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Healthcare and Wireless ICT: M2M, WBAN and Underlying Technologies

Healthcare and Wireless ICT: M2M, WBAN and Underlying Technologies

This report reviews, updates and extends the Practel M2M/IoT project that was launched a couple years ago. In particular, it concentrates on the fastgrowing healthcare and related segments of M2M/IoT.

Ambient Intelligence is a vision where environment becomes smart, friendly, contextaware and responsive to any type of human needs. In such a world, computing and networking technology coexist with people in a ubiquitous, friendly and pervasive way. Numerous miniature and interconnected smart devices create a new intelligence and interact with each other seamlessly. For healthcare, this translates into proliferation of remote monitoring and telemedicine supported by M2M/IoT networking.

The report addresses recent advances in wireless communications technologies for medical/fitness applications. Particular, it analyzes the following related developments:

Status of M2M standardization, market and development in general and specifically for medical/wellness applications
Development and standardization of the Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) and Medical Body Area Network (WMBAN), including their markets specifics

Underlying technologies:
Bluetooth and its Medical Profile
ZigBee and its Medical Profile
WiFi lowpower consumption technology
ZWave, Ant and other technologies
Selfpowered wireless sensors

Continua Health Care Alliance activities in the selection of WICT for healthcare and their integration

Survey of related industries.

The report emphasizes the necessity of further proliferation standardized wireless communications in medicine and wellness to reduce the cost and enhance quality of services.

The report is written for service providers, IT departments of hospitals and other medical organizations, retail operators, vendors, network operators and managers, investors and end users seeking to gain a deeper understanding of new trends in the wireless communications medical/wellness applications.

For systems integrators, the report provides an analysis and assessment of competing products currently available as well as an estimation of the overall opportunities in the coming years.


