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“Role of Wireless ICT in Healthcare and Wellness” Standardization, Applications and Markets

“Role of Wireless ICT in Healthcare and Wellness” Standardization, Applications and Markets

At the present time, in the U.S. and many other developed countries healthcare development and its quality are suffering due to:

  • Necessity of continuous increase in the government spending/support
  • Unstoppable increase in the service cost
  • Deterioration of services.
One technology, which is gradually becoming a powerful tool to improve healthcare is wireless communications. This technology is enhancing patients’ monitoring, relieves medical staff from routine procedures, and reduces probability of medical mistakes. Bidirectional wireless communications channels also allow, if it is necessary, to respond on the received information to correct the patient treatment.

The report emphasizes the importance of wireless communications standardization for medical applications. To show this, the report conducted a detailed analysis of technical and economical characteristics of WBAN (Wireless Body Area Networks) and MWBAN – Medical WBANs. Standards and regulatory documents issued by the IEEE, ETSI, ITU, ISO, FCC, FDA and Continua related to the report subject are also addressed.

The report also updates the information on transport technologies that are used to support the 11073 and connectivity standards – Bluetooth, Near Field Communications and ZigBee - to show their place in improving patients’ monitoring conditions and in patients’ general care. Technical and economical characteristics of these technologies as well as their markets are analyzed.

The report also provides a detailed analysis of a recently commercialized wireless technology – Visible Light Communications (VLC), emphasizing its wide open opportunities for medical applications. Particular, it may provide reliable and secure communications in the hospital environment where use of RF signals for communications is not allowed (OR, MRI and similar). VLC technical and economical characteristics are addressed; and their place in medical applications is shown. The survey of patents related to VLC (2015-2017) is conducted.

Surveys of related industries are also presented.

The report is written for service providers, IT departments of hospitals and other medical organizations, retail operators, vendors, network operators and managers, investors and end users seeking to gain a deeper understanding wireless communications medical/wellness applications.

For systems integrators, the report provides an analysis and assessment of competing products currently available to support healthcare and wellness as well as an estimation of the overall opportunities in the coming years.


