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“Progress in Optical Wireless Communications” Technologies, Applications and Markets

“Progress in Optical Wireless Communications”Technologies, Applications and Markets

This Practel report continues the company’s project on optical wireless communications (OWC). It updates Practel reports on this subject published early.

Particular, the report concentrates on:

VLC – Visible Light Communication
FSF – Free Space Fiber.

In connection with the VLC developments, the report is addressing Light Emitting Diode (LED) technologies and markets. LED, in the near future, will be a dominate source of illumination; and used also as a transmitting device. The VLC LED-based channels promise to deliver high-speed data in office, home and other environments with high signal-to-noise ratio, and minimum infrastructure expenses.

The report is analyzing the emerging VLC industry, economics, technologies, standardization and applications. It shows that the spectrum of VLC applications is increasing with each year to support such developments as Intelligent Transportation Systems, Localization and other.

FSF devices are solving access issues in metro and LAN environments. They are relatively inexpensive, support Gb/s rates of transmission; they are also offering low maintenance cost, guarantee a short installation time and security of communications. The report presents the FSF technologies and market analysis as well as discusses their applications together with the survey of vendors and their portfolios.

The report also contains the survey of recent VLC patents.

The report is written for a wide population of technical and marketing specialists working in the area of Wireless Optical Communications.


1.0 Introduction
1.1 General
1.2 Structure
1.3 LED as Communications Transmitter
1.4 Free Space Fiber
1.5 Scope
1.6 Research Methodology
1.7 Target Audience
2.0 LED Specifics
2.1 General
2.2 Spectrum
2.3 Types
2.4 LED Modulation
2.4.1 Limitations
2.5 LED Evolution
2.5.1 General
2.5.2 Benefits
2.5.3 Market Considerations
2.5.4 Factors
3.0 Visible Light Communications
3.1 General
3.1.1 Drivers
3.1.2 Industry Activity
3.1.2.1 UC-Light Center
3.1.2.2 Li-Fi Consortium
3.2 VLC Standards Development
3.2.1 IEEE 802.15.7
3.2.1.1 Considerations
3.2.1.2 Project
3.2.1.2.1 Coexistence
3.2.1.2.2 Scope
3.2.1.2.3 Base
3.2.1.2.4 Use Cases
3.2.1.2.5 Physical Layer
3.2.1.2.5.1 General
3.2.1.2.5.2 Responsibilities
3.2.1.2.5.3 Types
3.2.1.2.5.4 Error Protection
3.2.1.2.5.5 Rates
3.2.1.2.5.6 Frequency Plan
3.2.1.2.5.7 PHY Services
3.2.1.2.5.8. Regulations
3.2.1.2.6 MAC Layer
3.2.1.2.6.1 Topologies
3.2.1.2.6.2 Responsibilities
3.2.1.2.6.3 Functionalities
3.2.1.2.6.4 Channel Access
3.2.1.2.7 Security
3.2.2 IEEE802.15.7r1
3.2.3 Jeita (Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association)
3.2.3.1 JEITA CP-1221
3.2.3.2 JEITA CP-1222
3.2.3.3 JEITA CP-1223 (2013)
3.2.4 Visible Light Communications Association (VLCA)
3.2.4.1 General
3.2.4.2 Experimental Systems- VLCA Projects
3.2.5 ARIB T50
3.2.6 ECMA 397-2010
3.3 Li-Fi Consortium
3.4 Details
3.4.1 Communications Channel
3.4.2 Transmitter
3.4.3 Receiver
3.4.3.1 Image Sensors
3.4.4 Major Characteristics
3.4.4.1 General
3.4.4.2 Modulation
3.4.4.3 VLC Channel: Characteristics Summary
3.4.4.4 Limiting Factors
3.5 Applications: Summary
3.5.1 ITS
3.5.2 Optical Wireless LAN
3.5.3 Medical
3.5.4 Localization
3.5.5 City Wide Wireless Network
3.5.6 Summary
3.6 Companies and Organizations
Axrtek
Casio
Firefly
Fraunhofer IPMS
LVX
Lightbee
Nakagawa Laboratories
NEC
Oledcomm
Outstanding Technology
PureVLC-PureLi-Fi
Qualcomm
Renesas
SmartSignals
Supreme Architecture
TCL/Sunpartner
Tamura
3.7 Market
3.8 5G View
3.8.1 Attocell
3.8.2 Cell Structures
4.0 Free Space Fiber
4.1 General
4.2 Major Characteristics
4.3 Protection
4.4 Applications
4.4.1 Major Use Cases
4.4.2 Requirements
4.4.3 Inter-satellite Links
4.4.4 Intra-building Communications
4.4.5 Inter-building Communications
4.5 FSF Communications Benefits and Limitations: Summary
4.5.1 Weather Factor
4.5.2 Building Swaying
4.6 Design Issues
4.7 Users
4.8 FSF Market
4.8.1 General
4.8.2 Market Drivers
4.8.2.1 Market Segments
4.8.3 Competition
4.8.3.1 Fiber Optics Systems
4.8.3.2 Microwave
4.8.3.3 PONs
4.8.4 Forecast
4.8.4.1 General
4.8.4.2 Model Assumptions
4.8.4.3 Structure
4.8.4.4 Market Estimate
4.9 Vendors
CableFree
Canon USA
CBL
Dailianxu Engineering Company
fSONA
Guilin
LightPointe
PAV
Plaintree
4.10 Standards
4.10.1 ITU G.640
4.10.2 ITU-R P.1814-2007
4.10.3 ARIB STD-T50 (OPTICAL WIRELESS LAN SYSTEM) v4-2009
4.11 Free Space Fiber and VLC - Summary
5.0 Conclusions
Figure 1: OWC Connections
Figure 2: LED Structure
Figure 3: LED Spectrum
Figure 4: White LED Properties Illustration
Figure 5: Estimate: Lighting LED Market –U.S. ($B)
Figure 6: Estimate: Lighting LED Market –U.S. (Bil. Units Shipped)
Figure 7: LED Price Factor
Figure 8: Cost and Brightness- Light Sources
Figure 9: WPAN Family and VLC
Figure 10: Illustration-VLC Channel
Figure 11: Applications
Figure 12: VLC Market Categories
Figure 13: Estimate: VLC Market – Global ($B)
Figure 14: VLC Market Geography (2017)
Figure 15: Simplified FSF Device Diagram
Figure 16: FSF Market Segments
Figure 17: Estimate: FSF Market Value ($M)
Figure 18: FSF Market Geography
Table 1: VLC and FSF Characteristics
Table 2: Wavelengths (nm)
Table 3: Comparison - Laser vs. LED
Table 4: Light Sources Characteristics
Table 5: Use Cases
Table 6: Devices and Characteristics
Table 7: Frequency Plan
Table 8: VLC/RF Properties
Table 9: VLC, IR and RF Communications ITS Applications Comparison
Table 10: Locations Technologies-VLC Place

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