1.0 Introduction
1.1 General
1.2 Scope
1.2.1 Choices
1.3 Status
1.4 Requirements
1.5 WBAN - WMBAN
1.6 Bluetooth
1.7 ZigBee
1.8 Wi-Fi
1.9 Demand
1.10 Crisis
1.11 Continua
1.12 Focus
1.13 Research Methodology
1.14 Target Audience
2.0 WBAN/WMBAN – Features and Standardization
2.1 General
2.2 Reasons
2.3 Definition
2.3.1 Structure
2.4 Overview
2.4.1 WBAN Requirements
2.5 Groups
2.5.1 By Application
2.5.2 By Transmission Medium
2.5.3 By Number of Nodes
2.5.4 By Environment
2.5.5 By Radio Type
2.5.6 By Source
2.5.7 By Response
2.5.8 By Condition
2.5.9 By Spectrum
2.6 FCC Regulations
2.7 Standardization
2.7.1 General
2.7.2 IEEE 802.15.6
2.7.2.1 Scope
2.7.2.2 Status
2.7.2.3 Structure
2.7.2.4 Major Characteristics
2.7.2.4.1 Specifics
2.7.2.4.2 Overview
2.7.2.5 IEEE 802.15.6: Major Points
2.7.2.5.1 Areas of Applications
2.7.2.5.2 Physical Layers
2.7.2.5.2.1 Narrow Band
2.7.2.5.2.2 UWB PHY
2.7.2.5.2.3 HBC PHY
2.7.2.5.3 MAC
2.7.2.5.4 Security
2.7.2.5.5 Power Savings
2.7.2.6 Summary
2.7.3 IEEE 802.15.4j – Medical BAN (MBAN)
2.7.3.1 Scope
2.7.3.2 Differences
2.7.3.3 Timeline
2.7.3.4 Characteristics
2.7.3.4.1 Spectrum and Channel Plan
2.7.3.4.2 Major Parameters
2.7.3.5 Benefits
2.7.4 Market Considerations
2.7.5 ISO/IEEE 11073 – Personal Health Data
2.7.5.1 Family
2.7.5.2 IEEE 11073 Requirements
2.7.6 ETSI eHealth
2.7.6.1 General
2.7.6.2 ETSI TR 101 557 V1.1.1 (2012-02) - MBANS
2.7.6.2.1 General
2.7.6.2.2 ETSI – MBANS
2.7.6.2.3 Market Characteristics
2.7.6.2.4 Technical Details
2.8 WBAN Applications
2.8.1 Healthcare
2.8.2 Wellness
2.8.3 First Responders and Military
2.9 Industry
AirStrip Technologies
GE
Intelesens
Intel
Medtronic
Motorola
Microcemi
Nokia
Siemens
Sotera Wireless
Toumaz
Vivago
VitaMove
2.10 Current and Future Trends-Getting Closer to WBAN
3.0 Underlying Technologies
3.1 IEEE 802.15.1 (Bluetooth-BT)
3.1.1 BT Protocol Stack
3.1.1.1 Transport layer
3.1.1.2 Radio Layer
3.1.1.3 Baseband and Link Manager Layers
3.1.1.4 Middleware Layer
3.1.2 Profiles
3.1.3 Power Consumption – ULP/BLE
3.1.4 Health Device Profile
3.1.4.1 IEEE 11073 and BT
3.1.5 Highlights
3.1.5.1 The Standard:
3.1.5.2 The Technology:
3.1.6 Evolution
3.1.6.1 BT v2.1
3.1.6.2 BT v3.0
3.1.6.3 BT v4.0 and Further Development
3.1.7 Market Estimate
3.1.8 BT Industry-HDP
Bluegiga (Silicon Labs Company)
Cambridge Consultants
Continua - BMD
iFoundry-Nestronics
Laird Technologies
Nonin
Omron
Nordic Semiconductor
Stollmann
3.2 ZigBee
3.2.1 General
3.2.2 Technology
3.2.2.1 Major Features
3.2.3 Device Types
3.2.4 Protocol Stack
3.2.4.1 Physical and MAC Layers – IEEE802.15.4
3.2.4.1.1 Frame
3.2.4.2 Upper Layers
3.2.5 Interoperability
3.2.6 Security
3.2.7 Platform Considerations
3.2.7.1 Battery Life
3.2.8 ZigBee Technology Benefits and Limitations
3.2.9 Standardization Process
3.2.9.1 ZigBee Alliance
3.2.9.1.1 Objectives
3.2.9.2 IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee
3.2.9.2.1 IEEE 802.15.4 Radio
3.2.10 Applications Specifics
3.2.10.1 Personal, Home and Hospital Care (PHHC) Profile –ZigBee Healthcare
3.2.10.1.1 Objectives
3.2.10.1.2 Details
3.2.10.1.3 Use Cases
3.2.11 Market
3.2.11.1 Segments
3.2.11.2 Forecast
3.2.12 Industry
Amber (RF Systems)
Atmel (Chipsets)
CEL (modules)
Digi (Radio, Medical Application)
GreenPeak (WSN)
Freescale (Chipsets, Health Care Applications)
Philips Applied Technologies (Healthcare)
Renesas (Platforms)
Silicon Laboratories (Chipsets, Modules, Medical)
Synapse (Module, Protocols)
Telegesis (Integrator)
TI (Chipsets)
3.3 Low-power Consumption Wi-Fi
3.3.1 General
3.3.2 Marketing Data
3.3.3 Industry
Atmel
Atech
eConais
GainSpan
Microchip
Redpine Signals
3.4 Z-Wave
3.4.1 General
3.4.2 Z-Wave Alliance
3.4.3 Benefits
3.4.4 Selected Vendors
Aeon Labs
Mi Casa Verde
Sigma Designs
There
3.5 Toumaz
3.6 Sensium Healthcare
3.7 Ant
3.8 BodyLAN
3.9 FitLinxx
3.10 Selection – Continua Health Alliance
3.10.1 General
3.10.2 Guidelines
4.0 Self-powered Wireless Sensors
4.1 Methods
4.2 Batteries
4.3 Power Harvesting Technologies
4.3.1 Nodes
4.3.2 Energy Sources
4.3.2.1 General
4.3.2.1.1 Solar Energy
4.3.2.1.2 Thermoelectric
