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Smart Grid ICT – Benefits and Issues

Smart Grid ICT – Benefits and Issues

The concept behind smart energy and Smart Grid (SG) is controlling energy consumption internally, within the home, office and similar; and externally from the home to outside connected devices, networks, and the smart grid itself - all with the goal of optimizing energy production, distribution, and usage. Bi-directional communication between home networks and the power grid opens up possibilities for improved reliability and sustainability as well as reducing the energy consumption.

This report presents the in-depth analysis of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT), which found applications in the Smart Grid.

Both wireless and wireline communications technologies are considered. Designers of SG networks have multiple choices; and the report presents the comparison of various technologies with their benefits and issues.

Beside “traditional” technologies, such as 802.15.4g and 802.22, the report concentrates on new cellular technologies, such as LTE for low-powered and low- speed UEs.

The detailed survey of organizations that are involved in SG ICT development and standardization is also presented together with the survey of the industry. Marketing statistics also have been developed and included in the report.

The report contains a survey of 802.22 patents (2016-2017).

This report is useful to a wide audience of technical, managerial and sale staff involved in the SG ICT development and implementation.


1.0 Introduction
1.1 General
1.1.1 Smart Grid Definition
1.2 Issues
1.3 Vision
1.4 U.S.
1.4.1 Plans
1.5 England
1.6 Italy
1.7 China
1.8 Scope
1.9 Research Methodology
1.10 Target Audience
2.0 General: SG ICT Industry Activities
2.1 Efforts
2.2 Structure
2.2.1 Layers
2.3 Requirements: SG Networking
2.3.1 View
2.4 Industry and User Groups Projects
2.4.1 ETSI
2.4.2 IEC
2.4.3 IEEE
2.4.4 Global Intelligent Utility Network Coalition
2.4.5 Smart Networks Council (SNC)
2.4.6 U-SNAP Alliance
2.4.6.1 Specification and HAN
2.4.6.2 Merge
2.4.6.3 Further Development
2.4.7 ESMIG
2.4.8 Demand Response and Smart Grid Coalition (DRSG)
2.4.9 EPRI (Electrical Power Research Institute)
2.4.10 ZigBee and Wi-Fi Alliances
2.4.11 NIST
2.4.12 OpenHAN
2.4.13 Federal Smart Grid Task Force
2.4.14 Open Smart Grid Users Group (OSGUG)
2.4.15 ITU
2.4.16 OpenADR
2.4.17 Comments
3.0 SG ICT and Smart Meters
3.1 Function and Structure: SG ICT
3.2 Current Status
3.3 Current Objectives
3.4 Choices
3.5 Smart Meters
3.5.1 Objectives
3.5.2 Details
3.5.3 Functions
3.5.4 Components
3.5.4.1 Communications
3.6 Security
3.7 Market
3.7.1 Market Drivers
3.7.2 Reality
3.7.3 Market Projections: Smart Meters
3.8 Industry
Aclara (Software and Systems, BPL)
Aeris (Wireless Network Provider)
BPL Global (Software Platform)
Carlson Wireless (Radio Platforms)
Cisco (IP-based Infrastructure)
Cooper Power Systems
Elster (AMI, AMR)
Echelon (Smart Metering System)
Google (SW)
GridPoint (Network Platform)
Itron (Intelligent Metering)
Nokia (Infrastructure)
Oracle (Software)
Landis+Gyr (Metering Devices)
Sensus (Data Collection and Metering)
Silver Spring Networks (Networking)
Siemens (Software, Hardware)
Spinwave (Building Control, HAN)
Smart Utility Systems (SW)
Tantalus (Networking and Devices)
Tendril (System)
TransData (Wireless AMI/AMR Meter)
TI
Trilliant (Intelligent Metering)
4.0 Major Standards and Technologies: SG ICT
4.1 Groups - IEEE
4.2 IEEE 1900 - DYSPAN
4.2.1 Background
4.2.2 Scope
4.2.3 DYSPAN WGs
4.3 IEEE 2030
