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Progress in IoT Communications Technologies, Markets and Application

“Progress in IoT Communications”Technologies, Markets and Application

This report addresses novel technologies designed for IoT/M2M communications.

Due to multiplicity of factors that should be considered in the developing IoT networks (applications, battery requirements, and traffic specifics) there is only a very remote possibility that a single technology will resolve all IoT communications issues. So far, the picture is very fragmented with multiple organizations developing specific technologies.

There are two main tracks to wide-area public-network connectivity. The first is the evolution of LTE (and some other cellular technologies) to support IoT applications: longer battery life, longer range, lower cost in exchange for lower throughput. The second track includes narrow-band (NB) and ultra-narrow band (UNB) technologies promoted as a clean slate solution for IoT connectivity.

Mesh technologies (typically based on ZigBee) and Wi-Fi extensions (e.g. 802.11ah) have typically been used in private networks and have a separate evolution path (as examples, the report addresses 802.11ah, Bluetooth Mesh and Thread). Bluetooth Mesh is bringing many important to IoT communications features utilizing well established hardware platforms.

New proprietary technologies, such as LoRa, SigFox and other came into the market before standardized technologies; and they have already gained the sufficient market share. 3GPP standards have been approved only in 2016-2017.

Despite of this, it is expected that modified LTE and GSM will be able relatively fast to gain power– for these techniques, vast amount of cellular infrastructure is ready, and adaption to IoT communications requirements can be done usually through software upgrade. The report compares advantages and weaknesses of each method.

For the purpose of this report analysis, we distinguished the following groups of technologies:

1. Low Power Wide Area (LPWA) communications (Sub-1 GHz):

  • LoRA
  • SigFox
  • Weightless (W, N, P)
  • Waviot
2. 3GPP cellular LPWA (LTE, GSM):
  • NB-IoT
  • LTE Cat – M
  • EC-GSM-IoT
  • Other
3. Industry Groups/Standardizations Organizations:
  • IEEE802.11ah (Sub-1 GHz)
  • Thread
  • Bluetooth Mesh
  • ETSI LTN
  • Ingenu.
LPWA communication is split into two separate sub-categories. On the one hand, there are the current proprietary LPWA technologies, such as SigFox and LoRa, which typically operate on unlicensed sub -1 GHz spectrum. On the other hand, there are the forthcoming 3GPP standardized cellular IoT technologies, which typically operate on licensed spectrum (3GPP Rel. 12, 13 and up).

Designed specifically for low bandwidth, low-power IoT applications, LPWAs structures are poised to see huge growth over the next few years, with stakeholders across the industry now talking about LPWA technologies as a core enabler of the IoT.

LPWA profile IoT applications include metering, agriculture, vehicle telematics, tracking, healthcare, consumer products, and others. It is estimated that 3-4 billion LPWA connections will be in place by 2020, with hardware, network and service revenues reaching $9-$11 billion.

The report also analyzes the related work of such standards bodies as the IEEE, ITU, ETSI and other.

The report goals are also to identify major players in each protocol category; and estimate (5-year forecast) major marketing characteristics of still young IoT communications industry.

The survey of 802.11ah-related patents is also presented in the report.

The report was developed for a wide audience of managerial and technical staff of organizations that are working on IoT/M2M communications projects.


