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Public Safety Communications – Today and Tomorrow Technological and Marketing Analysis

Public Safety Communications – Today and Tomorrow Technological and Marketing Analysis

Currently, two major groups of standards – P25 and TETRA – define specifics of Public Safety Communications (PSC). P25 and TETRA LMR standards are being in the development for at least last twenty-two years and supported and continue to support voice and relatively low-speed data (up to ~0.5 Mb/s) that first responders’ communications required. Both groups had developmental and deployment issues (P25 LMRs were affected more) that had been mostly addressed by the PSC community - though several issues are still pending; their base stations and terminals are more expensive than commercial counterparts.

In the last several years, commercial cellular communications made a significant progress in enhancing performance and economic characteristics, such as the speed of transmission, reliability, ability to communicate with fast moving objects, the cost factor and other. 4G technologies (such as LTE and WiMAX) proved their attractiveness; and the industry, especially R&D, is looking for introduction 5G technologies in 4-6 years.

The PSC community, which is looking to enhance its networks to support video and massive data files with high-speed transmission as well as to improve other transmission characteristics, was investigating applicability of LTE (which is one of the most successful mobile communications standards) for PSC; and this effort led to decision to adapt this commercial cellular technology for critical communications and to build PSC networks utilizing LTE. One such a network – the FirstNet – is envisioned as the U.S. nationwide first responders (and maybe other users that are responsible for the country’s infrastructure) system, the only in the country. The FirstNet development is in the evolving stage; and its implementation will start, probably, in 1-2 years. Other countries are also experimenting with LTE network structures built specifically for PSC.

The report provides detailed technical and marketing analysis of P25/TETRA LMR together with the survey of industries. Then, it is concentrating on the specifics of LTE as a commercial technology that has to be adapted to carry PSC tasks; LTE technological and marketing specifics as well as the industry as they related to the report’s subject are analyzed. The 3GPP work in this area is detailed. The report shows that the industry is already ready for the development LTE-PSC equipment, though the fully blown PSC standards are expected from the 3GPP only in 2019-2020. The report also provides a detailed analysis of the current status of the FirstNet – the nationwide U.S. LTE-based PSC network. The U.S. is not alone in adapting LTE for PSC – England and other countries are also constructing LTE-PSC networks.

The report concludes that LMR and LTE-based PSC infrastructures will co-exist in the foreseeable future, complementing each other to provide high-speed data communications (up to 100s Mb/s) with narrowband voice, making communications more reliable and cost-effective and widening the spectrum of PSC applications.

The report is written for a wide audience of technical and managerial staff involved in the design and implementation of PSC networks as well as for users such networks.