4.4 IEEE-802.15.4g-Smart Utility Networks
4.4.1 General
4.4.2 Purpose
4.4.3 Need
4.4.4 Value
4.4.5 Overview - PHY
4.4.6 Regions
4.4.6.1 Frequencies Allocations
4.4.7 Details
4.4.7.1 Requirements: Major Characteristics
4.4.7.2 Considerations
4.4.7.3 PHY/MAC Modifications
4.4.8 Summary
4.4.9 Wi-SUN
4.5 IEEE 802.22
4.5.1 General
4.5.2 Group
4.5.2.1 IEEE 802.22
4.5.2.2 IEEE 802.22.1
4.5.2.3 IEEE 802.22.2-2012
4.5.2.4 IEEE 802.22a-2014
4.5.2.5 IEEE 802.22b-2015
4.5.3 Developments
4.5.4 IEEE 802.22-2011 Overview
4.5.4.1 Major Characteristics - Overview
4.5.5 IEEE 802.22 Details
4.5.5.1 Physical Layer – Major Characteristics
4.5.5.2 MAC Layer
4.5.6 Cognitive Functions
4.5.7 IEEE 802.22 – Marketing Considerations
4.5.7.1 Major Applications
4.5.8 Summary
4.5.8.1 802.22 and Smart Grid
4.5.8.2 Usage Models
4.5.8.3 Benefits
4.6 Long Term Evolution Technology (LTE)
4.6.1 3GPP and LTE
4.6.2 LTE Timetable
4.6.3 Key Features of LTE
4.6.3.1 LTE Advanced
4.6.4 Benefits
4.6.5 Market
4.6.5.1 Drivers
4.6.5.2 LTE Market Projections
4.6.6 Vendors
Alcatel-Lucent (Nokia)
AceAxis
Cisco
CommAgility
Ericsson
Fujitsu
Huawei
Lime Microsystems
Motorola Solutions
Qualcomm
Sequans
TI
u-blox
ZTE
4.6.7 LTE and Smart Grid
4.6.7.1 General
4.6.7.2 Examples
4.6.7.2.1 Ericsson
4.6.7.2.2 Cisco
4.6.7.2.3 Nokia and Tantalus
4.6.7.3 Details
4.6.7.3.1 Scalable LTE IoT Platform and SG
4.6.7.3.2 SM Specifics - LTE
4.6.7.3.2.1 Choices
4.6.7.3.2.2 Reasons
4.6.7.4 Summary
4.7 Wired ICT - SG
4.7.1 IEEE 1901.2
4.7.2 Choices - ITU
4.7.2.1 G3 PLC
4.7.2.1.1 Maxim-G3 PLC
4.7.2.1.2 G3 PLC Alliance
4.7.2.1.3 Approval
4.7.2.1.4 Details
4.7.2.1.4.1 Specification
4.7.2.1.4.2 PHY Layer
4.7.2.1.4.3 MAC Layer
4.7.2.1.4.4 Network and Transport Layers
4.7.2.1.4.5 Application Layer
4.7.2.2 PRIME
4.7.2.2.1 PRIME Alliance
4.7.2.2.2 Benefits
4.7.2.2.3 Specification
4.7.2.2.4 PRIME Industry
5.0 Conclusions
Appendix I: IEEE802.15.4g Characteristics
Appendix II: Regulations - TVWS
Appendix III: Survey of 802.22 Patents (issued 2016-2017)
Figure 1: Smart Grid Networking
Figure 2: U.S. SG – NIST Conceptual Model
Figure 3: U.S. – Smart Meters Installed (Mil.)
Figure 4: Organizations
Figure 5: Smart Grid and ICT
Figure 6: “Smart” Support Network
Figure 7: Smart Grid – Layered Structure
Figure 8: Networks Requirements
Figure 9: Layered Hierarchy – SG/ICT Standards
Figure 10: Interoperability Framework
Figure 11: SG - ICT Infrastructure
Figure 12: Smart Grid Connectivity
Figure 13: Estimate: Electrical SM Global Market ($B)
Figure 14: Estimate: Electrical SM Global Market (Mil. Units)
Figure 15: U.S. – SMs Penetration (2013-2015)
Figure 16: ComSoc Standards Board
Figure 17: IEEE 2030 Group
Figure 18: SUN Place
Figure 19: IEEE 802.22 Network: Usage Scenarios
Figure 20: Thread Protocol Stack and Related Standards
Figure 21: Thread Protocol Major Features
Figure 22: LTE – IP
Figure 23: LTE Market-Subscribers’ Global Base (Bil)
Figure 24: Estimate- LTE Equipment Global Sales ($B)
Figure 25: “NarrowBand” LTE
Figure 26: Rel. 12 Category 0 – SG
Figure 27: Layers
Table 1: ETSI-SG Layers
Table 2: ETSI Documents
Table 3: Structure – ETSI GRID Committee
Table 4: SG ICT Market Components
Table 5: Major Characteristics: IEEE 802.22
Table 6: 3GPP Releases (up to R.15)
Table 7: Major LTE Characteristics – R.8.0
Table 8: LTE Frequency Bands
Table 9: Release 8 Users Equipment Categories
Table 10: LTE for Low Complexity UE
Table 11: IoT Communications Technologies Characteristics
Table 12: G3-PLC Frequencies
Table 13: Rates of Transmission
Table 14: PRIME Benefits

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