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Progress in Connected Car Development


“Progress in Connected Car Development” Technologies, Markets, Standardization


This report addresses the current status of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), their structure, major applications, standardization and markets. The Intelligent Transportation Systems aim to improve the economy by reducing the number of road accidents, the amount of car air pollutions and making smooth flow of the traffic.

The advances in the ITS are presently tied with the development of a “connected car” (CC) – a moving car that is wirelessly connected with surrounding cars and the infrastructure (as well as support connectivity inside of a car). Such a car opens a spectrum of new and exciting opportunities for automakers, service providers and users.

CC programs are now under development all around the globe. Though there are many technological choices to support CC communications, two technologies are leading at the present time. They are:
5.9 GHz DSRC, and
C-V2X.

The report concentrates on those leaders; and analyzes their characteristics, parameters, marketing statistics, industries and the spectrum of applications. It also compares these technologies and their applicability to CC communications.

5.9 GHz DSRC technology is being tested and trialed in the U.S. for the last 20 years; and a rich collection of communications channels statistics has been gathered. This technology is now in the process of standardization by the U.S. DOT for CC communications. It has many attractions, such as the economies of scale based on the IEEE 802.11p standard, network simplicity and other. It also standardized and accepted in Europe. The report also addresses the current discussion in the industry and the FCC concerning opening the 5.9 GHz band for Wi-Fi communications and related consequences for safety applications.

Utilization LTE-A and its modifications for C-V2X communications attracts users by longer reaches, higher speeds, possibility of low latency (1-3 ms), and utilization of the cellular infrastructure in which CC communications will be only one of many use cases. The standard was finalized in Release 14 of the 3GPP; and the technology is lately under extensive testing and trialing. Two methods are being developed: a) D2D communications, and b) Broadcast communications. They are discussed in the report.

The report details specifics of 5.9 GHz DSRC and LTE-A for CC communications, their marketing aspects, and the related legislative work. It also concentrates on benefits and limitations of each technology and surveys related industries.

At the present time, it is unclear which technology will prevail (or may be both of them will be in use, countries-specific). Realizing this, the industry concentrated attention on design and production of electronics that can support both technologies in one package – this is the current main trend in CC communications chipsets manufacturing.

The report is intended for a wide audience of technical and managerial staff involved in the ITS development; and particular concerns with marketing and technological aspects of a connected car; and for specialists in communications technologies that support advances in connected cars programs. For them, it will provide the following up-to-date information and results of the analysis:

ITS features, major goals, structure and market analysis
CC concept, applications, properties, specifics and market analysis
CC 5.9 GHz DSRC technology, standardization, protocols, industry and market analysis
C-V2X LTE-A technology, standardization process, specifics and current status
Comparison 5.9 GHz DSRC and C-V2X LTE-A technologies as they apply to CC communications
Analysis of the LTE technology: benefits, properties, industry and market
Survey of patents related to IEEE 802.11p and V2X.


