome (Icon Bioscience): Type of Technology, Key Features, Sustained Release (Duration), Type of Molecules and Technology Pipeline
8.4. Drug Device Combinations / Implants
9. VISUAL PROSTHESIS
9.1. Chapter Overview
9.2. Visual Prosthesis / Bionic Eye
9.2.1. Architecture
9.2.2. Role in the Treatment of Retinal Disorders
9.2.3. Market Landscape
9.2.3.1. Product Competitiveness Analysis
10. PARTNERSHIPS AND COLLABORATIONS
10.1. Chapter Overview
10.2. Partnership Models
10.3. Back of the Eye Disorders: List of Partnerships
10.4. Back of the Eye Disorders: Partnerships Analysis
10.4.1. Analysis by Year of Partnership
10.4.2. Analysis by Type of Partnership Model
10.4.3. Most Active Players by Number of Partnerships
11. PROMOTIONAL ANALYSIS
11.1. Chapter Overview
11.2. Channels Used for Promotional Campaigns
11.3. Summary: Product Website Analysis
11.3.1. Summary: Patient Support Services and Informative Downloads
11.5. Promotional Analysis: Macugen®
11.5.1. Drug Overview
11.5.2. Product Website Analysis
11.5.2.1. Patient Assistance Program
11.5.2.2. Distributor Information and Informative Downloads
11.6. Promotional Analysis: Lucentis®
11.6.1. Drug Overview
11.6.2. Product Website Analysis
11.6.2.1. Messages for Healthcare Professionals
11.6.2.2. Patient Support Services and Informative Downloads
11.6.2.3. Messages for Patients and Caregivers
11.6.2.4. Other Promotional Activities
11.7. Promotional Analysis: Eylea®
11.7.1. Drug Overview
11.7.2. Product Website Analysis
11.7.2.1. Messages for Healthcare Professionals
11.7.2.2. Patient Support Services and Informative Downloads
11.7.2.3. Messages for Patients and Caregivers
11.8. Promotional Analysis: Jetrea®
11.8.1. Drug Overview
11.8.2. Product Website Analysis
11.8.2.1. Messages for Healthcare Professionals
11.8.2.2. Patient Support Services and Informative Downloads
11.8.2.3. Messages for Patients and Caregivers
11.8.2.4. Promoting New Formulation of Jetrea®
11.8.2.5. Platform to Report Adverse Events Associated with the Drug
12. SWOT ANALYSIS
12.1. Chapter Overview
12.2. Strengths
12.3. Weaknesses
12.4. Opportunities
12.5. Threats
13. CONCLUSION
13.1. The Back of the Eye Disorders Market is Characterized by a Robust Pipeline of Candidates Belonging to Different Drug Classes
13.2. Although Product Candidates are Being Developed to Treat a Number of Clinical Conditions, the Primary Focus is on Macular Degenerative Disorders
13.3. Increasing Partnerships Activity to Support Drug Development is Indicative of Future Opportunity
13.4. Currently, the Market is Led by Big Pharma Players; Many Start-ups, Though, are Making Significant Strides in this Domain
13.5. Multiple Novel Delivery Approaches are Being Investigated to Assist in Improving Patient Compliance
13.6. Given the Presence of Blockbuster Drugs, and Several Late Stage Product Candidates, the Market is Poised to Grow Steadily in the Foreseen Future
14. INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTS
14.1. Chapter Overview
14.2. Elise Brownell, Senior Vice President of Operations and Project Management, Amarantus Bioscience
14.3. Quinton Oswald, President and CEO, Neurotech Pharmaceuticals
14.4 Samantha Cobb, CEO, AdAlta
15. APPENDIX: LIST OF DISCONTINUED MOLECULES
16. APPENDIX: TABULATED DATA
17. APPENDIX: LIST OF COMPANIES AND ORGANIZATIONS 
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 3.1 Structure of Eye
Figure 3.2 Structure of Retina
Figure 3.3 Back of the Eye: Barriers
Figure 3.4 Back of the Eye: Routes of Administration
Figure 3.5 Back of the Eye Disorders: Treatment Options
Figure 3.6 Back of the Eye Disorders: Marketed Angiogenesis Inhibitors
Figure 3.7 Back of the Eye Disorders: Delivery Approaches
Figure 3.8 Back of the Eye Disorders: Marketed Implants
Figure 4.1 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Phase of Development
Figure 4.2 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Drug Class
Figure 4.3 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Type of Pathway
Figure 4.4 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Type of Molecular Target (Cumulative)
Figure 4.5 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Type of Molecular Target (Individual)
Figure 4.6 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Target Indication
Figure 4.7 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Type of Therapy
Figure 4.8 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Route of Administration
Figure 4.9 Back of the Eye Disorders, Preclinical Pipeline: Distribution by Phase of Development
Figure 4.10 Back of the Eye Disorders, Preclinical Pipeline: Distribution by Drug Class
Figure 4.11 Back of the Eye Disorders, Preclinical Pipeline: Distribution by Target Indication
Figure 4.12 Back of the Eye Disorders Pipeline: Leading Players