1.0 Introduction
1.1 Status
1.2 Union
1.3 Scope and Goals
1.4 Research Methodology
1.5 Target Audience
2.0 Today: “Traditional” PSC Technologies
2.1 Project 25 (P25)
2.1.1 Standardization Process
2.1.1.1 General
2.1.1.2 Process
2.1.2 Project 25/TIA 102: Scope
2.1.2.1 Efforts
2.1.2.2 Phased Approach
2.1.2.2.1 Phases
2.1.2.2.1.1 Phase I
2.1.2.2.1.2 Phase II
2.1.3 Status
2.1.4 CAP
2.1.5 P25 Development-Phase I
2.1.5.1 General Mission and Objectives
2.1.5.2 Compliance
2.1.5.3 Benefits and Issues
2.1.5.4 Technical Highlights- Interfaces
2.1.5.4.1 Common Air Interface
2.1.5.4.2 Fixed Station Interface
2.1.5.4.3 Console Sub-System Interface (CSSI)
2.1.5.4.4 RF Sub-system
2.1.5.4.5 Inter-system Interface (ISSI)
2.1.5.4.5.1 ISSI Technology
2.1.5.4.6 Telephone Interconnect Interface
2.1.5.4.7 Network Management Interface
2.1.5.4.8 Host and Network Data Interfaces
2.1.5.4.9 Summary: Interfaces
2.1.5.4.10 Frequency Spectrum
2.1.5.4.10.1 700 MHz Band
2.1.5.5 Security
2.1.5.6 Coding
2.1.5.7 Advances
2.1.5.8 Services
2.1.5.9 Network Scenario
2.1.5.10 Summary
2.1.6 Development: P25 Phase II
2.1.6.1 Transition
2.1.6.2 Scope
2.1.6.3 Interfaces – Phase II
2.1.6.4 Attributes
2.1.6.5 Data Services Standards
2.1.6.6 Enhancements - Details
2.1.6.7 Time and Documentation
2.1.7 P25 Radio Market Analysis
2.1.7.1 General
2.1.7.2 Geography
2.1.7.3 Market Drivers
2.1.7.4 Market Forecast
2.1.7.4.1 Considerations
2.1.7.4.1.1 P25 Way
2.1.7.4.1.2 Commercial Involvement
2.1.7.4.2 Model Assumptions
2.7.1.4.3 Estimate
2.1.8 Summary: Phase I and Phase II
2.1.9 P25 Industry
Avtec
Airbus Defense and Space Communications (formerly Cassidian)
Codan (include P25/LTE solution)
Digital Voice System
Etherstack (include P25/LTE solution)
EF Johnson
Harris
Icom America
Kenwood
Midland
Motorola Solutions
Objective Interface Systems
PowerTrunk (Sepura)
Relm Wireless
Simoco
Technisonic Industries
Tait Communications
Vertex Standard
Westel
2.2 TETRA
2.2.1 General
2.2.1.1 TCCA
2.2.1.2 Major Milestones
2.2.2 TETRA: Scope-Release I
2.2.2.1 General
2.2.2.2 Spectrum Regulations
2.2.2.3 TETRA and Commercial Cellular
2.2.2.4 Main Features
2.2.2.4.1 Functionalities
2.2.2.4.2 Technical Details
2.2.2.4.3 Services
2.2.2.5 Benefits
2.2.2.6 Networking
2.2.2.7 Release I Details
2.2.2.7.1 General
2.2.2.7.2 Interfaces
2.2.2.7.3 Infrastructure
2.2.2.7.4 Call Types
2.2.2.8 Mobiles
2.2.2.9 Security
2.2.2.10 Summary
2.2.3 TETRA Release II
2.2.3.1 History
2.2.3.2 Drivers
2.2.3.2.1 Rational
2.2.3.3 Two-track Approach
2.2.3.4 Applications
2.2.3.5 Trunked Mode Operation (TMO) Range Extension
2.2.3.6 Adaptive Multiple Rate (AMR) Voice Codec
2.2.3.7 Mixed Excitation Liner Predictive, Enhanced (MELPe) Voice Codec
2.2.3.8 Data Services Development
2.2.3.8.1 TAPS
2.2.3.8.2 TEDS
2.2.3.9 Comparison
2.2.3.10 Enhancements
2.2.4 Market Analysis
2.2.4.1 General
2.2.4.2 Geography
2.2.4.3 Market Drivers-Industries-Applications
2.2.4.4 Model Assumptions
2.2.4.5 Estimate
2.2.5 Industry
Airbus DS (include TETRA/LTE)
ClearTone
DAMM Cellular
EtherStack
Hytera (include TETRA over LTE)
Motorola Solutions
Pegasus Network
Portalify
Rohill
Sepura
Selex ES
Team Simoco
Thales
3.0 P25 and TETRA
3.1 General
3.2 TDMA: Advantages and Issues
3.3 Characteristics
3.4 Modifications
3.5 TETRA in North America
3.5.1 FCC Position
3.5.2 Trials and Deployments.
4.0 Considerations: Next Generation PSC
5.0 LTE Place in PSC
5.1 De-facto Standard
5.2 Broadband Wireless Communications Stages and LTE Place
5.2.1 LTE Standardization-Industry Collaboration
5.2.1.1 Industry Initiative
5.2.1.2 LTE Timetable
5.2.1.3 Initial Releases
5.3 Key Features of LTE
5.4 Details
5.4.1 Evolved UMTS Radio Access Network (EUTRAN) - eNB
5.4.2 UE Categories
5.4.3. Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
5.4.4 LTE Layers
5.5 LTE Advanced
5.6 Self-organized Network (SON)
5.7 Market
5.7.1 General
5.7.2 Drivers
5.7.3 Demand: Wireless Broadband
5.7.4 LTE Market Projections
5.8 3GPP and LTE PSC
5.8.1 Releases and PSC
5.8.1.1 Voice
5.8.1.2 Efforts: R11-R13-PSC
5.8.1.2.1 Main Areas
5.8.1.2.1.1 Proximity Services
5.8.1.2.1.2 Group Communications Service
