3D Cell Cultures: Products, Technologies and Key Application Areas (2nd Edition), 2017-2030
A number of research efforts in drug discovery are being directed towards the introduction of in vitro testing models that replicate the in vivo microenvironment and provide physiologically relevant insights. Cell culture monolayers or 2D cell cultures are known to harbor differences in morphology, growth rate, function, viability and the overall behavior, as compared to those in natural environment. However, it has been realized that 3D cell cultures facilitate cell interaction with the surrounding media in all the possible dimensions. Cells cultivated using 3D techniques provide an appropriate ecosystem for cells to grow and proliferate and, consequently generate more accurate results of the experiments conducted on them.
The 3D cell culture industry is currently characterized by presence of several scaffold-based and scaffold-free products and services, widely being used for the purpose of research across a variety of application areas. Examples of scaffold-based 3D culture products include solid scaffolds, hydrogels, ECM-coated plates and microcarriers. Products, such as hanging drop plates, ultra-low attachment surfaces, micropatterned plates and suspension culture systems (such as 3D bioreactors), are some of the important scaffold-free 3D technologies that are currently available. It is worth highlighting that despite the advantages that they offer, the adoption of 3D cell cultures is hindered by certain challenges. These cell culture systems are currently limited to small scale production of cells, thereby, restricting their use to research applications only. Moreover, 3D culture techniques still need to be optimized in order to ensure consistency of results generated across different scales of operation. Due to the aforementioned challenges, 2D cultures continue to be preferred over 3D culture systems; however, with increasing awareness of the advantages of 3D cultures, a significant proportion of researchers are anticipated to gradually transition towards 3D culture systems.
SCOPE OF THE REPORT
It is well-known that, of the several drug / therapy candidates undergoing clinical evaluation, very few make it to advanced stages and an even lesser number receive regulatory approval. One of the key reasons for the failure of therapeutic candidates in clinical trials is the use of conventional 2D cell culture systems in early research studies. It is important to reiterate that these 2D systems are severely limited in a number of aspects. For instance, only 50% of the cell surface is exposed to the culture media; as a result, the actual responses of cells to specific modulators / stimulants cannot be accurately understood. It is also worth noting that attrition rates of close to 95% have been reported for anti-cancer drug candidates as a result of inaccurate in vitro drug efficacy results and unforeseen toxicity issues that were not properly assessed due to the limitation of 2D culture models. The use of advanced 3D cell culture techniques in in vitro studies is seen to have the capability to overcome several such challenges, currently associated with 2D systems.
The ‘3D Cell Cultures: Products, Technologies and Key Application Areas (2nd Edition), 2017-2030’ report features an extensive study on the various scaffold-based and scaffold-free 3D culture systems. We identified over 80 hydrogel / ECM based products, 70 inserts / plates / other cultureware and 50 3D bioreactors that are widely being used for a variety of research applications across the globe. In addition, several kits, assays and tools are also available to carry out cytotoxicity assessments, transfections and cell viability testing. Amongst other elements, the report features:
An elaborate discussion on the methods used for fabrication of 3D scaffolds and matrices, highlighting the materials used, the process of fabrication, merits and demerits, and the applications of all of the methods.
An in-depth classification of 3D culture systems, which are categorized under scaffold-based systems (such as hydrogels / ECMs, solid scaffolds, micropatterned surfaces and microcarriers) and scaffold-free (such as hanging drop plates, suspension culture systems and organ-on-chips) 3D culture systems.
A review of the overall landscape of the 3D cell culture market with respect to scaffold-format (scaffold-based / scaffold-free), product type (Hydrogels / ECMs, 3D cultureware, 3D bioreactors), product sub-type (hydrogels / ECMs are further classified on the basis of source and 3D cultureware on the basis of solid scaffolds, suspension culture systems, microfluidic systems, ECM-coated plates, attachment resistant cell culture plates, micropatterned surfaces) and product availability across different regions of the world.
Comprehensive profiles of the key developers (with two or more unique bioreactors in their portfolio) of 3D bioreactors, featuring a brief company overview, description of the product, advantages, applications, collaborations related to the product, and a comprehensive future outlook. Additionally, the report includes profiles of companies with more than five unique 3D culture products (inserts or plates or hydrogels) in their portfolio and those that specialize in the field of organ-on-chips.