Figure 4.13 Back of the Eye Disorders Pipeline: Most Prominent Hubs
Figure 4.14 Back of the Eye Disorders Pipeline: Developer Landscape, North America
Figure 4.15 Back of the Eye Disorders Pipeline: Developers Landscape, Europe
Figure 4.16 Back of the Eye Disorders Pipeline: Developers Landscape, Asia Pacific
Figure 4.17 Back of the Eye Disorders Pipeline: Grid Analysis
Figure 5.1 Life Cycle Management Strategies
Figure 5.2 Macugen®: Mechanism of Action
Figure 5.3 Macugen®: Life Cycle Management
Figure 5.4 Lucentis®: Mechanism of Action
Figure 5.5 Lucentis®: Life Cycle Management
Figure 5.6 Lucentis®: Timeline of Approved Indications (US)
Figure 5.7 Lucentis®: Timeline of Approved Indications (Europe)
Figure 5.8 Lucentis®: Price (Annual Treatment Cost) Evolution Strategy (EU)
Figure 5.9 Eylea®: Mechanism of Action
Figure 5.10 Eylea®: Life Cycle Management
Figure 5.11 Eylea®: Timeline of Approved Indications
Figure 5.12 Jetrea®: Life Cycle Management
Figure 5.13 Jetrea®: Geographic Expansion
Figure 5.14 Conbercept: Mechanism of Action
Figure 5.15 Conbercept: Life Cycle Management
Figure 7.1 Overall Back of the Eye Disorders Market, 2017-2030 (USD Billion)
Figure 7.2 Overall Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Market Attractiveness Analysis by Indication, 2023-2030
Figure 7.3 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Wet AMD, 2017-2030, Base Scenario (USD Billion)
Figure 7.4 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Dry AMD, 2021-2030, Base Scenario (USD Billion)
Figure 7.5 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: DME, 2017-2030, Base Scenario (USD Billion)
Figure 7.6 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: DR, 2017-2030, Base Scenario (USD Billion)
Figure 7.7 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Stargardt Disease, 2023-2030, Base Scenario (USD Billion)
Figure 7.8 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: LHON, 2017-2030, Base Scenario (USD Billion)
Figure 7.9 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Other Indications, 2017-2030, Base Scenario (USD Billion)
Figure 7.10 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Distribution by Drug Classes, 2017 and 2030
Figure 7.11 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Distribution by Mechanism of Action, 2017 and 2030
Figure 7.12 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Distribution by Route of Administration, 2017 and 2030
Figure 8.1 Back of the Eye: Drug Delivery Technologies
Figure 9.1 Visual Prosthesis / Bionic Eye: External and Implantable Modules
Figure 9.2 Visual Prosthesis / Bionic Eye: Steps of Operation
Figure 9.3 Visual Prosthesis / Bionic Eye: Product Competitiveness Analysis
Figure 10.1 Back of the Eye Disorders Partnerships: Cumulative Trend (2013–2017)
Figure 10.2 Back of the Eye Disorders Partnerships: Distribution by Type of Partnership Model
Figure 10.3 Back of the Eye Disorders Partnerships: Most Active Players, 2013-2017
Figure 11.1 Promotional / Marketing Strategy: Product Website Analysis
Figure 11.2 Promotional / Marketing Strategy: Patient Support Services and Informative Downloads
Figure 11.3 Product Website Analysis: Macugen®, Focus on Access Program
Figure 11.4 Product Website Analysis: Macugen®, Distributor Information
Figure 11.5 Product Website Analysis: Lucentis®, Messages for Healthcare Professionals
Figure 11.6 Product Website Analysis: Lucentis®, Patient Support Program
Figure 11.7 Product Website Analysis: Lucentis®, Direct Program
Figure 11.8 Product Website Analysis: Lucentis®, Co-pay Card Program
Figure 11.9 Product Website Analysis: Lucentis®, Access Solutions
Figure 11.10 Product Website Analysis: Lucentis®, Genentech Access to Care Foundation
Figure 11.11 Product Website Analysis: Lucentis®, Messages for Patients
Figure 11.12 Product Website Analysis: Eylea®, inSight Platform
Figure 11.13 Product Website Analysis: Eylea®, Messages for Healthcare Professionals
Figure 11.14 Product Website Analysis: Eylea®, Patient Assistance Program
Figure 11.15 Product Website Analysis: Eylea®, Co-pay Card Program
Figure 11.16 Product Website Analysis: Eylea®, Co-pay Assistance Referral Program
Figure 11.17 Product Website Analysis: Eylea®, Messages for Patients and Caregivers
Figure 11.18 Product Website Analysis: Jetrea®, Messages for Healthcare Professionals
Figure 11.19 Product Website Analysis: Jetrea®, Clinical Trial and Dosing Information
Figure 11.20 Product Website Analysis: Jetrea®, JETREA CARE® Program
Figure 11.21 Product Website Analysis: Jetrea®, Co-pay Payment Portal
Figure 11.22 Product Website Analysis: Jetrea®, Distributor Information
Figure 11.23 Product Website Analysis: Jetrea®, Messages for Patients and Caregivers
Figure 11.24 Product Website Analysis: Jetrea®, Information on New Formulation