1.0 Introduction
1.1 General
1.2 Scope
1.2.1 Choices
1.3 Status
1.4 Requirements: WICT Devices in Healthcare
1.5 WBAN - WMBAN
1.6 Bluetooth
1.7 ZigBee
1.8 Visible Light Communications (VLC)
1.9 NFC
1.10 Demand
1.11 Crisis
1.12 Focus
1.13 Research Methodology
1.14 Target Audience
2.0 WBAN/MWBAN Properties
2.1 General
2.2 Reasons
2.3 Definition
2.4 Structure
2.5 Overview
2.6 WBAN Specifics
2.7 Groups
2.7.1 By Application
2.7.2 By Transmission Medium
2.7.3 By Number of Nodes
2.7.4 By Environment
2.7.5 By Radio Type
2.7.6 By Place
2.7.7 By Response
2.7.8 By Condition
2.7.9 By Spectrum
2.8 FCC - Frequencies Regulations: MBAN and Related
3.0 Standardization: Medical Environment – Wireless Communications
3.1 General
3.2 IEEE 802.15.6: Details
3.2.1 Scope
3.2.2 Status
3.2.3 Structure
3.2.3.1 Nodes
3.2.4 Major Characteristics
3.2.4.1 Specifics
3.2.4.2 Overview
3.2.4.3 Use Cases
3.2.4.3.1 Major Medical Use Cases
3.2.4.4 Modifications
3.2.4.4.1 PHYs
3.2.4.4.1.1 Narrow Band PHY
3.2.4.4.1.2 UWB PHY
3.2.4.4.1.3 HBC PHY
3.2.4.4.2 MAC
3.2.4.5 Security
3.2.4.6 Power Savings
3.2.5 Summary
3.3 IEEE 802.15.4j – Medical WBAN (MWBAN)
3.3.1 Scope
3.3.2 Differences
3.3.3 Timeline
3.3.4 Characteristics
3.3.4.1 Spectrum and Channels Plan
3.3.4.2 Major Parameters
3.3.5 Benefits
3.4 ISO/IEEE 11073 – Personal Health Data
3.4.1 Beginning
3.4.2 Family
3.4.3 IEEE 11073 Characteristics
3.5 ETSI Healthcare-related Projects
3.5.1 eHEALTH
3.5.2 ETSI TR 101 557 V1.1.1 (2012-02) - MBANS
3.5.2.1 General
3.5.2.2 ETSI – MBANS
3.5.2.3 Market Characteristics
3.5.2.4 Technical Details
3.5.3 ETSI EN 303-203 V2.1.1 (2015-11)
3.6 ISO Work
3.7 FDA Guidance
3.8 ITU
3.9 Continua
4.0 WBAN Applications, Industry and Market
4.1 Applications
4.1.1 Healthcare
4.1.2 Wellness
4.1.3 First Responders and Military
4.2 Market Considerations
4.3 Industry
AirStrip Technologies
ANT
GE
Intelesens
Intel
Lamprey Networks
Medtronic
Motorola Solutions
Microcemi
Nokia
Siemens
Toumaz
Vivago
VitaMove
4.4 Current and Future Trends - WBAN
4.4.1 5G and Healthcare
5.0 Transport WICT: Healthcare
5.1 IEEE 802.15.1 (Bluetooth-BT)
5.1.1 BT Protocol Stack
5.1.2 Specifications
5.1.2.1 BT Core Specification
5.1.2.1.1 Bluetooth 5 Core Specification
5.1.3 BT Profiles
5.1.4 Power Consumption – ULP/BLE
5.1.5 Health Device Profile
5.1.5.1 IEEE 11073 and BT
5.1.6 Highlights
5.1.6.1 The Standard
5.1.6.2 The Technology
5.1.6.3 Evolution
5.1.7 Market Estimate
5.1.8 BT Industry-HDP
Bluegiga (a Silicon Labs Company)
Cambridge Consultants
Laird Technologies
Nonin
Omron
Nordic Semiconductor
Stollmann
5.2 ZigBee
5.2.1 General
5.2.2 Technology
5.2.2.1 Major Features
5.2.3 Device Types
5.2.4 Protocol Stack
5.2.4.1 Security
5.2.5 Battery Life
5.2.6 ZigBee Technology Benefits and Limitations
5.2.7 Applications Specifics
5.2.7.1 Personal, Home and Hospital Care (PHHC) Profile
5.2.7.1.1 Objectives
5.2.7.1.2 Details
5.2.7.1.3 Use Cases
5.2.8 Market
5.2.8.1 Segments
5.2.8.2 Forecast
5.2.9 Industry
Amber (RF Systems)
Atmel (Chipsets) –acquired by Microchip in 2016
CEL (modules)
Digi (Radio)
Freescale (Health Care) – acquired by NXP in 2016
Philips Applied Technologies (Healthcare)
Proventix
Silicon Laboratories (Chipsets, Modules)
Synapse (Module, Protocols)
TI (Chipsets)
5.3 Visible Light Communications
5.3.1 General
5.3.2 Medical Applications
5.3.3 VLC – Innovation
5.3.4 LED Specifics
5.3.4.1 Properties
5.3.4.2 Spectrum
5.3.5 Types
5.3.6 LED Modulation
5.3.6.1 Limitations
5.3.7 LED – Dual Functionality
5.3.8 Developments - History
5.3.9 Technical/Economic Characteristics
5.3.10 Communications Aspects: VLC
5.3.10.1 Place
5.3.10.2 Drivers
5.3.10.3 Industry Activity
5.3.10.4 VLC Standards Development
5.3.10.4.1 IEEE 802.15.7 Standard
5.3.10.4.1.1 Considerations
5.3.10.4.1.2 Project
5.3.10.4.1.2.1 Coexistence
5.3.10.4.1.2.2 Scope
5.3.10.4.1.2.3 Base
5.3.10.4.1.2.4 Use Cases
5.3.10.4.1.2.5 Physical Layer
5.3.10.4.1.2.5.1 Tasks
5.3.10.4.1.2.5.2 Responsibilities
5.3.10.4.1.2.5.3 Types
5.3.10.4.1.2.5.4 Error Protection
5.3.10.4.1.2.5.5 Rates
5.3.10.4.1.2.5.6 Frequency Plan
5.3.10.4.1.2.5.7 PHY Services
5.3.10.4.1.2.5.8 Regulations
5.3.10.4.1.2.6 MAC Layer
5.3.10.4.1.2.6.1 Functionalities
5.3.10.4.1.2.6.2 Channel Access
5.3.10.4.1.2.7 Security
5.3.10.4.2 JEITA (Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association) Standards
5.3.10.4.2.1 JEITA CP-1221
5.3.10.4.2.2 JEITA CP-1222
5.3.10.4.2.3 JEITA CP-1223 (2013)