1.0 Introduction
1.1 Statistics
1.2 Goal
1.3 Scope
1.4 Research Methodology
1.5 Target Audience
2.0 ITS: System in Actions
2.1 General
2.2 Composition
2.2.1 Formation
2.2.2 Subsystems
2.2.3 Layers and Components-Roadways
2.3 Key Technologies
2.4 ITS Standardization: In Progress
2.4.1 Overview
2.4.2 ETSI - Europe
2.4.3 U.S.
2.4.3.1 General
2.4.3.2 National Transportation Communications for ITS Protocol (NTCIP)
2.4.3.2.1 Scope
2.4.3.2.2 Family
2.4.4 International
2.4.4.1 General
2.4.4.2 ITU
2.4.5 Summary
2.5 ITS Functionalities
2.5.1 Intelligent Infrastructure
2.5.2 Intelligent Vehicles
2.6 ITS Market Statistics
2.6.1 General
2.6.2 Assumptions
2.6.3 Estimate
3.0 Connected Car Specifics
3.1 General
3.1.1 Types of Connectivity
3.2 Legislation
3.2.1 U.S.
3.2.1.1 NHTSA Actions and Plans
3.2.2 Directions
3.2.2.1 EU and England
3.2.2.2 Varieties
3.3 Properties and Requirements
3.3.1 Methods
3.3.2 Network Requirements: 5G
3.3.3 Functional Technologies
3.4 Driving Forces
3.5 Major Use Cases
3.6 Market
4.0 5.9 GHz DSRC
4.1 General
4.1.1 History- Spectrum
4.1.1.1 Recent Developments – Spectrum Sharing - Opinions
4.2 Industry Efforts - Cooperation
4.3 Place
4.4 Structure and Protocols
4.4.1 Requirements
4.4.2 Milestones
4.4.3 IEEE 802.11p
4.4.3.1 General
4.4.3.2 Objectives and Status
4.4.3.3 ASTM Contributions
4.4.3.4 Characteristics
4.4.4 IEEE 1609
4.4.4.1 General
4.4.4.2 Overview
4.4.4.3 IEEE 1609 in Use
4.4.5 ETSI ITS-G5 – Major Features
4.4.6 ISO and DSRC
4.4.7 SAE and DSRC
4.5 Components and Procedures
4.5.1 Components
4.5.2 Procedures
4.6 Major Applications
4.6.1 EPS
4.7 Spectrum – DSRC - International
4.7.1 Channels Designation
4.8 Services
4.8.1 Major Services
4.8.2 Service Categories/QoS
4.8.3 Service Requirements
4.9 Summary: 5.9 GHz DSRC Characteristics
4.10 Benefits and Limitations – 5.9 GHz DSRC
4.10.1 General
4.10.2 Toll Industry Benefits
4.10.3 Limitations
4.11 Comparison
4.11.1 915 MHz DSRC and 5.9 GHz DSRC
4.11.2 CEN278 (5.8 GHz) DSRC and 5.9 GHz DSRC
4.12 Market Segment
4.12.1 Market Drivers
4.12.2 Market Requirements
4.12.3 Market Estimate
4.13 Industry
4.13.1 Industry Coalition
4.13.2 Recent Progress
4.13.3 Vendors
AutoTalks
Cohda Wireless
Delphi
Kapsch
NXP
Redpine Signals
Qualcomm
Savari
Unex
u-blox
4.14 Governing and Solutions
5.0 Cellular Technologies and Connected Car
5.1 Two Groups
5.2 3GPP Activities
5.2.1 D2D Communications
5.2.2 C-V2X Broadcast
5.2.3 Performance Comparison
5.2.4 Further Steps
5.3 Industry
Autotalks
AT&T/Audi-Tesla
Broadcom
Commsignia
Cohda Wireless
Ficosa
GM
Savari
Qualcomm
u-blox
6.0 Comparison: DSRC-802.11p and C-V2X
6.1 General
6.2 Details
6.2.1 Readiness
6.2.2 Legislation
6.2.3 Networking
6.2.4 Range
6.2.5 Response
6.2.6 Scalability
6.2.7 Economics
6.2.8 Speed of Transmission
6.2.9 Versatility
6.2.10 Telematics
6.2.11 5G Vision
6.2.11.1 Potential benefits of LTE-based V2X
6.3 Trend
7.0 Connected Car - Groups and Alliances
7.1 Open Automotive Alliance
7.2 4G Venture Forum for Connected Cars
7.3 Apple – iOS in the Car
7.4 Connected Vehicle to Everything of Tomorrow Consortium (ConVeX)
7.5 WWW Consortium
7.6 GSMA Connected Car Forum
7.7 Car Connectivity Consortium
7.8 Towards 5G Partnership
7.9 5GAA
8.0 Conclusions
Appendix I: Patents Survey – IEEE 802.11p (2017-2019)
Appendix II: Patents Survey – Cellular V2X (2017-2019)
Appendix III: LTE Technology and Markets
A.1 De-Facto Standard
A.2 Broadband Wireless Communications Stages
A.2.1 LTE Standardization-Industry Collaboration