Figure 11.25 Product Website Analysis: Jetrea®, Information on Platform for Reporting Adverse Events
Figure 12.1 Back of the Eye Disorders SWOT Analysis: Overview
Figure 12.2 Back of the Eye Disorders SWOT Analysis: Strengths
Figure 12.3 Back of the Eye Disorders SWOT Analysis: Weaknesses
Figure 12.4 Back of the Eye Disorders SWOT Analysis: Opportunities
Figure 12.5 Back of the Eye Disorders SWOT Analysis: Threats
Figure 13.1 Back of the Eye Disorders: Clinical Stage Molecules by Key Drug Targets and Drug Classes
Figure 13.2 Back of the Eye Disorders: Key Disease Indications
Figure 13.3 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Conservative, Base and Optimistic Forecast Scenarios, 2024 and 2030 (USD Billion)
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 Tissue Layers of the Eye
Table 3.2 Overview of Major Back of the Eye Disorders
Table 3.3 Back of the Eye Disorders: Marketed Implants
Table 4.1 Back of the Eye Disorders: Clinical Pipeline
Table 4.2 Back of the Eye Disorders: Preclinical Pipeline
Table 5.1 Differences between Eylea® and Zaltrap
Table 6.1 Back of the Eye Disorders: Late Stage Product Candidates
Table 8.1 Back of the Eye Disorders: Drug Formulation Technologies
Table 8.2 Back of the Eye Disorders: Drug Delivery Technologies / Systems
Table 8.3 List of Drug Device Combinations / Implants
Table 9.1 List of Visual Prosthesis / Bionic Eye
Table 10.1 Back of the Eye Disorders: Partnerships
Table 11.1 Macugen®: Drug Overview
Table 11.2 Lucentis®: Drug Overview
Table 11.3 Eylea®: Drug Overview
Table 11.4 Jetrea®: Drug Overview
Table 16.1 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Phase of Development
Table 16.2 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Drug Class
Table 16.3 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Type of Pathway
Table 16.4 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Type of Molecular Target (Cumulative)
Table 16.5 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Type of Molecular Target (Individual)
Table 16.6 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Target Indication
Table 16.7 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Type of Therapy
Table 16.8 Back of the Eye Disorders, Clinical Pipeline: Distribution by Route of Administration
Table 16.9 Back of the Eye Disorders, Preclinical Pipeline: Distribution by Phase of Development
Table 16.10 Back of the Eye Disorders, Preclinical Pipeline: Distribution by Drug Class
Table 16.11 Back of the Eye Disorders, Preclinical Pipeline: Distribution by Target Indication
Table 16.12 Back of the Eye Disorders Pipeline: Leading Players
Table 16.13 Overall Back of the Eye Disorders Market, 2017-2030, Conservative Scenarios, Base Scenario and Optimistic Scenario (USD Billion)
Table 16.14 Overall Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Market Attractiveness Analysis by Indication, 2023-2030
Table 16.15 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Wet AMD, 2017 – 2030, Conservative Scenario, Base Scenario and Optimistic Scenario (USD Billion)
Table 16.16 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Dry AMD, 2021 – 2030, Conservative Scenario, Base Scenario and Optimistic Scenario (USD Billion)
Table 16.17 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: DME, 2017 – 2030, Conservative Scenario, Base Scenario and Optimistic Scenario (USD Billion)
Table 16.18 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: DR, 2017 – 2030, Conservative Scenario, Base Scenario and Optimistic Scenario (USD Billion)
Table 16.19 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Stargardt Disease, 2023 – 2030, Conservative Scenario, Base Scenario and Optimistic Scenario (USD Billion)
Table 16.20 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: LHON, 2017 – 2030, Conservative Scenario, Base Scenario and Optimistic Scenario (USD Billion)
Table 16.21 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Other Indications, 2017 – 2030, Conservative Scenario, Base Scenario and Optimistic Scenario (USD Billion)
Table 16.22 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Distribution by Drug Classes, 2017 and 2030
Table 16.23 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Distribution by Mechanism of Action, 2017 and 2030
Table 16.24 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Distribution by Route of Administration, 2017 and 2030
Table 16.25 Back of the Eye Disorders Partnerships: Cumulative Trend (2013–2017)
Table 16.26 Back of the Eye Disorders Partnerships: Distribution by Type of Partnership Model
Table 16.27 Back of the Eye Disorders Market: Conservative, Base and Optimistic Forecast Scenarios, 2024 and 2030 (USD Billion)

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