4.3.2.1.3 Mechanical
4.3.2.1.4 RF Power
4.3.2.2 Summary
4.4 Green Technologies Features and Requirements
5.0 Medical WICT and M2M Communications
5.1 M2M Specifics
5.1.1 Definition
5.1.2 Statistics
5.1.3 Properties
5.1.4 P2P and M2M
5.1.5 Choices
5.1.5.1 Cellular
5.1.5.2 Short-range
5.1.5.3 Open Standard
5.1.6 Challenges
5.1.7 Advances
5.2 M2M Standardization
5.2.1 Health Care Specifics
5.2.2 OneM2M Alliance
5.2.2.1 Varieties
5.2.2.2 Service Layer Architecture
5.2.2.3 Benefits
5.2.2.4 oneM2M Standards
5.2.3 Telefonica multi-Operators Alliance-M2M World Alliance and GSMA
5.2.4 M2M Alliance
5.2.5 Open Mobile Alliance (OMA)
5.2.6 ETSI
5.2.6.1 Efforts
5.2.6.2 Architecture
5.2.6.3 Use Cases
5.2.7 GSC MSTF
5.2.8 ITU
5.2.8.1 ITU-T Focus Group - Healthcare
5.2.9 Global M2M Association (GMA)
5.2.10 WAVE2m
5.2.10.1 Goals
5.2.10.2 Platform
5.2.10.3 Characteristics
5.2.11 IPSO Alliance
5.2.12 IETF and IP/WSN
5.2.12.1 Major Projects
5.2.12.1.1 6LoWPAN WG
5.2.12.1.2 ROLL WG
5.2.13 Summary
5.3 Healthcare-M2M Specifics
5.3.1 Role
5.3.2 Monitoring
5.3.3 Cost
5.3.4 Advantages
5.3.4.1 General
5.3.4.2 Savings
5.3.4.3 Categories and Benefits Details
5.3.5 Components
5.3.6 Examples
5.3.7 Issues
5.4 M2M Industry
Aeris
Axeda
Arqiva/Sensus
Coronis
Gemalto
InterDigital/Lamprey Networks
Jasper Wireless
Kore Telematics
Libelium
M2M Spectrum Networks
Numerex
Neul (acquired by Huawei in 2014)
On-Ramp
Raco Wireless (Kore Group Company)
Sigfox
Telensa/Plextek
Wireless Logic
Whizcomm
5.5 M2M Markets and Applications
5.5.1 Situation
5.5.2 Structure
5.5.3 Statistics
6.0 Conclusions
Attachment: IEEE 802.15.4a-2007
Figure 1: WBAN Illustration
Figure 2: Intelligent Sensor
Figure 3: WBAN Characteristics
Figure 4: IEEE 802.15.6: Process
Figure 5: 802.15.6 – PHY and MAC
Figure 6: IEEE 802.15.6 Areas of Applicability
Figure 7: Network Topology
Figure 8: Estimate: U.S. Healthcare Expenditures ($T)
Figure 9: Estimate: U.S. WBAN Equipment Sales - Medical Applications ($B)
Figure 10: Estimate - U.S. First Responders WBAN Equipment Sales ($B)
Figure 11: Estimate: Global – Medical Device Connectivity Market ($B)
Figure 12: ISO/IEEE 11073 Protocol Family
Figure 13: TAM: Patient Wireless Monitoring Devices - Europe ($M)
Figure 14: Bluetooth Protocol Stack
Figure 15: Piconets Illustration
Figure 16: BT ULP Layers
Figure 17: BT HDP Building Blocks
Figure 18: TAM: Global Sales of BT Modules (Bil. Units)
Figure 19: TAM: Global Seles of BT Modules ($B)
Figure 20: BT Market Geographical Segmentation
Figure 21: TAM: BT- HDP Modules Global Sales (Bil. Units)
Figure 22: TAM: BT- HDP Modules Global Sales ($B)
Figure 23: Market Estimate: BLE-enable Devices Shipping – Global (Mil. Units)
Figure 24: ZigBee Channels
Figure 25: ZigBee Protocol Stack
Figure 26: Applications-Illustration
Figure 27: TAM: Worldwide ZigBee Modules Sales ($B)
Figure 28: TAM: Worldwide ZigBee Modules Sales (Bil. Units)
Figure 29: ZigBee Market Segmentation (2015)
Figure 30: ZigBee Market Segmentation (2019)
Figure 31: TAM: Worldwide ZigBee PHHC Modules Sales ($B)
Figure 32: TAM: Low Power Consumption Wi-Fi Modules Sales – Global ($B)
Figure 33: M2M Process-Illustration
Figure 34: Major Layers
Figure 35: ETSI Activity
Figure 36: Healthcare Expenses – Percent of GDP
Figure 37: Annual Savings – Adoption of Remote Monitoring
Figure 38: Details
Figure 39: M2M Applications
Figure 40: Projections: M2M Traffic Growth (PB/Month)
Figure 41: Estimate- Global Wireless M2M Market Revenue ($B)
Figure 42: TAM: Mobile Operators Revenue-M2M Communications ($B)
Figure 43: Estimate: Global-Health Care Sector-M2M Communications Market ($B)
Table 1: ZigBee and 802.15.6 Radios
Table 2: Sensors Classification
Table 3: Allowable Power Density
Table 4: NB PHY Characteristics
Table 5: HBC
Table 6: Summary – 802.15.6
Table 7: Modulation Parameters
Table 8: Transports
Table 9: WBAN Medical Applications
Table 10: Bluetooth Profiles
Table 11: ZigBee Parameters
Table 12: Power Sources
Table 13: Data - Illustration
Table 14: Components
Table 15: Standard Bands

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