5.8.1.2.1.3 Process
5.8.1.3 LTE PSC – Market
5.9 Summary of LTE Benefits
5.10 Industry
Alcatel-Lucent-NEC (PSC)
Aricent
AceAxis
Cisco
CommAgility
Ericsson
Fujitsu
General Dynamics (PSC)
Harris (PSC)
Huawei
Lime Microsystems
Motorola Solutions (PSC)
Nokia Networks (PSC)
Qualcomm
Samsung (PSC)
Sequans
TI
u-blox
ZTE
5.11 Summary
6.0 FirstNet: Features and Characteristics
6.1 General
6.2 Beginning - Plan
6.2.1 Spectrum Auctions
6.2.2 Governing
6.3 Differences – PSG Communications
6.4 RFIs and RFPs Process
6.5 FirstNet – Features
6.5.1 General
6.5.2 Standards Compliance
6.5.2.1 Layers
6.5.2.1.1 Core Network
6.5.2.1.2 Transport Backhaul
6.5.2.1.3 Radio Access Network (RAN)
6.5.2.1.4 Public Safety Devices
6.6 FirstNet and LTE Current Limitations: 3GPP Releases
6.6.1 LTE – P25
6.6.2 FirstNet- Adopting Commercial Technology
6.6.3 Challenges and Coexistence
6.7 Vendors
Athena (acquired by Google in 2015)
Alcatel-Lucent
CalAmp
Elektrobit
Elbit
Harris
In Motion Technology –Sierra Wireless
Motorola Solutions
Oceus
Star Solutions
6.8 Interoperability Testing
6.8.1 Alcatel-Lucent, NSN, Cisco, Harris
6.8.2 Rohde & Schwarz and Elektrobit
6.9 Pilot Projects
7.0 TETRA – LTE
7.1 Possibility – Union
7.2 ETSI - TCCA
7.3 England – LTE PSC Network
7.4 Other
8.0 Conclusions
Appendix I: 3GPP Releases
Appendix II: References
Table of Figures:
Figure 1: APCO Project 25 Interface Committee
Figure 2: Generic-P25 System Structure
Figure 3: P25 System – Major Interfaces
Figure 4: ISSI-P25 System-to-System
Figure 5: ISSI-Roaming
Figure 6: 700 MHz Band Plan for Public Safety Services
Figure 7: Example-Network Scenario
Figure 8: Phase II Modulation
Figure 9: Family
Figure 10: CAI Details
Figure 11: Capacity
Figure 12: Vocoders
Figure 13: Spectrum Utilization – FM – Phase II
Figure 14: P25 Geography
Figure 15: Estimate: PSC P25 Equipment Global Sales ($B)
Figure 16: P25 Market Applications Segments
Figure 17: TETRA: Spectrum Allocation
Figure 18: TETRA Release I - Functionalities
Figure 19: TETRA Interworking Illustration
Figure 20: TETRA Interoperability Interfaces
Figure 21: Network Scenarios
Figure 22: TETRA Release I Interfaces
Figure 23: TETRA RII Developments
Figure 24: Two-track Approach
Figure 25: TAPS
Figure 26: TEDS RF Channel Characteristics
Figure 27: Spectral Efficiency
Figure 28: Rates and Range
Figure 29: Illustration - TETRA TEDS Characteristics
Figure 30: TETRA Market Geography (2016)
Figure 31: TETRA Segmentation by Industries (2016)
Figure 32: Estimate: TETRA Equipment Global Sales ($B)
Figure 33: Estimate: TETRA BS & Associated Equipment Global Sales ($B)
Figure 34: PSC Applications Scenarios
Figure 35: Evolution Path
Figure 36: Towards Wireless Mobile Broadband
Figure 37: Details – Releases Time Schedule
Figure 38: LTE – IP
Figure 39: LTE – Reference Architecture
Figure 40: LTE Layers
Figure 41: Projection: Global Broadband Mobile Subscribers Base ($B)
Figure 42: Estimate: LTE-Subscribers’ Base-Global (Bil)
Figure 43: LTE Equipment Global Sales ($B)
Figure 44: Estimate: LTE PSC Subscribers Base – Global (Mil.)
Figure 45: Estimate: Installed Base – PSC LTE eNodeB – Global (000)
Figure 46: Estimate: Global LTE PSC Market ($B)
Figure 47: FirstNet Frequency Plan
Figure 48: Illustration-FirstNet Connections
Figure 49: Layers
Figure 50: Core Network
Figure 51: FirstNet Devices
Figure 52: LMR-LTE Capacities - Illustration
Tables:
Table 1: Approved P25 Standard
Table 2:P25 Advantages and Issues
Table 3: CAI Major Characteristics
Table 4: P25 Services
Table 5: Phase II Documents
Table 6: Components
Table 7: TETRA Established
Table 8: TETRA Release I-Major Characteristics
Table 9: TETRA Needs
Table 10: Applications (Release II)
Table 11: Evolution of TETRA Applications
Table 12: Terminal Cost
Table 13:3GPP Releases
Table 14: Initial LTE Characteristics: Illustration
Table 15: Users Equipment Categories (Initial)
Table 16: UE Categories - Extended
Table 17: Release 12: PSC-related Items
Table 18: 700 MHz Band 14
Table 19: Potential Broadband Applications – PSC

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