A social media analysis depicting the prevalent and emerging trends, and the popularity of 3D cell cultures on the social media platform, Twitter. The analysis was carried out using tweets posted on the platform from 2008 to 2017.
An insightful analysis, highlighting the applications of each of the 3D culture products mentioned in the market landscape. The applications have been categorized under [A] Cancer research, [B] Drug discovery and toxicity screening, [C] Stem cell research, [D] Tissue engineering / regenerative medicine. Additionally, the section represents the distribution of each of the product segments across the aforementioned applications, highlighting the relevance of different types of products in biomedical research.
One of the key objectives of the report was to estimate the future size of the global 3D cell culture market. We adopted a top-down approach to evaluate the likely success and the growth of the market over the next 10-15 years. The insights generated on the future opportunity are segmented on the basis of applications areas, key geographies (the US, EU, Asia and the rest of the world), product type, scaffold format (scaffold-based versus scaffold-free) and the end use (research versus therapeutics). In order to account for the uncertainties associated with some of the key parameters and to add robustness to our model, we have provided three market forecast scenarios for the period 2017-2030, namely conservative, base and optimistic scenarios, which represent three different tracks of the industry’s evolution.
The research, analysis and insights presented in this report are backed by a deep understanding of key insights gathered from both secondary and primary research. The report presents details of the conversations with (in alphabetical order of company name) Scott Brush (VP Sales and Marketing, BRTI Life Sciences), Jens Kelm (CSO, InSphero), Darlene Thieken (Project Manager, Nanofiber Solutions), Colin Sanctuary (Co-Founder and CEO, QGel), Bill Anderson (President / CEO, Synthecon), Anonymous (President and CEO, US based start-up), Anonymous (VP Technical, Business Operations & Co-Founder, US based company).
1. Over 200 3D cell culture products are either commercially available or are under development; of these, ~60% use scaffold based while ~40% use scaffold free formats. Some products can be used as both scaffold based and scaffold free formats. Of the total number of 3D cell culture products, 40% are hydrogels / ECMs and 34% are 3D cultureware products. In addition to the aforementioned products, the 3D cell culture market includes several 3D bioreactors, which have emerged as important scaffold free systems to carry out large scale production.
2. The market is characterized by the presence of nearly 125 players; in addition to industry stalwarts, the landscape features participation of several small-sized and mid-sized firms. Examples of small-sized companies that offer 3D culture products include (in alphabetical order) 3D BioMatrix, Celartia, Cellec Biotek, EBERS, Global Cell Solutions, Nanofiber Solutions, Nano3D Biosciences, PBS Biotech and RealBio Technology. Some of the mid-sized players that are active in this area include (in alphabetical order) 4titude®, Koken, MatTek Corporation, STEMCELL Technologies and TAP Biosystems. Examples of the established players include (in alphabetical order) Corning Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, GE Healthcare, Sigma-Aldrich and Thermo Fisher Scientific.
3. An analysis on the social media platform, Twitter, reveals an increasing volume of tweets related to the 3D cell cultures; between 2008 and 2016, a CAGR of 57% was registered in the number of tweets. In the given time period, over 4000 relevant tweets were recorded; this clearly indicates an upsurge in the popularity of the 3D cell culture approaches.
4. Over 90% of the overall 3D cell culture market is focused on research. However, as the challenges (such as lack of awareness, constraints in scalability and inconsistencies in system optimization) associated with the application of these robust culture systems are addressed, these systems are expected to be extensively used for the development, manufacturing and characterization of pharmacological interventions.
5. Our outlook is highly promising as we anticipate the use of 3D cell culture systems across different application areas over the coming decade. In fact, we predict the market to grow at an annualized rate of over 20% till 2030. From a regional perspective, North America (specifically the US) is likely to maintain its domination in the future.
6. Cancer research and drug discovery, with over 50% share, currently account for a significant portion of the market. As the research pace heightens, the use of 3D cell cultures in stem cell research and tissue engineering / regenerative medicine, currently representing a sizeable share, is also likely to expand aggressively.
