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“MIMO Role in High-speed Communications” Technologies, Markets and Applications

“MIMO Role in High-speed Communications” Technologies, Markets and Applications

This report researches advanced technologies and markets for wireless and wired communications systems that are supported by MIMO – Multiple Input/Multiple Output structures – to enhance their performance. It revises and updates earlier issues of the report as well as adds the analysis of latest technologies.

Users’ demand for more efficient networking brought to life many technological innovations. One of them is MIMO, which became very popular in wireless systems – almost all recent and future 3GPP standards use (or will be using) variations of such a technique. MIMO is also used in wireline systems.

This report is based on the Practel analysis of MIMO-based communications systems, their technologies and markets specifics. Particular, the following industry standards that utilize MIMO have been considered:

-3GPP LTE
-IEEE802.11ax
-IEEE802.11ay
-IEEE 802.11ac
-HomePlug AV2
-ITU G.hn.

The goal of this report is to characterize MIMO advantages and specifics for each standard. It also addresses market characteristics of discussed technologies. Report concentrates on profiling the industry players and their products.

MIMO characteristics, structures and types are also addressed and compared. The report also surveys patents related to the discussed subjects.

The report is written for a wide audience of managers and technical staff that involved in the design and implementation of advanced communications systems.


1.0 Introduction
1.1 General
1.2 Goal
1.3 Structure
1.4 Research Methodology
1.5 Target Audience
2.0 MIMO – Concept, Functions and Types
2.1 History
2.2 Concept: MIMO in Wireless Communications
2.3 Types of MIMO: Examples
2.3.1 CoMP MIMO
2.3.2 Massive MIMO
2.3.3 MU-MIMO
2.3.4 MIMO-OFDM
2.3.5 Mobile Networked MIMO
2.3.6 MIMO - by Type of Communications Media
2.3.7 Summary
2.4 MIMO Benefits (Wireless Systems)
3.0 MIMO in Wireless Systems
3.1 LTE Development and MIMO
3.1.1 Releases – 3GPP
3.1.2 LTE Timetable
3.1.3 Broadband Mobile Communications-Phases
3.1.4 LTE Standardization-Industry Collaboration
3.1.5 Industry Initiative
3.1.6 Intellectual Property
3.1.7 Key Features of LTE
3.1.8 Details
3.1.8.1 Evolved UMTS Radio Access Network (EUTRAN)
3.1.8.2 UE Categories
3.1.8.3. Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
3.1.9 LTE Advanced
3.1.10 SON
3.1.11 Voice Support
3.1.11.1 VoLTE
3.1.12 Market
3.1.12.1 Drivers
3.1.12.2 Demand: Wireless Broadband
3.1.12.3 LTE Market Projections
3.1.13 Summary: LTE Benefits
3.1.14 Industry
Altair Semiconductor (a Sony Group Company)
Aricent
AceAxis
Cisco
CommAgility
Ericsson
Fujitsu
Huawei
Lime Microsystems
Motorola Solutions
Nokia
Qualcomm
Samsung
Sequans
Signalion
TI
U-blox
ZTE
3.1.15 Specifics LTE MIMO
3.1.15.1 Techniques
3.1.15.2 Major Applications
3.1.15.3 Modes
3.1.15.4 MIMO: LTE Release 8
3.1.15.5 MIMO: LTE Release 9
3.1.15.6 MIMO: LTE Advanced
3.1.15.7 LTE/LTE-A - MIMO Benefits
3.1.15.8 Market Projections
3.1.16 5G NR and MIMO
3.2 IEEE802.11ax and MIMO
3.2.1 Background
3.2.2 Focal Points
3.2.3 Major Features
3.2.4 Major Applications
3.2.5 Physical Layer
3.2.5.1 Multi-User Operation
3.2.5.2 Role of MU-MIMO
3.2.5.3 Multi-User OFDMA
3.2.6 MAC
3.2.6.1 Spatial Reuse with Color Codes
3.2.6.2 Power-saving with Target Wake Time
3.2.6.3 Density
3.2.7 802.11ax Operating Modes
3.2.8 Industry
Aerohive
Asus
Broadcom
Huawei
Marvell
Ruckus
Quantenna
Qualcomm
3.2.9 Extreme High Throughput Wi-Fi
3.3 MIMO Role in 802.11ac Development
3.3.1 General – Improving 802.11n Characteristics