1.0 Introduction
1.1 Definition
1.2 General
1.3 Scope
1.3.1 Major Goal
1.4 Research Methodology
1.5 Target Audience
2.0 IoT/M2M Communications Specifics
2.1 General
2.1.1 Main Tracks
2.2 Environment
2.3 Current Situation
2.4 Requirements
2.5 Spectrum Requirements
2.6 Summary
3.0 Developing Communications Technologies for IoT
3.1 Weightless Technologies
3.1.1 Weightless SIG
3.1.1.1 Common Features
3.1.1.2 Weightless-W
3.1.1.2.1 White Spaces Communications - Principles
3.1.1.2.2 Definition
3.1.1.2.3 Rational
3.1.1.2.4 Ecosystem and Use Cases
3.1.1.2.5 Weightless-W Details
3.1.1.3 Changes
3.1.1.4 Weightless-N
3.1.1.4.1 General
3.1.1.4.2 Open Standard
3.1.1.4.3 Nwave
3.1.1.4.4 First Deployments
3.1.1.4.5 Summary
3.1.1.5 Weightless-P
3.1.1.5.1 General
3.1.1.5.2 Details
3.1.1.5.3 M2COMM
3.1.2 Comparison of Weightless Technologies
3.2 RPMA
3.2.1 Major Features
3.2.2 Proliferation
3.2.3 Components and Structure
3.2.4 Use Cases
3.3 LoRa
3.3.1 Alliance
3.3.1.1 Open Protocol
3.3.2 Technology Building Blocks
3.3.2.1 Layered Structure - Illustration
3.3.2.2 Modulation
3.3.2.3 Long Range
3.3.2.4 Applications
3.3.2.5 Network Architecture
3.3.2.6 Classes
3.3.2.7 LoRaWAN
3.3.2.8 Major Characteristics
3.3.3 Industry
Actility
Advantech
Amiho
Cisco
Embit
Kerlink
Link Labs
LORIOT.io
Microchip Technology
MultiTech
Murata
Sagemcom
Semtech
STMicroelectronics
Tektelic
3.4 SigFox
3.4.1 Company
3.4.2 Technology
3.4.2.1 Details – Uplink
3.4.2.2 Details – Downlink
3.4.2.3 SmartLNB
3.4.3 Coverage
3.4.4 Use Cases
3.4.5 Industry
Adeunis RF
Atmel
Innocomm
Microchip
On Semiconductor
Telit
TI
3.5 Waviot
3.5.1 NB-Fi Technology
3.5.2 NB-Fi Major features
3.5.3 Applications
3.5.4 Products
3.6 Thread
3.6.1 General: From Smart Home to Commercial Buildings
3.6.2 Challenges
3.6.3 Protocol
3.6.4 Major Features
3.6.5 Specification Summary
3.6.6 Components
3.6.7 Industry
CEL
Digi
NXP (Qualcomm)
Silicon Labs
3.6.8 Comparison
4.0 IoT Communications: Adaption Existing Technologies
4.1 Wi-Fi
4.1.1 IoT Communications and Wi-Fi
4.1.2 802.11ah (Wi-Fi HaLow)
4.1.2.1 Requirements
4.1.2.2 Goal and Schedule
4.1.2.3 Attributes
4.1.2.4 Use Cases
4.1.2.5 PHY
4.1.2.5.1 Bandwidth
4.1.2.5.2 Channelization
4.1.2.5.3 Transmission Modes and MIMO
4.1.2.5.4 Relay Mode
4.1.2.6 MAC Layer
4.1.2.7 Summary
4.1.2.8 Industry
Aviacomm/Newracom
Orca
Aegis-IP
4.2 3GPP and IoT Communications
4.2.1 3GPP Position
4.2.2 IoT Communications Requirements and LTE
4.2.3 3GPP LTE Rel. 12 Developments and IoT Communications
4.2.4 3GPP LTE Rel. 13/14 Developments and IoT Communications
4.2.5 Further Enhancements
4.2.6 Summary of LTE/IoT Features
4.2.7 NB-IoT Standardized
4.2.7.1 Scope
4.2.7.1.1 Scalable LTE IoT Platform
4.2.8 Extended Coverage – GSM – Internet of Things (EC-GSM-IoT)
4.2.9 Industry
Altair (acquired by Sony in 2016)
Aeris
Ericsson
Gemalto
Kore Telematics
Mistbase (acquired by Arm in 2017)
Orca
Sequans
Qualcomm
u-blox
WNC
4.2.9 Summary - Comparison
4.3 Bluetooth Mesh
4.3.1 General
4.3.2 Specifications
4.3.2.1 Mesh Profile Specification
4.3.2.2 Mesh Model Specification
4.3.2.3 Mesh Device Property Specification
4.3.3 Potentials
4.3.3.1 Concept
4.3.4 Major Features
4.3.5 Benefits
4.3.6 Industry
5.0 IoT Communications Standardization: ETSI, ITU and Other
5.1 ETSI
5.1.1 Efforts
5.1.2 Low Throughput Network
5.1.2.1 Weightless and ETSI
5.2 ITU
5.2.1 SG 20
5.3 oneM2M
5.4 ISO/IES
5.5 IEEE P2413
6.0 IoT Communications – Market Development
6.1 Statistics
6.2 Estimate
6.2.1 IoT/M2M Traffic Volume
6.2.2 IoT/M2M Communications Market
6.2.3 IoT Connections
6.2.4 IoT Telecom Services
6.2.5 Cellular IoT Subscribers
7.0 Conclusions
Attachment I: 802.11ah – related Patents Survey (2015-2016)
Attachment II: Comparison
Figure 1: IoT Environment
Figure 2: Iceni Characteristics
Figure 3: Nwave Characteristics Comparison
Figure 4: Weightless Technologies Comparison
Figure 5: LoRa Protocol Architecture
Figure 6: LoRa Architecture
Figure 7: LoRa Classes
Figure 8: Battery Lifetime
Figure 9: Regional Differences
Figure 10: Features – SigFox
Figure 11: Uplink Frame Format
Figure 12: Downlink Frame Format
Figure 13: Waviot Major Applications
Figure 14: Thread Protocol Stack and Related Standards
Figure 15: Thread Protocol Major Features
Figure 16: 802.11ah Use Cases
Figure 17: Frequency Spectrum (sub-1 GHz)
Figure 18: 802.11ah – Channelization Plan in U.S.
Figure 19: Transmission Characteristics – 802.11ah
Figure 20: 802.11ah Features Summary
Figure 21: CAT-0 and CAT-1 Characteristics
Figure 22: Time Schedule – 3GPP
Figure 23: Modem Complexity
Figure 24: IoT Communications Technologies Characteristics Comparison
Figure 25: Evolution of LTE IoT Communications
Figure 26: Cellular-based IoT Technologies
Figure 27: IoT Communications Technologies Comparison
Figure 28: BT Mesh Architecture
Figure 29: ETSI Activity – IoT/M2M Communications
Figure 30: Use Cases
Figure 31: M2M Applications
Figure 32: Projections: IoT/M2M Traffic Volume (PB/Month)
Figure 33: Estimate: Global Market - IoT/M2M Communications ($B)
Figure 34: Estimate: Number of IoT Connections (Bil.)
Figure 35: TAM: IoT Telecom Services – Global ($B)
Figure 36: Estimate: Number of Cellular IoT Subscribers (Bil.)
Figure 37: Projections: IoT/M2M Technologies and Applications Market ($T)
Figure 38: Projections: Number of Smart Devices in Smart Homes-Global (Bil.)
Figure 39: Estimate: N.A. IoT Generated Revenue ($T)
Figure 40: Estimate – Global LPWAN Market ($B)

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