5.3.10.4.3 Visible Light Communications Association (VLCA)
5.3.10.5 Li-Fi Consortium
5.3.10.5.1 Optical Mobility Technology
5.3.10.5.2 Li-Fi Network
5.3.10.6 ARIB T50
5.3.10.7 ECMA 397-2010
5.3.11 VLC Channel-Details
5.3.11.1 General
5.3.11.2 Functionality
5.3.11.3 Transmitter
5.3.11.4 Receiver
5.3.11.4.1 Image Sensors
5.3.11.4.2 LED as Receiver
5.3.11.5 Major Characteristics
5.3.11.5.1 General
5.3.11.5.2 Modulation
5.3.11.5.3 Characteristics Summary
5.3.11.6 Emerging Areas
5.3.11.7 Limitations
5.3.12 Applications: Summary
5.3.12.1 Indoor VLC Channel: Medical Environment
5.3.13 Industry
Axrtek
Casio
eldoLED
Firefly Wireless Networks
Fraunhofer IPMS
LVX
Luciom
Nakagawa Laboratories
NEC
Oledcomm
Outstanding Technology
PureLi-Fi
Qualcomm
Siemens
Supreme Architecture
Tamura
5.3.14 Market
5.4 Near Field Communications in Healthcare
5.4.1 Principle
5.4.2 Characteristics
5.4.3 Modes
5.4.4 Standards
5.4.4.1 General
5.4.4.2 ECMA - Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol (NFCIP-1)
5.4.4.3 ECMA-352 - NFCIP-2
5.4.4.4 ISO
5.4.4.5 NFC Forum
5.4.5 Progress: Healthcare
5.4.5.1 General
5.4.5.2 Developments
5.4.5.3 Market Sizing
6.0 Conclusions
Attachment I: IEEE 802.15.4a-2007
Attachment II: VLC – related Patents Survey (2015-2017)
Figure 1: WBAN Illustration
Figure 2: Intelligent Sensor
Figure 3: Characteristics Comparison
Figure 4: IEEE 802.15.6: Process
Figure 5: WBAN Network Arrangement
Figure 6: IEEE 802.15.6 Areas of Applicability
Figure 7: 802.15.6 – PHY and MAC
Figure 8: Network Topology - WBANs
Figure 9: ISO/IEEE 11073 Protocol Family
Figure 10: Estimate: Patient Wireless Monitoring Devices Sales - Europe ($M)
Figure 11: Illustration-Applications
Figure 12: Estimate: U.S. Healthcare Expenditures ($T)
Figure 13: Estimate: U.S. WBAN Equipment Sales - Medical Applications ($B)
Figure 14: Estimate - U.S. First Responders WBAN Equipment Sales ($B)
Figure 15: Estimate: Global Market– Medical Devices Connectivity ($B)
Figure 16: Bluetooth Protocol Stack
Figure 17: BT ULP Layers
Figure 18: BT HDP Building Blocks
Figure 19: Estimate: Global Sales of BT Modules (Bil. Units)
Figure 20: Estimate: Global Seles of BT Modules ($B)
Figure 21: BT Market Geographical Segmentation
Figure 22: Estimate- BT- HDP Modules Global Sales (Bil. Units)
Figure 23: Estimate: BT- HDP Modules Global Sales ($B)
Figure 24: ZigBee Channels
Figure 25: ZigBee Protocol Stack
Figure 26: ZigBee Applications
Figure 27: Estimate: ZigBee Modules Global Sales ($B)
Figure 28: Estimate: ZigBee Modules Global Sales (Bil. Units)
Figure 29: Estimate: ZigBee PHHC Modules Global Sales ($B)
Figure 30: Estimate: ZigBee PHHC Modules Global Sales (Bil. Units)
Figure 31: ZigBee Market Segmentation (2017)
Figure 32: ZigBee Market Segmentation (2021)
Figure 33: LED Structure
Figure 34: Spectrum (450-750 nm – visible)
Figure 35: LED Properties Illustration
Figure 36: Estimate: U.S. Lighting LED Market ($B)
Figure 37: Estimate: U.S. Lighting LED Market (Bil. Units)
Figure 38: Estimate: Global Lighting LED Market ($B)
Figure 39: Cost and Brightness - Light Sources
Figure 40: WPAN/WLAN Family and VLC
Figure 41: Illustration-VLC Channel
Figure 42: VLC Applications
Figure 43: Estimate: VLC Market – Global ($B)
Figure 44: VLC Market Geography (2017)
Figure 45: Spectrum - NFC
Figure 46: Standardization
Figure 47: NFC ECMA and ISO Standards
Figure 48: Architecture – NFC Forum
Figure 49: Estimate: Global Market - NFC in Healthcare/Fitness ($B)
Table 1: ZigBee and 802.15.6 Radios
Table 2: Sensors Placement
Table 3: MedRadio Frequencies
Table 4: Allowable Power Density
Table 5: NB PHY Characteristics
Table 6: HBC PHY Characteristics
Table 7: Summary – 802.15.6 Major Features
Table 8: Modulation Parameters: 802.15.4j
Table 9: Transports: IEEE 1073
Table 10: WBAN Healthcare Major Applications
Table 11: Allowable Data Exchange Specifications for HDP
Table 12: ZigBee Public Profiles - Examples
Table 13: Wavelengths (nm)
Table 14: Laser vs. LED
Table 15: Use Cases - VLC
Table 16: Devices and Characteristics - VLC
Table 17: Frequency Plan – 802.15.7
Table 18: VLC/RF Properties
Table 19: VL, IR and RF Communications: ITS Applications
Table 20: Locations Technologies-VLC Place
Table 21: NFC Features Comparison
Table 22: NFC History
Table 23: NFC Development
Table 24: NFC Modes of Operations
Table 25: Standard Bands

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