The data presented in this report has been gathered via secondary and primary research. For all our projects, we conduct interviews with experts in the area (academia, industry, medical practice and other associations) to solicit their opinions on emerging trends in the market. This is primarily useful for us to draw out our own opinion on how the market will evolve across different regions and technology segments. Where possible, the available data has been checked for accuracy from multiple sources of information.
The secondary sources of information include
News releases from company websites
Government policy documents
Industry analysts’ views
While the focus has been on forecasting the market over the coming 10-15 years, the report also provides our independent view on various technological and non-commercial trends emerging in the industry. This opinion is solely based on our knowledge, research and understanding of the relevant market gathered from various secondary and primary sources of information.
Chapter 2 presents an executive summary of the report. It offers a high-level view on where the 3D cell cultures market is headed in the mid to long term.
Chapter 3 provides a general introduction to 3D culture systems. In this section, we have briefly discussed the different types of cell cultures, the various methods of cell culturing and their application areas. The chapter features a comparative analysis of 2D and 3D cultures, and highlights the current need and advantages of 3D culture systems.
Chapter 4 gives an overview of the classification of 3D culture systems. It highlights the different 3D culture technologies, classified under scaffold-based and scaffold-free systems. It also highlights, in detail, the underlying concepts, advantages and disadvantages of each sub-category of 3D systems.
Chapter 5 presents summaries of the different techniques that are utilized to fabricate various 3D scaffolds and matrices. It provides information on the working principle, and merits and demerits associated with these methods. It also presents the key takeaways from various research studies that were carried out on matrices fabricated using the aforementioned methods.
Chapter 6 provides comprehensive lists of the different 3D culture systems that are available in the market or are under development. The section also presents analyses of the products on the basis of scaffold type, product type (3D hydrogels and ECMs / 3D cultureware / 3D bioreactors) and product sub-type. In addition, the chapter provides information on the geographical presence of the developers of these 3D culture systems and details on the companies that offer 3D culture related services and associated consumables.
Chapter 7 presents a detailed overview on the most popular application areas, which include cancer research, drug discovery and toxicity screening, stem cell research and tissue engineering / regenerative medicine. It features an elaborate analysis, highlighting the application area(s) for all the products mentioned in the market landscape (Chapter 6). Additionally, the section features an illustrative representation of the product type(s) that are most widely used for a particular application.
Chapter 8 provides insights on the popularity of 3D cell cultures on the social media platform, Twitter. The section highlights the yearly distribution of tweets posted on the platform in the time period 2008-2017, and the most significant events responsible for increase / decrease in the volume of tweets each year, during the above-mentioned time period. Additionally, the chapter showcases the most talked about 3D culture products and application areas on social media.
Chapter 9 provides detailed profiles of the players with over five unique products in their 3D culture portfolio (hydrogels / ECMs and 3D cultureware). Each profile includes information on the developer, its product portfolio, recent collaborations and a discussion on the future outlook of the company. Additionally, the chapter includes profiles of prominent developers of organ-on-chips.
Chapter 10 presents detailed profiles of key players with more than two unique 3D bioreactors in their portfolio. Each profile includes a brief overview of the developer, information on the product portfolio and a discussion on the future outlook of the company.
Chapter 11 presents a comprehensive market forecast, highlighting the future potential of the market till 2030. The chapter presents a detailed market segmentation on the basis of product type (3D bioreactors, hydrogels / ECM, solid scaffolds, microfluidic plates, suspension culture systems), scaffold type (scaffold-based versus scaffold-free) and end use (research versus therapeutics) that are likely to contribute to the market in the coming decade. Additionally, the section highlights the contribution of different geographies (the North America, EU, Asia and rest of the world) in the 3D culture market.
Chapter 12 presents insights from the survey conducted for this study. We invited close to 100 stakeholders involved in the development of 3D cell culture systems. The participants, who were primarily Founder / CXO / Senior Management level representatives of their respective companies, helped us develop a deeper understanding on the nature of their services and the associated commercial potential.