A.2.1.1 Industry Initiative
A.2.1.2 LTE Timetable
A.2.1.3 3GPP Releases
A.3 Key Features of LTE
A.3.1 Comparison
A.4 Details
A.4.1 Evolved UMTS Radio Access Network (EUTRAN) - eNB
A.4.2 UE Categories
A.4.3. Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
A.4.4 LTE Layers
A.5 LTE Advanced
A.6 Self-organized Network (SON)
A.7 Market: LTE
A.7.1 General
A.7.2 Market Drivers
A.7.3 Demand: Wireless Broadband
A.7.4 LTE Market Projections
A.8 Summary: LTE Benefits
A.9 Industry
Aricent
AceAxis
Cisco
CommAgility
Ericsson
Fujitsu
Huawei
Lime Microsystems
Motorola Solutions
Nokia
Qualcomm
Sequans
TI
u-blox
ZTE
Figure 1: Wireless Communications: ITS Environment
Figure 2: Europe – Standardization Organizations
Figure 3: Standardization Organizations – ITS U.S.
Figure 4: NTCIP Structure
Figure 5: International –Standardization Bodies
Figure 6: Estimate: Global ITS Market ($B)
Figure 7: Estimate: ITS WICT- Global Market ($B)
Figure 8: ITS Equipment Sales by Regions ($B)
Figure 9: NHTSA DSRC Project – Prior 2015
Figure 10: NHTSA – Further DSRC Project Development
Figure 11: Connected Car: Network Requirements
Figure 12: Connected Car: Communications Technologies
Figure 13: Estimate – Connected Car Market Value - Global ($B)
Figure 14: Estimate – Global – Service Providers Revenue – Connected Car ($B)
Figure 15: Estimate – Global Auto Market – CC Sales (Mil.)
Figure 16: 5.9 GHz DSRC – Frequencies Allocation and Channelization
Figure 17: DSRC - Modified Spectrum
Figure 18: Industry Cooperation
Figure 19: ITS-5.9 GHz DSRC - Illustration
Figure 20: Communications Model – 5.9 GHz DSRC
Figure 21: 802.11p - Communications
Figure 22: 1609 Protocol - Illustration
Figure 23: Signals Logical Flow – 5.9 GHz DSRC
Figure 24: Collision Detection/Avoidance System
Figure 25: Work Zone Warning
Figure 26: “Smart” Car
Figure 27: DSRC Worldwide – Spectrum Allocation
Figure 28: DSRC: Spectrum Allocation Details (Global)
Figure 29: Channel Assignment – 5.9 GHz DSRC U.S.
Figure 30: 5.9 GHz DSRC Transmission Characteristics and Channelization
Figure 31: Spectrum Details – Overlapping Wi-Fi
Figure 32: Major Categories-DSRC Services
Figure 33: 5.9 GHz DSRC Rate vs. Distance
Figure 34: 5.9 GHz DSRC Protocols – Summary
Figure 35: Estimate: CC Market Value– U.S. – 5.9 GHz DSRC ($B)
Figure 36: C-V2X Modes of Communications
Figure 37: 3GPP Schedule – D2D Communications (V2X)
Figure 38: D2D Communications – Evolution
Figure 39: LTE ProSe Functions – Discovery and Communications
Figure 40: Further Evolution – C-V2X
Figure 41: Networking
Figure 42: C-V2X Development Time Schedule (2018)
Figure 43: Evolution Path
Figure 44: Towards Wireless Mobile Broadband
Figure 45: Release 15 Timeline
Figure 46: LTE – IP
Figure 47: Major LTE Advantages
Figure 48: LTE – Reference Architecture
Figure 49: LTE Layers
Figure 50: Estimate: LTE-Subscribers’ Base-Global (Bil)
Figure 51: LTE Equipment Global Sales ($B)
Table 1: Road Crashes Statistics
Table 2: 5G Network Characteristics
Table 3: ETSI ITS-G5 Channels and Services
Table 4: Service Categories - DSRC
Table 5: Users Service Requirements
Table 6: Summary: 5.9 GHz DSRC Characteristics
Table 7: 5.9 GHz DSRC Benefits
Table 8: 915 MHz and 5.9 GHz DSRC Differences
Table 9: LTE - D2D and Broadcast Modes – Features
Table 10: Major Features – Comparison
Table 11: 3GPP Releases
Table 12: LTE Initial Characteristics
Table 13: Users Equipment Categories (Initial)
Table 14: UE Categories - Extended

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