3.3.2 Approval
3.3.3 Major Features: Summary
3.3.4 Major Benefits
3.3.5 Usage Models
3.3.6 Waves
3.3.7 Market Projections
3.3.8 Industry
Aruba – HP
Celeno
Broadcom
Buffalo
Cisco
D-Link
Fortinet
Linksys
Marvell
Netgear
Qualcomm
Quantenna
Redpine Signals
3.3.9 MIMO and 802.11ac Standard
3.3.9.1 Comparison
3.4 802.11ay and MIMO Technology
3.4.1 Timetable
3.4.2 Scope
3.4.3 Need
3.4.4 Usage Cases (Examples)
3.4.5 Expected Characteristics
3.4.6 MIMO – Preliminary View
4.0 MIMO in Wireline Communications
4.1 HomePNA and ITU MIMO-based Technologies
4.1.1 HomeGrid Forum
4.1.1.1. Specifications
4.1.1.1.1 Background
4.1.1.1.2 HomePNA Specification 3.1: Major Features
4.1.1.1.3 Fast EoC HomePNA
4.1.1.2 Major Benefits
4.1.2 ITU G.hn
4.1.2.1 General
4.1.2.2 G.hn Details
4.1.2.2.1 Differences
4.1.2.2.2 Common Features
4.1.2.3 Acceptance
4.1.2.4 HomePNA and G.hn Documents
4.1.2.5 G.hn-mimo – G.9963
4.1.2.5.1 Drivers
4.1.2.5.2 G.9963 Details
4.1.2.5.2.1 General
4.1.2.5.2.2 Wireline Specifics – G.hn-mimo
4.1.2.5.2.3 Scope
4.1.2.5.2.4 Performance
4.1.2.6 Industry
Comtrend
Marvell
MaxLinear/devolo
Sigma Designs
ST&T
Xingtera
4.2 HomePlugAV2-mimo
4.2.1 General
4.2.1.1 Certification
4.2.2 Major Improvements
4.2.3 Specification Details
4.2.3.1 MIMO Role
4.2.4 Industry
Broadcom
Extollo
Gigafast Ethernet
Intersil (acquired by Renesas in 2017)
Lea Networks
Sineoji
Trendnet
TP-Link
Qualcomm Atheros
Zyxel
5.0 Conclusions
Attachment I: Patents Survey LTE – MIMO (2018)
Attachment II: Patents Survey – 802.11ac MIMO (2018)
Attachment III: Patents Survey – 802.11ax and MIMO (2018)
Attachment IV: Patents Survey – 802.11ay and MIMO (2018)
Attachment V: Patents Survey – G.hn-MIMO (2014-2018)
Figure 1: 2x2 MIMO
Figure 2: Major Antenna Configurations
Figure 3: MIMO Concept (2x2)
Figure 4: Illustration - Beamforming
Figure 5: MU-MIMO – Downlink
Figure 6: Differences
Figure 7: Evolution Path
Figure 8: Towards Wireless Mobile Broadband
Figure 9: LTE – IP
Figure 10: EPC – Reference Architecture
Figure 11: Projections: LTE Global Subscribers Base (Bil.)
Figure 12: TAM: LTE Global Equipment Sale ($B)
Figure 13: Spectral Efficiency DL
Figure 14: Projections: Global - LTE MIMO Sales ($B)
Figure 15: Channel Assignment
Figure 16: Estimate - 802.11ac Consumers AP Shipping-Global (Mil. Units)
Figure 17: Estimate - 802.11ac Consumers AP Shipping-Global ($B)
Figure 18: Estimate: Global Shipping – 802.11ac MU-MIMO Consumers AP ($B)
Figure 19: Estimate: Global - 802.11ac Consumers AP MIMO Sales ($B)
Figure 20: 802.11ah Use Cases
Figure 21: Frequency Spectrum (sub-1 GHz)
Figure 22: 802.11ah – Channelization Plan in U.S.
Figure 23: Transmission Characteristics – 802.11ah
Figure 24: 802.11ah Features Summary
Figure 25: PLC-MIMO (2x2)
Figure 26: MIMO -Details
Figure 27: Maximum Theoretical PHY Rates (home media) based on published figures
Figure 28: HomePlug AV2 Features
Figure 29: MIMO PLC Channels
Table 1: MIMO Evolution
Table 2: MIMO Benefits
Table 3: 3GPP Releases
Table 4: Initial LTE Characteristics: Illustration
Table 5: LTE Frequency Bands
Table 6: Users Equipment Categories (Rel. 8)
Table 7: UE Categories (Rel. 10)
Table 8: Extended – Rel.13
Table 9: Transmission Modes
Table 10: LTE Transmission Modes - MIMO
Table 11: Additional Details
Table 12: Comparison – Wi-Fi Characteristics
Table 13: PHY: 802.11ax vs 802.11ac
Table 14: Functionalities – 802.11ac
Table 15: Specifics
Table 16: Rates
Table 17: Usage Models – 802.11ac
Table 18: 802.11ac Waves
Table 19: 802.11n vs. 802.11ac
Table 20: ITU and HomePNA Standards
Table 21: Comparative Characteristics
Table 22: Frequency-Rate Characteristics

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