Chapter 13 summarizes the overall report. The chapter provides a list of the key takeaways and presents our independent opinion on the 3D cell cultures market, based on the research and analysis described in the previous chapters.
Chapter 14 is a collection of interview transcripts of the discussions held with key stakeholders in this market. In this chapter, we have presented the details of our conversations with (in alphabetical order of company name) Scott Brush (VP Sales and Marketing, BRTI Life Sciences), Jens Kelm (CSO, InSphero), Darlene Thieken (Project Manager, Nanofiber Solutions), Colin Sanctuary (Co-Founder and CEO, QGel), Bill Anderson (President / CEO, Synthecon), Anonymous (President and CEO, US based start-up), Anonymous (VP Technical, Business Operations & Co-Founder, US based company).
Chapter 15 is an appendix, which provides tabulated data and numbers for all the figures included in the report.
Chapter 16 is an appendix, which provides the list of companies and organizations mentioned in the report.
LIST OF COMPANIES AND ORGANIZATIONS
The following companies and organizations have been mentioned in the report:
2. 3D Biomatrix
3. 3D Biotek
7. ACEA Biosciences
8. Advanced BioMatrix
9. AIM Biotech
10. AK Biomedical
11. Akron Biotech
12. Alnylam Pharmaceuticals
14. AMS Biotechnology
16. Applikon Biotechnology
17. ARL Designs
19. AUCTEQ Biosystems
20. AvantiCell Science
22. Bangalore Integrated System Solutions Tissue Growth Technologies (BiSS TGT)
24. BD Biosciences
25. BellBrook Labs
26. Benitec Biopharma
27. Bio-Byblos Biomedical
32. BioMedical Tissues
37. Boston Institute of Biotechnology
38. Bristol-Myers Squibb
39. BRTI Life Sciences
42. Cell Culture Company
43. Cellec Biotek
49. CESCO BioProducts
50. Cherry Biotech
51. China Regenerative Medicine International
52. China Stem Cell Clinical Applications Centre
53. CN Bio Innovations
54. Corning Life Sciences
55. Cosmo Bio
59. Dunn Labortechnik
60. Durham University
61. East River BioSolutions
63. Ectica Technologies
64. EMD Millipore
69. ESI BIO
70. ETH Zurich
71. Fennik Life Sciences
72. FiberCell Systems
73. Fraunhofer IGB
74. Fraunhofer IWS
76. GE Healthcare
79. Global Cell Solutions
80. Greiner Bio-One
81. HµREL® Corporation
82. Hamilton Company
83. HK International Regenerative Centre
84. Hokkaido Soda
86. Imperial College London
91. Iris Biosciences
92. Japan Vilene
93. Johnson & Johnson
95. KU Leuven
99. Kollodis BioSciences
101. LAMBDA Laboratory Instruments
102. Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors
103. Lena Biosciences
104. LFB Biomanufacturing
105. Life Technologies
106. Lifecore Biomedical
107. Linari Engineering
108. Locate Therapeutics
111. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
113. MBL International
114. MD Biosciences
115. Menicon Life Science
119. Mirus Bio
120. MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science
121. Nano3D Biosciences
122. Nanofiber Solutions
124. National Cancer Institute
131. PBS Biotech
134. Percell Biolytica
136. Pishon Biomedical
137. Pluristem Therapeutics
142. QGel Bio
143. Quinxell Technologies
145. RealBio Technology
152. Sartorius Stedim Biotech
153. SCIVAX Life Sciences
154. Seres Therapeutics
156. SKE Research Equipment
158. SoloHill Engineering
160. StemCell Systems
161. STEMCELL Technologies
165. Sumitomo Bakelite
166. SUN Bioscience
169. TAP Biosystems
170. TARA Biosystems
171. The Well Bioscience
172. Thermo Fisher Scientific
173. Tianjin Weikai Bioeng
177. TU Berlin
178. TU Dortmund
181. University College London
182. University of Liverpool
183. University of Oxford
184. University of Pittsburgh
185. University of Zaragoza
186. University of Zurich
187. University of Würzburg
188. UPM Biochemicals
189. Utrecht University
190. Viscofan BioEngineering
191. Vivo Biosciences
192. Wyss Institute at Harvard University
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